A diary in America [microform] : with remarks on its institutions

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mithode.

y

»v

DIARY

IN AMERICA, WITH

REMARKS ON

ITS INSTITUTIONS. BY

CAPT. MARRYAT,

C.B.,

AUTHOR OF

PETER SIMPLE," "JACOB FAITHFUL," •

FRANK MILDMAY,"

IN

&c.

THREE VOLUMES. VOL.

III.

LONDON: PRINTED FOR

LONGMAN,ORME, BROWN, GREEN,& LONGMANS, PATERNOSTER ROW. 1839.

274033

V,

3

Printed by J. L*

Cox and Sons,

75,

Great Queen Street,

Lincoln's Inn Fields.

t

X.

REMARKS, &c. &c.

AMERICAN MARINE. It

my

may be

inferred that I naturally directed

attention to everything connected with the

American marine, and circumstances eventually induced

me

to search

much more minutely

particulars than at first I

The

had intended

to do.

present force of the American navy is

rated as follows

:

Ships of the Line.

Of

I

120 guns

1

80 guns

7

74 guns

3 Total ....

VOL.

into

III.

B

11

AMERICAN MARINE.

9

Frigaccsy \&t Class,

Of 54 guns

1

44 guns

14

Total

FriyateSf

2d

15

Class.

Of 3(iguns

2

Sloops.

Of20guns

12

18 guns

3 Total

15

Schooners,

Of

10 guns

6

Others

7 Total

Grand Total

..'....

13

5G

AMERICAN MARINE.

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AMERICAN MARINE.

8

The very

ratings of these vessels will, however,

much

mislead people as to the real strength

The

of the armament.

74' s

and

80's are in

weight of broadside equal to most three-decked ships ; the first-class frigates are double-banked

of the scantling, and carrying the complement of men of our

The

74''s.

sloops are equally

powerful in proportion to their ratings, most of

Although

them carrying long guns. sels,

they are

scantling,

that

litle inferior

36-gun frigate in

and are much too powerful

we have

in

our

service,

denomination of rating. ships are

to a

flush ves-

named

for

any

under the same

All the line-of-battle

after the several

States, the

frigates after the principal rivers,

and the sloops

of war after the towns, or

and the names

are decided It

is

by

cities,

lot.

impossible not to be struck with the

beautiful architecture in most of these vessels.

The

Pennsylvania,

decks, carrying 140,

rated 120 guns, on is

not

by any means

four

so per-

AMERICAN MARINE.

owever,

feet as

some of the

Ohio

as far as I

is

The

am

a judge, the perfection of

following are the diiuensions given

ship of the line Pennsylvania

-decked

The

line-of-battle ships.*

trength are in

9

In extreme length over

me

of the

feet,

inches.

:— 237

all

Between the perpendiculars on the lower

•banked

220

gun deck

plement

190

liCngth of keel for tonnage

Moulded breadth of beam from tonnage.. do. do*

equally

most of

9

50 57

Extreme breadth of beam outside the jsh vesigate in

any

for le

same

es,

the

sloops i

names

23

Extreme depth amidships

51

Burthen 3366

toi>s,

and has ports for 140 guns,

each broadside, or 4480 pounds from the whole.

Her mainmast from

the step to the truck 278

Main-yard

110

Main-topsail yard

82

Main-top-gallant yard

52

Main-royal yard

36

Size of lower shrouds

ith

the

vessels.

all

long thirty-two pounders, throwing 2240 pounds of ball at

f-battle

59

wales

Depth of lower hold

11

Do. of mainstay

19

Do. of sheet-cable

25

The

sheet

anchor,

made

at

Washington,

weighs

11,660 pounds.

n four so per-

Main-topsail contains 1,531 yards.

The number of

yards of canvas for one suit of sails is

B

3

'M

10

AMERICAN MARINE.

a ship of the

line.

But

in every class

you can-

not but admire the superiority of the models and

The

workmanship. small,

and not equal

dock-yards in America are

at present to

what may even>

tually be required, but they have land to

is

18,341, and for bags,

&c., 14,624

;— total

The Americans

hammocks,

add to

boat-sails, awnings,

32,965 yards.

considered that in the Pennsylvania

they possessed the largest vessel in the M'orld, but this is

a great mistake

larger.

Below

launched

one of the Sultan's three-deckers

;

are the dimensions of the Queen, lately

Portsmouth

at

is

:

feet, inches.

Length on the gun-deck

204

Do. of keel for tonnage

166

5^

Breadth extreme

60

Do. for tonnage

59

2

Depth

23

8

in

Burden

hold

in tons

(No. 3,099)

Extreme length

aloft

Extreme height forward

247

6

56

4

Do. midships

50

8

Do. abaft

62

G

14

1

Launching draught of water, forward

.

Do. abaft Height from deck to deck, gun-deck

19 .

7

Do. middle-deck

7

Dok main-deck.. •••••

^

3 ^

I

AMERICAN MARINE. them

if

sity for

as

we

There

necessary.

11

no neces-

certainly is

such establishments or such storeliouses

have, as their timber and

hand when required

;

hemp

but they are very

dry and wet docks.

cient both in

are at

Properly

This

speaking, they have no great naval depot. arises

from the jealous feeling existing between

A

the several States.

bill

brought into Con-

gress to expend so

many thousand

the dock-yard at

Boston,

in

New York, and an amendment transfer the

works intended to

The

Brooklyn.

dollars

upon

Massachusetts,

would be immediately opposed by

at

defi-

tlie

State of

proposed to

dock-yard

their

other States which possess

dock-yards would also assert their right, and thus they will

all fight for their respective esta-

blishments until the

bill is lost,

and the bone of

contention falls to the ground.* * There are seven navy yards belonging

to,

and occu-

pied for the use of, the United States, viz.—

The navy yard

at

Portsmouth, N.H.,

is

situated

on

an island, contains fifty-eight acres, cost 5,500 dollars.

The navy yard

at Charlston, near Boston,

is

situated

on

AMERICA xV MARIJ^E.

12

It is remarkable that along the

whole of the

eastern coast of America, from Halifax in

Scotia

down

to Fensacola in the

there is not one jority of the

Nova

Gulf of Mexico,

good open harbour.

The ma-

American harbours are barred

at

the entrance, so as to preclude a fleet running

out and in to manoeuvre at pleasure on the north side of Charles acres,

and cost 32,214

indeed, if

river, contains thirty-four

dollars.

at New York is New York, contains

The navy yard land, opposite

;

situated on

Long

Is-

forty acres, and cost

40,000 dollars.

The navy yard Delaware

at Philadelphia

river, in the district of

is

situated

on

the

Southwark, contains

eleven acres to low-water mark, and cost 37,000 dollars.

The navy yard lumbia,

is

at

situated

Washington,

in the district of

Co-

on the eastern branch of the river

Potomac, contains thirty-seven acres, and cost 4,000 dollars.

In this yard are made

all

the anchors, cables,

blocks, and almost all things requisite for the use of the

navy of the United States.

The navy

yard at Portsmouth, near Norfolk in Vir-

ginia, is situated

on the south branch of Elizabeth

river,

contains sixteen acres, and cost 13,000 dollars.

There which

is

is

also

a navy yard

at Pensacola, in Florida,

merely used for repairing ships on the West-

India station.

f

AMERICAN MARINK. tlie

few of them

tide does not serve, there are

which a

line-of-battle ship,

take refuge.

13 in

hard pressed, could

A good spacious harbour, easy of

access, like that of

Halifax in

Nova

Scotia, is

one of the few advantages, perhaps the only natu1

advantage, wanting in the United States.

The American navy Captains or

Commo-

Commandant

D

50

Passed Midshipmen

50

Midshipmen

279

Lieutenants

:

Chaplains

dores

Masters

as follows

list is

Sailing Masters

..

181

227 ....

27

Surgeons

50

Sail-makers

25

Passed Assist.-Surg.

24

Boatswains

22

Assistant-Surgeons

33

Gunners

27

45

Carpenters

26

.

Pursers

The pay scale.

It

of these officers

is

on the following

must be observed, that they do not

use the term

" half-pay ;*" but when unemployed

the officers are either attached to the various Virriver,

dockyards or on

leave.

I

have reduced the

sums paid into English money, that they may lorida,

iWest-

be better understood

by the

reader

:

AMERICAN MARINE.

14

Senior captain, on service

On

leave

.£960

(i. e.

730

half- pay)

830

Captains, squadron service

Navy-yard and other duty (half-pay) ....

13\)

Off duty

525

(ditto)

Commanders on service

525

Navy-yard and other duty (half-pay)

440

On

380

leave (ditto)

Lieutenants commanding

380

Navy-yard and other duty (half-pay)

Waiting orders

. .

315 250

(ditto)

Surgeons, according to their length of servitude, from 210

To And

500 half-pay in proportion.

200

Assistant surgeons from

Chaplains

;

To

250

sea service

250

On

I7O

leave (half-pay)

Passed midshipmen, duty

1

56

Waiting orders (half-pay) ... 125

Midshipmen ; sea

Navy-yard and other duty (half-pay)I

Leave Sailing masters

;

493

service ! !

(ditto)!!

72 63

ships of the line

228

Other duty (half-pay)

209

Leave

156

(ditto)

Boatswains, carpenters, sailmakers, and gunners ships of the line

156

Frigate

125

Other duty (half-pay)

105

On

leave (ditto)

75

^ -

AMERlCAxV MARINE. It will

15

be })erceived by the above

mucli better

all classes in

the

how very

list

American

service

are paid in comparison with those in our service.

But

let it

not be supposed that this liberality

is

a matter of choice on the part of the American

Government ; on the contrary, sity.

it is

There never was, nor ever

one of neces-

will be,

any-

thing like liberality under a democratic form of

government. it is

true,

The navy

but the

officers

is

a favourite service,

of the American navy

have not one cent more than they are entitled or than they absolutely require. like

America, where any one

in a few years,

a wealthy man,

Government

In a country

may by

industry,

become an independent, it

to,

would be impossible

if

not

for the

to procure officers if they were not

tolerably paid;

no parents would permit their

children to inter the service unless they were

enabled by their allowances to keep up a respectable appeai'ance

;

and in America every-

thing, to the annuitant or person not

money, but living upon his income,

making is

much



AMERICAN

16

The Government,

dearer than with us. fore, are

America as

ment

is filled

it is

in the profession

;

for

it is

not

with us, where every depart-

up, and no room

would crowd in;

there-

young men

obliged to pay them, or

would not embark in

-MARINE.

is left for

those

who

so that in the eagerness to obtain

respectable employment,

secondary consideration.

emolument becomes a It

may, however, be

worth while to put in juxtaposition the half-pay paid to

officers

navies of

of corresponding ranks in the two

England and America: j

America. England.

Officers.

Half-pay post-captains, senior, on leave ; corresponding to commodore or rear-admiral in England Post captains off duty (that is, duty

on shore)

On

'

Commanders Lieutenants

;

leave . . off sea duty

In yards and on leave shore duty Waiting orders or on leave

Passed r>idshipmen,

Midshinmen.

full

pay ....

Half-pay.. nav Half-nav

full

..

£. 456

£.

730

730 525 440 380 315

191

155

250 156

90 25

125

83 63

25 ,

AMERICAN MA KINK.

My object in

iiiakinji^

the two services feeling.

More

certainly

is,

is

the comparison between

not to gratify an invidious

expensive as living in America

still

the disproportion

in

American

is

such as

if it

requires such a

officer to

support himself

must create surprise; and svmi for an

19

a creditable and gentlemanlike manner, what

can be expected from the English

which

his miserable pittance,

quate to his rank and station ing which, our

officers

Notwithstand-

do keep up their ap-

pearance as gentlemen, and those are

lialf-pay

And

obliged

with

totally inade-

is ?

officer

to

I point this out, that

who have no

support

when Mr.

themselves.

Hume and

other gentlemen clamour against the expense of

our naval fact,

force,

which

when on

is,

they

may

not be ignorant of one

that not only on half-pay, but

active service, a moiety at least of the

expenses necessarily incurred by our officers to )0

support themselves according to their rank, to

>5

entertain, 15 is,

M

and to keep

their ships in proper order,

three times out of four, paid out of their

own

AMERICAN MARINE.

18

pockets, or those of their relatives; and tlmt is

always done without complaint, as long as

they are not checked in their legitimate claims to promotion.

In the course of his employment terranean, one of our captains

was

The American commodore was time, and the latter gave

and entertainments.

in the

Medi-

at Palermo.

there at

most sumptuous

the balls

Being very intimate with

each other, our English captain said to him

one day, " I cannot imagine how you can afford to give such parties I cannot

;

my year's

in a fortnight.''

;

pay would be

"

My

know

I only all

that

exhausted

dear fellow," replied

the American commodore, " do you suppose that I

am

so foolish as to

pense, or to spend

my

go

pay in

to such an exthis

manner;

I

have nothing to do with them except to give them.

My purser provides everything, and keeps

a regular account, which I sign as correct, and send

home

to

government, which defrays the

whole expenses, under the head of Conciliation

AMEUICAX MARINE. Afoncy."

that

I

do not mean

quisite in our service

:

19

to say tliat this is re-

but

still

it is

and other

refuse to provide us with ])aint

such as leather, &c., necessary to ships

;

own

articles,

out our

fit

thus, either compelling us to

out of our

not fair to

pay

them

for

pockets, or allowing the vessels

under our command to look

anything but

like

men-of-war, and to be styled, very truly, a disgrace to the service.

And

fact.

I

am

Yet such

is

the well-known

informed that the reason

why

our Admiralty will not permit these necessary stores to

be supplied

is

that,

as one of the

Lords of the Admiralty was known

"

if

we do not provide them, the

assuredly will, therefore

let

to say,

captains most

us save the Govern-

ment the expense."

ex-

During

my

sojourn in the United States I

became acquainted with a large portion of the senior officers of the

M

m

i-*f*

American navy, and I found

them

gifted, gentleman-like,

them

I

and

liberal.

could converse freely upon

lative to the last

all

With

points re-

war, and always found them

AMERICAN MARIXK.

20 ri'aily to

admit

all that

The

could be expected.

form a strong

American naval

officers certainly

contrast to

majority of their countrymen,

llic

and prove, by Ijow

much

enlightened and

the Americans,

improved

l)c

tlieir

if

lil)eral ideas,

in general,

would

they enjoyed the same means

of comparison with other countries which the

by

naval

otiicers,

Their

partial successes

often

tlie

their profession,

have obtained.

during the

late

war were

tlieme of discourse, which was con-

ducted with candour and frankness on both

No

sides.

unpleasant feeling was ever excited by any

argument with them on the subject, whilst the question, raised amongst their " free

ened" brother citizens,

down upon me such a

ton'ent of bombast, falsehood, all

my

and ignorance, as

philosophy to submit to with

apparent indifference. leave of the

enlight-

who knew nothing of the

matter, was certain to bring

required

and

But

I

must now take

American navy, and

my

notice their

merchant marine. Before I went to the United States I was

I

I

AMERICA \ MARINE. aware that a

larcre

were in tfnir

eni|)l()y.

line

|;roportioii

manned by

of our seamen

knew that the whole

I

of packetN, which

21

is

British seamen

;

very extensive,

was

was not

until

but

it

I arrived in the States that I discovered the real state of the case.

During I

my occasional

residence at

New York,

was surprised to find myself so constantly called

upon by English seamen, who had served under

me

in the different ships I

had commanded since

Every day seven or eight would

the Peace.

come, touch their hats, and remind ships,

and

duty.

I

in

sir,"

their

was

own

expression,

strictly true.

To the

the wherefore, the answer was invari-

ably the same

— " Eighteen dollars a month,

Some of them, going down to season

their

had frequent conversations with them,

We are all here,

why and

what

in

what capacity, they had done

and soon discovered that

"

me

I recollect, told

New

me that

sir.*"

they were

Orleans, because the sickly

was coming on

;

and that during the time

the yellow fever raged they always had a great

advance of wages, receiving sometimes as much



AMERICAN MARINE.

22

as thirty dollars per month. I did not attempt to

dissuade them from their purpose; they were just as right to risk their lives from contagion at thirty dollars a

month, as to stand and be

The

shilling a day.

fired at at

a

many

of

circumstance of so

I

my own men

being in American ships, and their

assertion that there were

English

at

New

minutely into

no other

than

York, induced me to enter very

my investigation,

lowing are the results

The United

sailors

of which the fol-

:

States, correctly speaking,

have

no common seamen, or seamen bred up as apIndeed a

prentices before the mast. tion

ever i:i:

will

show how unlikely

should have

such a

;

for

dog"'s life (as at

it

little reflec-

is

that they

who would submit

the best

it

is),

to

or what

parent would consent that his children should

wear out an existence of hardship and dependence at

sea,

when he could

independent on shore? time requisite for a

man

so easily render

The same to learn his

able seaman, and be qualified for

tlie

them

period

of

duty as an pittance of

eighteen dollars per niontli, would be sufficient

AMERICAN MARINE. to establish a

young man

23

as an independent, or

even wealthy, landowner, factor, or merchant.

That there

America who do go

are classes in

and who and what these are

to sea is certain,

I shall hereafter point out

but

;

positively asserted that, unless

lost,

is

there

by escaping from

an early age, and before their

their parents at

education

may be

it

complete, they become, as in

is

the United States of

it

were,

America

hardly an instance of a white boy being sent to sea, to

It

be brought up as a foremast man.

may be

here observed that there

difference in the appearance of

man and a

pool and other seaports; shouldered, slovenly, yet their knives

is is,

a wide

an English

sea-

portion of those styling themselves

American seamen, who are

clothes,

is

worn

in

to be seen at Liver-

tall,

still

weedy, narrow-

athletic

men, with

a sheath outside of their

and not with a lanyard round them, as

the usual custom of English seamen.

There

I grant, a great difference in their appearance,

and

it

arises

from the circumstance of those

men having been

continuajly in the trade to

t

AMERICAN MARINE.

24

New

Orleans and the South, where thev have

picked up the buccaneer are

still

airs

in existence there

and customs which

but the fact

;

that,

is,

though altered also by climate, the majority of

them were Englishmen born, who served first

their

apprenticeship in the coasting trade, but

left it at

an early age for America. They

may

be considered as a portion of the emigrants to America, having become in feeling, as well as in other respects, hond fide Americans.

The whole amount of tonnage of the American may be

mercantile marine bers,

at

taken, in round

2,000,000 tons, which

may

num-

be sub-

divided as follows

HEGISTERED. Tons.

Foreign trade

700,000

Whale

130,000

fishery

ENROLLED.

m n

Coasting trade

920,000

Steam

150,000

Coast

100,000

fisheries

Total

2,000,000

AMERICAN MARINE. bev have ns which is,

that,

ijority

of

^ed their ide,

but

hey

may

Tants to well as

The American merchant sailed with fewer

calculate five

men

vessels are generally

men than the to one

hundred

is.

tons,

which

Mr.

Carey, in his work, estimates the proportion of

seamen

American

in

vessels to

be 4 J to every

one hundred tons, and I shall assume his calculation

as

employed

in the

correct.

The number

of

American mercantile navy

men will

:

Men.

imerican

be sub-

We

British.

I believe to be about the just proportion.

be as follows

nd num-

25

Foreign trade

Whale

B0,333

fishery

5,000

Coasting trade

39,000

Steam Coast

6,500

4,333

fisheries

300

Total

300

And now

I will submit,

85,799

from the examina-

300

tions I have

300

and British seamen which are contained

300

aggregate of 85,799 men.

300

VOL.

III.

made, the proportions of American

c

in this

AMERICAN MARINE.

26

In the foreign trade we have to deduct the masters of the ships, the mates, and the boys

who

are apprenticed to learn their duty,

rise to

mast).

and

mates and masters (not to serve before the

These

I

at—

estimate

Masters

1,500

Mates

3,000

Apprentices

1,500

Ditto, coloured men, as cooks, stewards,

&c

2,000

Total

.

8,000

which, deducted from 30,333, will leave 22,333

seamen in the foreign trade, who, with a slight intermixture

of Swedes,

rarely, Americans,

may be

Danes,

and,

more

asserted to be all

British seamen.

The

next item

the whale iishery tain

the fact,

Americans

is

;

that of the

men employed in

and, as near as I can ascer-

the proportions are two-thirds

to one-third

British.

The

total is

AMERICAN MARINE. the

,ct

5,633

boys

e

out of which 3,756 are Americans, and

;

1,877 British seamen.

The

and

y,

27

coasting trade employs 39,000

men

;

but

only a small proportion of them can be considered

ore the

as seamen, as

it

embraces

all

the internal river

navigation. )0

The

)0

of

)0

steam navigation employs 6,500 men,

whom The

of course not one in ten

fisheries

about 4,333 men OO

cans,

.

Nova

for cod ;

is

a seaman.

and herring employ

they are a mixture of Ameri-

Scotians,

and

British,

portions cannot be ascertained

;

but the pro-

it is

supposed

that about one-half are British subjects,

22,333

2,166.

slight

When,

more be

therefore, I estimate that the

Ameri-

cans employ at least thirty thousand of our sea-

all

men

in their service, I

loyed in

my subam at all

do not think, as

sequent remarks will prove, that

|i

i. e.

I

overrating the case.

ascer-

The questions which

are

now

to be considered

-thirds

are, the

total is

the seamen employed in the American marine

nature of the various branches in which

c2 *!' -

r'

AMERICAN MARINE.

28

are engaged, and to

America

The

in case of

far they will be available

a war.

coasting trade

manned by two

sloops,

The

how

captain

is

owner of the

is

chiefly

or three

composed of

men and

boys.

invariably part, if not whole,

vessel,

generally his sons,

and those employed are

who work

for their father,

or some emigrant Irishmen, who, after a few

months' practice, are fully equal to this fresh-water sailing.

From

assistance.

Indeed, the majority of the coasting trade confined to the interior, that

much check from

The

required to

;

it

would not

so

receive

might afford a few seamen,

certainly not the

man

is

a war with a foreign country.

coast fisheries

but very few

of

the coasting trade,

America would gain no

therefore,

sort

number of men

her ships of war.

As

in the

coasting trade, they are mostly owners or partners.

In the whale fishery much the same system

:'i

prevails

;

it is

a

men embarking of the

fish

common

speculation

;

and the

stipulate for such c proportion

caught as their share of the

profits.

AMERICAX MARIXE. ivailable

They

29

are generally well to do, are connected

and are the

tocether,

least likely of all

men

posed of

volunteer on board of the American navy.

nd boys,

would speculate

whole,

it

They

in privateers, if they did

any-

thing.

oyed are

From

r father,

steam navigation, of course, no seamen

could be obtained.

er a few is sort

to

Now,

of

as all service is voluntary,

that the only chance

it

is

evident

America has of manning

ig trade,

her navy

issistance.

seamen in her employ, the other branches of

^ade

is

so

navigation

ot receive

country. V

seamen,

jr

of

men

^s in the

or part-

ne system

and the

is

from the thirty thousand British

either

those employed in

PM

not

producing

seamen, or

them being too independent

in situation to serve as fore-mast men.

I was at the different sea-ports, I

When

made repeated

enquiries as to the fact, if ever a lad was sent to sea as

a fore-mast man, and I

ascertain that

it

ever was the case.

never could

Those who

are sent as apprentices, are learning their duty to receive the rating of mates,

the office of captains

roportion

fulfil

e profits.

remarked, that

;

and

and ultimately it

many Americans,

may

here be

after serving

as captains for a few years, return on shore

and

I

I

AMERICAN MARINE.

30

i

become opulent merchants; the knowledge which they have gained during their maritime career

proving of

greatest advantage

the

There are a number of lads

who

them.

and coloured

free black

are sent to sea, and who, eventually,

serve as stewards and cooks; but

observed,

people

to

the masters and mates are not

that

who

must be

it

will enter before the

mast and sub-

mit to the rigorous discipline of a government vessel,

and the cooks and stewards are not

sea-

men

so

the whole dependence of

the

;

that

American navy, British seamen

in case of war, is

who

upon the

are employed in her foreign

trade and whale fisheries, and in her men-of-war in commission during the peace.

If America brings

up none of her people

seafaring life before the mast,

population likely

lation

is

was she was

upwards of 13,000,000, to

less,

have done

it

:

that her still less

when her popu-

and the openings

other channels were greater

may

now

to a

to wealth

from whence

by it

be fairly inferred, that, during our con-

tinued struggle with France,

when America had

AMERICAN AIARIXE, the carrying

31

trade in her hands, her

vessels

were chiefly manned by British seamen; and that

when

war

tlie

between

out

broke

the

two

same British seamen who were

countries, the

in

her employ manned her ships of war and priva-

would

may

It

teers.

be surmised that British seamen

refuse to be

employed against

Some might; but

try.

there

devoid of principle as

so

and

no character

is

the

their coun-

British

sailor

In Dibdin's songs, we certainly

soldier.

have another version, " True to his country

and king," deserve

it

:

&c., but I soldiers

and

am

afraid they

sailors are mercenaries

they risk their lives for money ;

do

so;

and

if they can

it is

their trade to

get higher wages they never

consider the justice of the cause, or

Now, America

fight for.

favourable for those reflection; the

trifling

:

fear

whom

they

a country peculiarly conscience or

same language is spoken there; the spirits are

of detection or

nay, there

a British

is

who have little

wages are much higher,

and the

do not

is

none

;

much

cheaper,

punishment

is

for in five minutes

seaman may be made a hona-Jide



AMERICAN MARINE.

32 American

and of course an American

citizen,

seaman. It

is

not surprising, therefore, that after

out of the American ports in

sailing for years

American vessels, the men, in case of war, should take the oath and serve.

It is necessary for

any

one wanting to become an American citizen, that

he should give notice of his intention;

this

notice gives him; as soon as he has signed declaration, all the rights of an

American

zen, excepting that of voting at election^,

his citi-

which

requires a longer time, as specified in each State. ;1;

The *'

declaration

That

it is

as follows

is

:

his bond-fide iotention to

become

a citizen of the United States, and to renounce for ever all allegiance

power, potentate,

and

and

fidelity to

any foreign

state, or sovereignty

particularly to Victoria, the

whatever,

Queen of the

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to

whom

this

he

is

now a

document, and

he becomes a

it

citizen,

subject."

Having signed

being publicly registered,

and may be sworn

such by any captain of merchant vessel or of-war, if

it

be required that he should do

to as

man so.



;

33

AMERICAN MARINE. During

the last

war with America, the Ameri-

cans hit upon a very good plan as regarded

English seamen vessels.

tiie

they had captured in our

whom

In the day-time the prison doors were

shut and the prisoners

were harshly treated;

but at night, the doors were

left

open

:

the

consequence was, that the prisoners

whom

tliey

had taken added to their strength,

for the

men

walked out, and entered on board of their menof-war and privateers.

This

fact alone proves that I

too severe in

my remarks upon

the English seamen to be such

we be

Now, from

to as

man

to be

hoped

America, the same

plar*

:

That America always has obtained, and

come

will obtain,

altogether from Great Britain c

so.

it is

the above remarks, three points

for a long period to

men

seamen prove

in this country.

are clearly deducible 1.

since our

so unfortunate as again to

in collision with

may be adopted

Itered,

the character of

" Dugald Dalgettys,"

that, should

come

and

;

have not been

3

her sea-

AMERICAN iMARINE.

34 That

2.

those seamen can

1)c

naturalized im-

mediately, and become American seamen by law;

That, under present circumstances, Eng-

3.

land

under the necessity of raising seamen,

is

^11

own

not only for her

Americans ; and

navy, but also for the

that, in proportion as the

com-

merce and shipping of America shall increase, so

the

will

onerous the

;

demand upon us become more

and that should we

number of seamen

vices,

in producing

fail

necessary for both ser-

the Americans will always be full man-

ned, whilst any defalcation must

fall

upon our-

selves.

And

it

may be

added, that, in

Americans have the choice and

men

all cases,

refusal of our

and, therefore, they have invariably

;

the prime and

best

the

all

seamen which we have

raised.

The rious ll'!!

:

!!

;

cause of this it is

as simple as

it

is

noto-

the difference between the wages paid

in the navies

nations:

is

and merchant

vessels of the

two

AMEHICAN

3fi

American ships per month

'3

10

Ikitisli ships

ditto

2

2

American men-of-war

ditto

2

ditto

1

]iritish

I

.MARIN't,

men-of-war

will

It

the consequence

is,

14

is

only

that they remain for

£2;

months

without being able to obtain men. this cause,

and

or, in other words,

how

But we must now pass by look to the origin of it is

2 10

be observed, that in the American

men-of-war the able-seaman's pay

in port

to

that the

it

;

Americans are able to give such

high wages to our seamen as to secure the choice of any

number of our

and how

it is

best

men

for their service

that they can compete with,

and

even under-bid, our merchant vessels in freight,

same time that they

at the

pense

sail

at a greater ex-

?

This has arisen partly from circumstances, partly from a series of part,

But

mismanagement on our

and partly from the it is

fear of impressment.

principally to be ascribed to the former

AMERICAN MARINE.

36

peculiarly unscientific

tonnage of our vessels

mode of ;

the error of which sys-

tem induced the merchants so

to build their ships

as to evade the heavy channel

duties; disregarding all the 1^

calculating the

first

and

river

principles of

naval architecture, and considering the sailing properties of vessels as of

1

The

fact

is,

that

we

no consequence.

over-taxed our shipping.

In order to carry as much freight

as possible,

and, at the same time, to pay as few of the oner-

la

ous duties, our mercantile shipping generally

assumed more the form of floating boxes of merchandize than sailing vessels ; and by the false

method of measuring the tonnage, they were enabled to carry 600 tons, when, '!

by measure-

|i

ment, they were only taxed as being of the

burden of 400 tons

:

but every increase of ton-

nage thus surreptitiously obtained, was accon>panied with a decrease in the sailing properties of the vessels.

dered

this

of

Circumstances, however, renless

importance during the war,

as few vessels ran without the protection of a

I'm;

AMERICAN MARINE. and

convoy;

their

must be

also observed, that

being employed in one trade only, such

vessels

as the

it

37

West

India, Canada, Mediterranean, &c.,

voyages during the year were limited, and

they were for a certain portion of the year un-

employed.

During the war, the

was

a strong inducement to our seamen

certainly

to enter into the lize

fear of impressment

American

vessels,

and natura-

themselves as American subjects

;

but they

were also stimulated, even at that period, by the higher wages, as they

still

are now that the dread

of impressment no longer operates upon them. It appears,

our merchant perties,

then, that from

the world

and no other,

that,

An

American

and

;

it is

fastest

for that reason,

although sailing at a

greater expense, the

outbid us, and take

lost their sailing pro-

Americans are the

whilst the

sailers in

have

vessels

various causes,

much

Americans can afford

all

to

our best seamen.

vessel is in

no particular

trade,

but ready and willing to take freight any

AMERICAN MARINE.

38 where when can

make

She

offered.

sails so fast,

that she

three voyages whilst one of our vessels

can make but two

consequently she has the

being the better manned, and

as

preference,

:

giving the quickest return to the merchant

;

and

as she receives three freights whilst the English vessel receives only two,

freight will

expense

it is

clear that the extra

more than compensate

the vessel

sails at

in

for the extra

consequence of

Add

paying extra wages to the seamen. this,

that

the

captains,

generally

to

speaking,

being better paid, are better informed and more

men;

active

that,

from having

all

the picked

seamen, they get through their work with fewer

hands

that

;

the

activity

on

board

lowed up and supported by an equal

is

fol-

activity,

on the part of the agents and factors on shore

and you have the true cause why America can afford to

pay and secure

for herself all our best

seamen.

One thing tion of

is

pounds,

evident, that shillings,

it is

a mere ques-

and pence, between us

t

39

AMERICAN MARINE.

and America, and that the same men wlio are

she

lat

vessels

now

as the

wages were higher than those offered by

the

in

I,

and

rica,

t ;

and

destitute.

Inglish

American

service would,

if

our

Ame-

immediately return to us and leave her

That

would be worth the while of

it

this

B

extra

country, in case of a war with the United States,

B

extra

to offer

of

ince

tain.

£4

It

a-head to able seamen

would

is

most

cer-

swell the naval estimates, but

Idd to

would shorten the duration of the war, and

making,

the end would probably be the saving of

d more

millions.

picked

not something to be done,

fewer

1

to relieve

it

in

many

But the question is, cannot and ought

now

in time of peace,

our mercantile shipping

interest,

and

fol-

hold out a bounty for a return to those true

tivity,

principles of naval architecture, the deviation

iore

from which has proved to be attended with

is

such serious consequences.

ca can iir

Fast-sailing vessels will always be able to

best

pay

higher wages than others, as what they lose in )

increase of daily expense, they will gain

ques-

reen

us

sliort :m*

time in which the voyage

is

by the

accomplished

AMERICAN MARINE.

40 but

it

is

by encouragement alone that we can

expect that the change will take place.

Surely

some of the onerous duties imposed by the Trinity

House might be removed, not from

the

present class of vessels, but from those built hereafter with first-rate sailing properties. These,

however,

are points which call for a

fuller investigation

but they are of

much

than I can here afford them;

vital

importance to our mari-

time superiority, and as such should be immediately considered Britain.

by the Government of Great

;

41

SLAVERY It had always appeared to

me as singular that

the Americans, at the time of their Declaration

of Independence, took no measures for the gradual, if not immediate, extinction of slavery that

at

time they were offering up

the very

thanks for having successfully struggled for their

own emancipation from what they

con-

sidered foreign bondage, their gratitude for their liberation did not induce

chains of those captivity.

they

now

whom

it

to break the

they themselves held in

It is useless for

do, that

them

them to exclaim, as

was England who

left

them

slavery as a curse, and reproach us as having originally introduced the system

Admitting, as

is

mence when the

amongst them.

the fact, that slavery did comcolonies

were subject to the

i^Bj

i

1

i 1

SLAVERY.

42

1

1

mother country 1

,

ifl

for its

admitting that the petitions

;

discontinuance

were disregarded,

there was nothing to prevent immediate

still

manu-

mission at the time of the acknowledgment of their independence

by Great

then every thing to recommence select

a

They had

Britain.

they had to

;

new form of government, and

upon new laws

;

they

Declaration, that "all

to decide

pronounced, in their

men were equal;" and and

yet, in the face of this Declaration,

their

solemn invocation to the Deity, the negroes, in their fetters, pleaded to I

them

had always thought that

which has

left

in vain. this

sad omission,

claration of Independence as to

have made

whole civilized world, did really

when we ricans in

;

that,

the

from

for-

as is but too often the case,

are ourselves their

arise

it

by

the taunt and reproach of the Americans

getfulness

De-

such an anomaly in the

made happy,

joy at their own

the

Ame-

deliverance

from a foreign yoke, and the repossessing them-

<• t

of

ey had to

decide their

1 ;"'

and

id their

roes, in

such was not

the case, as

mission,

De-

nade

it

by

the

rom

for-

le case,

e

Ame-

verance

g them-

I

I

was mistaken

;

presently

shall

shew.

In the course of one of

my

sojourns in Phila-

Mr. Vaughan, of the Athenaeum of that

delphia,

city, stated to

me

that he

had found the original

draft of the Declaration of Independence, in the

hand- writing of Mr. Jefferson, and that

it

was

curious to remark the alterations which had been

made previous

le

had been too much

But

deniable claims of others.

manu-

had

rights,

43

engrossed to occupy themselves with the un-

still

lent

own

selves of tlieir

titions ,

SLAVERY.

to the adoption of the manifesto

which was afterwards promulgated. Jefferson,

Adams, and Franklin,

trusted the primary drawing tant

that

up of

was to

was en-

this

impor-

document, which was then submitted to

others,

and ultimately

approval slavery

;

and

clause,

it

to the Convention, for

appears that the question of

had not been overlooked when the

document was

Mr.

It

first

inserted

Jefferson,

in

framed, as the following the

original

but expunged when

it

draft

by

was

laid

SLAVERY.

44

before the Convention), will sufficiently prove.

After enumerating the grounds upon which they

threw off their allegiance to the King of England, the Declaration continued, in Jefferson's

nervous style

"

He [the king] has waged cruel war against hu-

man nature of

life

and

who

ple

violating

itself,

its

most sacred rights

liberty y in the person of a distant peo-

never off'ended him

carrying them into

captivating and

;

in another hemis-

'.lavery,

phere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.

opprobrium of the Christian

This

infidel

piratical warfare, the

powers,

King of Great

is

Britain, determined

to keep open a market where

bought and sold

;

the warfare of

men

should be

he has prostituted his nega-

tive for suppressing every legislative attempt to

prohibit or to restrain this execrable

and that no

this assemblage of horrors

fact of distinguished dye,

these very people to rise in to purchase that liberty

he

is

commerce might want

now

arms among

exciting us,

and

of which he has de-

SLAVERY. prived

whom he Eng-

nst hvi-

rights

.nt

peo-

nff

and

hemistrans-

ire,

the

rfare of

rmined Duld be

nega-

empt

upon

thus paying

obtruded them;

committed against the

to

commit against the

liberties

lives of another."

Such was the paragraph whicli had been serted

by

mocracy, and his desire to hold up to detestation the

King of Great

at that

and had the

time, unfortunately, the truth;

paragraph remained, and at the same time emancipation been given to the slaves,

it

would have

been a lasting stigma upon George the Third.

But the paragraph was expunged ; and why

?

because they could not hold up to public indignation the sovereign

whom

they had abjured,

without reminding the world that slavery

ht want

«

exciting

narch, they had stigmatised

has de-

Such was

Britain.

existed in a

and

in-

Jefferson, in the virulence of his de-

imerce

us,

the people

of one people, with crimes which he urges them to

ir

also

by murdering

off former crimes

erson's

1

thein,

45

all

still

community which had declared that

men were

equal ;" and that it

as

«

if,

in a

mo-

violating the

most sacred rights of life and liberty," and « waging cruel war against

human nature,"

they could

SLAVERY.

46

not have afterwards been so barefaced and unblushing as to continue a system

which was

with every principle which they

at variance

professed.* It does,

however, satisfactorily prove that the

question of slavery was not overlooked ; on the contrary, their determination to take advantage

of the system was deliberate, and, there can be

i

i^

— the

no doubt, well considered

:

of the paragraph proves

it.

very omission

I mention these

^ I

facts to

show that the Americans have no right

to revile

us on being the cause of slavery in

They had

America.

the means,

and

were

bound, as honourable men, to act up to their

m

Declaration

;

but they entered into the question,

they decided otherwise, and decided that they

* Miss Martineau,

in

her admiration of democracy,

says that, in the formation of the government, " rule

hy which they worked was no

one, which seems to have been, by

less

The

than the golden

some unlucky chance,

omitted in the Bibles of other statesmen, '^Do unto others as ye ivould that they should do unto

the

American

Bible, by

omitted that precept.

you^

I

am

afraid

some unlucky chmice^ has

also

SLAVKRV. would

47

retain their ill-acquired property at the

expense of their principles. degrees of slavery in America are as

The

various in their intensity as are the comnumities

hat the

on the vantage ?

can be

amission )n these

no right avery in

were

id

They may, however, be

composing the Union.

divided with great propriety under two general

By

heads —eastern and western slavery.

eastern

slavery I refer to that in the Slave States bor-

dering on the Atlantic, and those Slave States

on the other side of the Alleghany Mountains,

which may be more directly considered as their colonies, viz, in the

first

instance,

Maryland,

Delaware, Virginia, North and South Carolina;

We

and, secondly, Kentucky and Tennessee. to their

have been accustomed lately to question,

and

as non-predial

predial,

at they

are domestic

class the slaves

—that

is,

those

who

and those who work on the plan<

lemocracy, ]nt,

"The

Ihc golden

tations. is

am ',

afraid

classification is not correct, if it

intended to distinguish between those

ky chance, into othei's

This

well,

and those who are badly

true line to be

has also

separately,

drawn

is

who

treated.

are

The

between those who work

and those who are worked

in a

gang

(

^

SLAVEKV.

48

and superintended by an

overseer.

This

is

exemplified in the United States, where

be found that

worked

in

in

all

gangs the slaves are harshly treated,

Now, with

is light.

the exception of the rice grounds

South Carolina,

the

Eastern

growers of corn, hemp, and tobacco chief staple

horned

it will

where they are

States

while in the others their labour

in

fully

is

cattle,

States ;

are

but their

the breeding of horses, mules,

and other stock

:

the largest por-

tion of these States remain in wild luxuriant

pasture, I

V

more

especially in Virginia,

and Tennessee,

either of

Kentucky,

which States

is

larger

I

than the other four mentioned.

The

proportion of slaves required for the cul-

tivation of the purely agricultural

and

chiefly

grazing farms or plantations in these States

is

small, fifteen or twenty being sufficient for

a

farm of two hundred or three hundred acres;

and

their labour,

tending stock,

is

which

is

mostly confined to

not only very light, but of the

quality most agreeable to the negro.

Half the '1

SLAVERY.

s

day yuu

fully

it

will

'y

arc

seated on

He

•eatctl,

is

he

goes

are

.^

their

m

much

lie takes his

the hogs,

mules.

along,

as riding or driving, particularly

waggon

his control,

for a load of corn to feed

on the edge of the shaft as he

sits

tosses the cobs to the

grunting multitude,

done

short, every thing is

iuriant

own

itucky,

he culchiefly (tates is

for

a

acres

may

very pror

but pork

;

and

are,

will

;

have nothing

without exception, the

fattest

and most saucy fellows I ever met with in a of bondage

;

they

state

and such may be said generally

be the case with

all

the negroes in the Eastern

.;

ined to t

and mutton, and

refuse beef

to

in

fashion.

perly be called, the negroes are well fed

t

whom

leisurely, after his

In these grazing States, as they

larger

or

nothing delights a

he addresses in the most intimate terms;

St por-

liis

a shaft-horse driving his waggons.

when he has a whole team under

•ounds

t

as

quite in his glory;

negro so

js

him on horseback with

swinging

idly

le^s

see

will

49

of the alf the

States which I

have mentioned. The rice grounds

in South Carolina are unhealthy, but the slaves

are very kindly treated.

VOL.

III.

But the facts speak

for

]

<

SLAVERY.

50

»

:

When

themselves.

the negro works in a gang

with the whip over him, he

and

ill-treated

may be overworked

but when he

;

is

not regularly

watched, he will take very good care that the

work he performs

shall not injure his constitu-

tion. in

It has been asserted,

,'U\\

w m

and generally

credited,

that in the Eastern States negroes are regularly

bred up like the cattle for the Western market.

That the Virginians and the inhabitants of the other Eastern slave States do

sell

negroes which

are taken to the West, there is no doubt; but that

the negroes are bred expressly for that purpose, is,

as regards the majority of the proprietors,

far from the fact

:

it is

the effect of circumstances

over which they have had no control. I

Virginia,

iiii

when

first settled,

was one of the richest States,

but by continually cropping the land without manuring it, and that for nearly two hundred years, the major portion of

many

valuable estates has

become barren, and the land cultivation liii

;

is

no longer under

in consequence of this, the negroes

SLAVERY.

61

(increasing so rapidly as they

do in that country)

from being

far

so

upon

tu

serioui>

profitable,

have become a

their masters,

who have

rear and maintain, without having

ment

to give them.

estates

The

under cultivation

therefore,

be disposed

small portion of the

of, or

known I

am

slaves are

by many of the pro-

certain, particularly

when

that they are purchased for the

know of many

formed of others

;

instances of this,

and by

cer-

they would eat their

That the

not willingly disposed of I

a

the remainder must,

;

master out of his home.*

prietors

any employ-

will subsist only

tain portion of the negroes

to

it is

West.

and was

in-

wills, especially, slaves

have been directed to be sold for two-thirds of •

«

Many fine-looking

in Virginia,

districts

were pointed out to

me

formerly rich in tobacco and Indian corn,

which had been completely exhausted by the production of crops for the maintenance of the slaves.

In thickly-

peopled countries where the great towns are at hand, the fertility of such soils

may be recovered and even

improved by manuring, but over the tracts of country

now speak TCicr's

of,

Y9nch

J'"'

no such advantages are within the

—Captain HalL

D 2

I

i-dt-

SLAVERY.

52

the price which they would fetch for the Western

market, on condition that they were not to leave

These

the State.

facts establish

viz, that the slave in the

points,

Eastern States

is

well

and that in the Western States slavery

treated, still

two

The common

exists with all its horrors.

threat to,andultimatepunishment of, a refractory

and disobedient slave in the East, for the tors,

Many

Western market.

whose

estates

to sell

with their slaves rather than

sell

him

slave proprie-

have been worn out

East, have preferred migrating

is

is

to

the

in the

West

them, and thus

the severity of the Western treatment occa-

sionally

and partially mitigated.*

" Many, very many, with

whom met would willingly I.

have released their slaves, but the law requires that in

such cases they should leave the State

;

and

thi'.

would

mostly be not to improve their condition, but to banish

them from easts.

their

What

home, and make them miserable out-

they cannot for the present remove they

are anxious to mitigate,

and

I

have never seen kinder

attention paid to any domestics than their slaves. it

by such persons to

Tn defiance of the infamous laws, making

criminal for the slave to be taught to read, and

diffi-

cult

53

SLAVERY. Vestern to leave

points,

well

is

i

slavery

But doing

justice, as I

always

will, to those

who have been unjustly calumniated, same time I must admit that there

is

at

the

a point

connected with slavery in America which renders

it

more odious than in other countries

;

I

Dommon

refer to the

fractory

from promiscuous intercourse, been carried on

sell

him

propriet

in the

he

West

md

thus

nt occa-

system of amalgamation which has,

an extent, that you very often meet

to such

with slaves whose skins are whiter than their mastery's.

At

Louisville,

Kentucky,

I

saw a

twelve years old, carrying a child

;

girl,

about

and, aware

that in a slave State the circumstance of white

people hiring themselves out to service

unknown,

is

almost

I inquired of her if she were a slave.

willingly es that in hi',

would

To my tive.

astonishment, she replied in the affirma-

She was as

fair as

snow, and

it

was impos-

to banish

rable out-

Qove they

en kinder

sible to detect

any admixture of blood from her

appearance, which was that of a pretty English cottager's child.

)ersons to ,

making

and

diffi-

cult

cult to assemble for

an act of worship, -they are in* worship God."— i?er.

structed, and they are assisted to

Mr. Reidi

:ft

SLAVERY.

54

I afterwards spoke to the master,

when he

who

stated

purchased her and the sum which

liad

he had paid. I took

down

the following advertisement for

a runaway slave, which was posted up in every

my way

tavern I stopped at in Virginia on

m

The

the Springs.

expression of,

white" would imply that felt in

holding a white

there

man

in

to

" in a man7ier

was some shame

bondage

:

" Fifty Dollars Rcivard, "

Ran away from

instant, a slave

the subscriber, on Saturday, the 21st

named— Georok,

between twenty and twenty-four years of age, ^^'Wm\

five

or six inches high, slender made, stoops

ing, a

m |)i

Hllll

little

bow legged

boots and shoes

;

;

five feet

when

staTid-

generally wears right and left

had on him when he

left

checked stock and linen round about

;

a fur cap, a

bad with him

other clothing, a jean coat with black horn buttons, a pair of jean pantaloons, both coat and pantaloons of

handsome grey mixed collected.

He

;

no doubt other clothing not

had with him a

common

he wears his pantaloons generally very tight Said boy

is in

a manner

taken for a white man.

tvhite,

spoken

to,

;

;

in the legs.

would be passed by and

His hair

like that of a ivkite person

re-

watch

silver

is

lony

and

straight^

looks very steady

speaks slowly, and would not be likely

when

to

look

J0

55

SLAVEUY. o stated

a person

m

licvod he

which !

'-'^-^^

in every

y way %

way

niakin"^ his

to

him.

It is bo-

Canada byway of Ohio.

said I will (,Mvc twenty dollars for the apprehension of out of taken if dollars fifty or county, the slave if taken in 1

recover him again.

Andbkw

Bkiuxk,

jun.,

Union Monroe

'm

July 31st,

to

1

City,

Virginia."

838.

1

The ahove

manner

me shame

is

speakinj,' to

the county, and secured so that

ment for »

when

full in the face

is

a curious document, indepen-

/V:^

dently of

its

proving the manner in which man-

preys upon his fellow-man in this land of liherty

and equality.

It is

a well-known

siderable portion of his

own

smile,

a con-

Jefferson's slaves were

If any of them absconded,

children.*

he would

Mr.

fact, that

thereby implying

that

he

should not be very particular in looking after

them

;

and yet

this

man,

this great

man, as Miss Martineau

who penned

calls

and good

him, this

man

the paragraph I have quoted, as

having been erased from the Declaration of Independence, * "

who

The law

asserted that the slavery of th^

declares the children of slaves are to fol-

low the fortunes of the mother.

Hence the practice of own children."

planters selling and bequeathing their

Miss Martineau.

!

SLAVERY.

56

negro was a violation of the most sacred rights of

and

life

and

liberty, permitted these his

his children, the issue of his

own

slaves

loins, to

be

sold at auction after his demise, not even eman-

cipating them, as he might have done, before his death.

And, but

lately,

gress for Georgia, whose 1)1'

!

<

a member of Con-

name

I shall not

men-

;i

!'i

tion,

brought up a fine family of children, his own

issue

by a female

slave

ledged them as his to call

own

;

for

many years acknow-

children

him by the endearing

;

permitted them

title

of papa, and

i

eventually the whole of them were sold auction,

But

and

there

that, too, is,

rible instance

am

own

sorry to say, a

life-time

more hor-

on record and one well authenti-

A planter of good family (I shall not men-

cated.

tion his

as he

I

during his

by public

name or

the State in which

it

occurred,

was not so much to blame as were the laws),

connected himself with one of his slaves,

who was

nearly white

;

own female

the fruits of this

connection were two daughters, very beautiful girls,

Hill

who were

sent to

England to be educated.

!

.

:^S

SLAVERY.

I

rights

i

slaves

to

IS,

They were both grown up when their father died.

At his

eman-

,

before

ipa,

sufficient

and introduced

girls

them as

quite slipped his me-

his daughters,

that,

selves.

cease

them

was not

Having brought up

creditors.

it

having been

manumitted, they were

own

acknowted

in fact, there

;

and educated these two

mory

men-

his

pay his

left to

of Conlot

death his affairs were found in a state of

great disorder

be

n

67

;

bom

of a slave and not

in reality slaves

them-

This fact was established after his dethey were torn away from the affluence

and refinement to which they had been accus-

and

tomed, sold and purchased as slaves, and with

y public

the avowed intention of the purchaser to reap fe-time

-'^m

his profits

from

their prostitution

!

!

ore horIt

must not, however, be supposed that the

Luthenti-

not menccurred,

planters of Virginia and the other Eastern States,

encourage this intercourse ; on the contrary, the

young men who le

the plantations cannot

visit at

laws), affront

female

them more than

to take notice of their

slaves, particularly the lighter coloured, s

who

of this are retained in the house

and attend upon

their

)eaiitiful

ducated.

wives and daughters. Independently of the

D 3

mo-

SLAVERY.

58 ral feeling

naturally

which really guides them

do not wish that the attendants of

daughters should be degraded)

it is

latto or light

male

will not fetrh "^

as a full-blooded negro

European and negro, the mulatto,

as a

;

mu-

high a price

the cross between the

especially the first cross,

of a sickly constitution, and

is

quite unable to bear field

;

their

against their

interest in case they should wish to sell

i. e,

(as they

up

against the fatigue of

As

labour in the West.

the race becomes

i!

whiter, the stamina

Examining

is

said to improve.

into the question of emancipation

how

far

efiected

by

in America, the first enquiry will be, thio !

i

consummation

means of the

and

will proceed."

tionists

tineau exult;

.mm

Miss Martineau,

The good work She

is

has begun,

so far right

;

it

has

fast, as

the single fact of the aboli-

having decided the election in the State

of Ohio in October

ti'iiiiiini

''

be

begun, and has been progressing very

may be proved by

Si-;!

likely to

abolitionists.

in her book, says,

fell

is

last.

for the

But

let

stronger

not Miss Marthe

abolition

SLAVERY. party

may become,

the

59

more danger

h

there to

be ai^prehended of a disastrous conflict between the States.

The

by the

fact is that,

United

constit

government have

the federal

States,

ion of the

not only no power to interfere or to abolish slavery, but they are abolition of slavery citizens of

their

own

is

bound

to

maintain

it

expressly withheld.

:

the

The

any State may abolish slavery in but the federal government

State;

cannot do so without an express violation of

Should

the federal compact. the

Union

all

the States in

abolish slavery, witli the exception

of one, and that one be Maryland, (the smallest

of the whole of the States,) neither the federal

government, or the other States, could interfere with her.

The

federal

neral government,

"

compact binds the ge-

first,

not to meddle with

the slavery of the States where

next to protect

and to defend violeyice

it

it

in the case

it

exists,

and

of runaway slaves,

in case of invasion or domestic

on account of

it.''

;

SLAVERY.

60

It appears, therefore, that slavery

be abolished by the slave State it

exists

;

and

it is

can only

which

itself in

not very probable that

class of people will voluntarily

make

any

themselves

beggars by surrendering up their whole pro-

That

perty to satisfy the clamour of a party. this party

is

and

strong,

stronger, is very true

:

is

becoming

daily

the stronger

becomes

it

the worse will be the prospects of the United States.

In England the case was very different

the government had a right to fice to

make

the sacri-

public opinion by indemnification to the

slave-holders

;

but

in

America the government

have not that power; and the abolitionists will

only have the

efforts

effect

of plunging

the country into difficulties and disunion.

American author truly observes, " rican abolitionists tion,

of the

As an

The Ame-

must trample on the

constitu-

and wade through the carnage of a

civil

war, before they can triumph."

Already the abolition party have done much mischief.

The same

author observes,

" The

m

SLAVEaV.

61

South has been compelled, in

self-defence, to

rivet the chains of slavery afresh,

on to their

political rights

The conduct tlie

and to hold

with a stronger hand.

of the abolitionists has arrested

improvements which were in progress in the

slave States for the amelioration of the condition

of the slave; intellectual

has broken

it

up

the system of

and moral culture that was exten-

sively in operation for the slave's benefit,

the increase of his knowledge should lend

dangerous power, sading efforts;

lest

him a

m connection with these cru-

it

has rivetted the chains of

slavery with a greatly increased power,

and en-

forced a more rigorous discipline;

has ex-

it

cluded for the time being the happy moral influence which was previously operating on the

South from the North, and from the

rest

world, by the lights of comparison,

by the

of the in-

terchange of a friendly intercourse, and by a friendly discussion

of the great subject,

all

tending to the bettering of the slave's condition, and, as was supposed, to his ultimate emanci-

SLAVERY.

62 pation.

Before this agitation commenced, this aspects and bearings, might

subject, in all

its

be discussed as

freely at the

but now, not a word can be

a

South as anywhere; said.

It has kindled

sleepless jealousy in the Soutli

North, and made the slave-holders

towards the feel

as if all

the rest of the world were their enemies, and that they must depend upon themselves for the 1

maintenance of their political rights. rights, because they regard

so long as they do so, feelings,

whether the

ledge them or not. political

rights,

them

it is all

rest

the

We

as such sairic in

;

say

and their

of the world acknow-

And

they are, in

guaranteed to

fact,

them by the

constitution of the United States." It is not, lition

however, impossible that the abo-

party in the Eastern and Northern States

may be

gradually checked by the citizens of

those very States.

Their zeal may be as warm

as ever; but public opinion will compel them, at the risk of their lives, to hold their tongues.

This possibility can, however, only

arise

from

SLAVKRY.

63

the Nortliem and Eastern States

becoming ma-

States, as they are

most anxious

nufacturing

Should

to be.

grown by

this

happen, the raw cotton

slave labour will

of Massachusetts

Review very

;

employ the looms

and then, as the Quarterly

"by

correctly observes,

a cycle

of commercial benefits, the Northern and Eastern States will

feel

that there

is

some material

compensation for the moral turpitude of the system of slavery."

The

slave proprietors in these States are as

well aware as any political economist can be,

that slavery

is

a loss instead of a gain, and that

no State can arrive at that degree of prosperity under a the aborn States tizens

of

as

warm

>el

them,

state of slavery

free labour. ',i;

"1

M

case

is

it

would unde

simple. In free labour,

where there is competition, you exact the greatest possible returns for the least possible expendi-

ture 1

The

which

for

;

a man

is

worked as a machine

;

he

what he produces, and nothing more.

is

paid

By slave

\

tongues. rise

labour,

from

you receive the

least possible return for

the greatest possible expense, for the slave is

i

SLAVERY.

64

and clothed than the freeman, and

better fed

does as

little

work

The

as he can.

slave-holders

Eastern States are well aware of

in the

this,

and

are as anxious to be rid of slavery as are the abolitionists will

it

filled

;

come

up

but the time until

is

not yet come, nor

the country shall

have so

as to render white labour attainable.

Such, indeed, are not the expectations expressed in the

States

language of the representatives of

when in Congress ; but,

bered, that this

is

it

their

must be remem-

a question which has con-

vulsed the Union, and that, not only from a feeling of pride, terference,

added

to indignation at the in-

but from a feeling of the necessity

of not yielding up one

tittle

upon

this question,

the language of determined resistance

But

gress invariably resorted to.

men have one

opinion

stand

up

;

in

Con-

these gentle-

for Congress,

other for their private table

is

in the

and anfirst,

they

unflinchingly for their slave rights;

in the other, they reason calmly,

and admit what

they could not admit in public.

There

is

no

;

65

SJ.AVERV.

and

n,

labour in the Eastern States, excepting that of

holders [lis,

and

u

are the

men

cannot be performed by white

;

indeed, a

large proportion of the cotton in the Carolinas is

me, nor nave

plantations in South Carolina, which

the rice

now

so

raised

jiopulation.

In the

States, white

labour

by a free white

grazing portion of

tliese

ainable.

would

xpressed

white labour be procured at any reasonable price.

of their

The

be substituted advantageously, could

time will come, and

do not think

I

it

remem-

very distant, say perhaps twenty or thirty years,

has con-

when, j)rovided America receives no check, and

from a

these States are not injudiciously interfered with,

the in-

that Virginia, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland,

lecessity

North Carolina, (and, eventually, but proba-

uestion,

bly somewhat later, Tennessee and South Caro-

?

It

in

Con-

le jjentle*

and an|rst,

they

rights iTiit

what

tre

is

no

lina) will, of their

among

own accord,

the free States.

As a

enrol themselves

pr(M)f that in the

Eastern slave States the negro

is

not

held in

such contempt, or justice towards him sj disregarded, I extract the following

American work "

An

much

from an

:—

instance of

the force of law in the

SLAVERY

66

Southern States for the protection of the slave has just occurred, in the failure of a petition to his excellency, P.

M.

Butler, governor of South

Carolina, for the pardon of Nazareth Allen, a

white person, convicted of slave, is

murder of a

the

and sentenced to be hung.

The

following

part of the answer of the governor to the

petitioners

:

" * The laws of South Carolina make no distinction in cases of deliberate murder, whether

mitted on a black

can

I.

officer

act

I

am

man

or a white

;

neither

not a law-maker, but the executive

of the laws already

on a

man

com-

distinction

made ; and

which the

must not

legislature

have made, but has not thought

" That the crime of which

I

fit

to

might

make/

the prisoner stands

convicted was committed against one of an inferior

grade in society,

is

a reason for being

especially cautious in intercepting the just severity of the law.

This

class of

our population

are subjected to us as well for their protection as

our advantage.

Our

rights, in regard to

them.

67

SLAVERY. slave

are not

their duties

;

and

to

the institutions, which for wise and necessary

South

ends have rendered them peculiarly dependent,

tion

lien,

a

of

a



more imperative than

lowing

at least pledge the

a friend and protector.

" The prayer of the

to the

distinc-

er

com-

neither cecutive lust not

might lake.'

an

jr ist

petition is not granted.

" Pierce M. Butler."

In the Western States, comprehending Missouri, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, gia,

and Alabama, the negroes

arc,

Geor-

with the

perhaps of the two latter States,

exception

in a worse condition than they ever

the West-India Islands.

were in

This may be

easily

imagined, when the character of the white people

r stands )f

law to be to them peculiarly

in-

being seve-

pulation

who

inhabit the larger portion of these States is

considered

—a

whom are

without feelings of honour, reckless in

class of people,

the majority of

their habits, intemperate, unprincipled, less,

many

and law-

of them having fled from the Eastern

ection as

States, as fraudulent

to theui.

committers of other crimes, which have subjected

bankrupts, swindlers, or

SLAVERY,

68

them to the

penitentiaries

—miscreants

defying

the climate, so that they can defy the laws.

\mi

Still

this representation of the character of the people

inhabiting these States must, from the chaotic state

of society in America, be received with

many

exceptions.

for instance,

also

and

among the

In the city of

in Natches

and

New

Orleans,

its vicinity,

planters, there are

many most

and ho-

nourable exceptions. I have said the majority: for

we must

—the exceptions do but

look to the mass

prove the

rule.

It is evident that slaves

such masters can have but

little

under

chance of good

treatment, and stories are told of them at which

humanity shudders. It appears, then, that the slaves, with the rest

of the population of America, are working their

way west, and

the question

may now be

asked-*-

Allowing that slavery will be soon abolished in the Eastern States, what prospect is there of

mate abolition and I

total extinction in

,i.i,

America ?

can see no prospect of exchanging slave

labour for free in the Western States,

,ii\

its ulti-

as,

with the

SLAVERY.

69

exception of Missouri, I do not think

efying

extreme heat and unhealthiness of the climate

people

being a

chaotic

negro population,

frleans,

and

lost

ho»

The

It

under

good

)f

t

which

if it is

to be carried to

on

their

be considered

by a

free or

is,

a slave negro population.

is

cultivation; every year, as the slaves are

brought

number of

in from the East, the

into cultivation increases.

number of the

would be

Not double or

slaves at present in for

sufficient

whole of these vast

acres taken

the cultivation of the

Every year the

territories.

din the

price of cotton has not materially lowered

?

slave

dth the

and

triple

America

cotton crops increase,

s ulti-

under

part of the land in the Southern States

sked—

nerica

at all.

must be remembered, that not one-twentieth

the

he rest ig

must be carried on by a

question, therefore,

cultivated

do but

s

cul-

whether these States are to be inhabited and

ity: for }

The

bar to any such attempt.

tivation of the land

i with

ty,

be substituted, the

ble that white labour could

Still

possi-

it

at the

same time the :

as

an

everywhere increasing population takes off the

whole supply, the case for

this will

many

probably continue to be

years, since

it

must be remem-

SLAVERY.

70

bered that, independently of the increasing population increasing the demand, cotton, from

its

comparative cheapness, continually usurps the of some other raw material

place

course, adds to

manufactures,

of linen and

of

has already taken the place

but there must etentually be

i ir ;

a limit to consumption f

this,

In various

the consumption.

(!otton

;

:

and

this is certain, that

^

;

^ii

as soon as the supply is so great as to exceed the

demand, the price will be lowered by the competiis

by competition

so lowered as to render the cost

and keeping of

tion

;

and, as soon as the price

the slave greater than the income returned his labour, then,

and not

till

then,

is

by

there any

chance of slavery being abolished in the Western States of America.*

The

probability of this consummation being

brought

The States

;

about sooner

return at present

is

is

in

the

expectation

very great in these Western

the labour of a slave, after

all his

expenses are

paid, producing on an average 300 dollars (£65)

annum

to his master.

per

o

SLAVERY.

71

Mexico, and

particularly

g Po-

that

om

the independent State of Texas, will in a few

its

ps the

^:M

of

lis,

the

Brazils,

years produce

a crop of cotton

considerably lower

At

price.

its

which

may

present, the

rarious

United States grow nearly,

e place

half of the cotton produced in the whole world,

ally in,

be

as the return

that

Cotton grown

:eed the

ompeti-

1831

O

down all

over the world in the years 1821 and

shewing^ the increase in each country in ten

;

years.

United States

lbs.

Brazil

rned lere

by

West

any

Egypt

Indies

Rest of

Western

m being )ectation

not more, than

to 1831 will substantiate.

1821.

1831.

180,000,000

385,000,000

32,000,000

38,000,000

petition

jping of

if

A frica

10,000,000

9,000,000

6,000,000

18,000,000

40,000,000

36,000,000

India

175,000,000

180,000,000

Rest of Asia Mexico and South Ame- }

135,000,000

115,000,000

44,000,000

35,000,000

8,000,000

4,000,000

630,000,000

820,000,000

rica,

except Brazil .

Elsewhere

In the

World

,

j'

Western tenses are

£65) per

The

increase of cotton

world in ten years

is

grown

all

over the

therefore 190,000,000 lbs.

SLAVERY.

72

i

Brazil has only increased 6,000,000

has increased 12,000,000; Africa,

have

West

Egypt

India, 5,000,000.

South America, Asia,

Indies,

all fallen off;

;

but the defalcation has been

made good by the United increased their growth

States,

which have

by 205,000,000 of lbs.*

In the Southern portion of America there are millions of acres on

which cotton can be

successfully cultivated, particularly Texas, the • Increase of cotton

the year 1802 to 1831 Years.

grown

in the

United States, from

:—

lbs.

j

Years.

lbs.

1802

55,000,000

1817

130,000,000

1803

60,000,000

1818

125,000,000

1804

65,000,000

1819

167,000,000

1805

70,000,000

1820

160,000,000

1806

80,000,000

1821

180,000,000

1807

80,000,000

1822

210,000,000

1808

75,000,000

1823

185,000,000

1809

82,000,000

1824

215,000,000

1810

85,000,000

1825

255,000,000

1811

,000,000

1826

300,000,000

1812

75,000,006

1827

270,000,000

75,000,000

1828

325,000,000

4814

70,000,000

1829

365,000,000

1815

100,000,000

1830

350,000,000

J5l6

124,000,000

1831

385,000,000

1813 rl

SLAVERY. of which

soil

is

so congenial that they can pro-

duce 1,0001b. to the 400

3,000.

Americans;

Asia,

73

be equal to the

been

cotton

have

produce.

It is to

I

must look

for this produce, as

lbs.* L

can be

duced,

as, the

to

finest sea island

Texas particularly that we it

can there be

will, as

soon as

population increases

its

a certain extent, be able to undersell that

which ;e9,

said to

by white labour ; * and, being so pro-

raised

there

by the

and the quality of the Texian

s

is

raised

lb.

grown

is

in

America by the labour of

from U'i

lbs.

L000,000 ;,ooo,ooo

,000,000

the slave.

From

circumstances, therefore, Texas, which

but a few years since was hardly known as a country, becomes a State of the greatest im-

1,000,000

1,000,000 1,000,000

portance to the civilized and moral world. I

am not in

*

It

this

chapter about to raise the que&-

i,000,000 5,000,000

5,000,000

},000,000

,000,000 ,000,000

,000,000 [>,000,000

5,000,000

may be asked How :

is it,

as

Texas

is

that a white population can labour there?

Texas

is

the Gulf of Mexico.

it

It

is

because

a prairie country, and situated at the bottom of

A sea-breeze always blows

the whole of the country, rendering ing

so far south,

it

cool,

across

and refresh-

notwithstanding the power of the sun*s rays. This

b/eeze

is

apparently a continuation of the trade-winds

following the course of the sun.

VOL.

III.

S

SLAVERY.

74 tion ;«p;i''

how Texas

has been ravished from Mexico.

f^t!

Miss Martineau, with mocracy, admits

it

her admiration of de-

all

to have been

" the most high"

;"

and the letter of

handed theft of modern times

Channing to Mr. Clay has laid

the celebrated Dr.

bare to the world the whole nefarious transaction.

In this

letter

Dr. Channing points out the cause

of the seizure of Texas, and the wish to enrol

among

the Federal States.

" Mexico,

at

the

her loyalty to free

That no person

moment of throwing

off*

gave a noble testimony of

the Spanish yoke,

*

it

principles,

thereafter

by

decreeing,

should be

born

a slave, or introduced as such into the Mexican States; that

all

slaves

then held should

receive stipulated wages,

and be subject to no

punishment but on

and judgment by the

magistrate.'

The

trial

subsequent acts of the go-

vernment fully carried out these constitutional provisions.

It

is

matter of deep grief and

humiliation, that the emigrants from this country

i^hilst

iperior civilization, boastinff of superior ^% :i

;

SLAVERY.

76

Vlexico.

fused to second this honourable policy, intended

of de-

to set limits to one of the greatest of social evils.

i

high-

ist

Slaves

letter of

slaves

cause

enrol

in

masters

the laws was, to introduce

some cases, it

is

said, for ninety-nine years

;

but

by a decree of the State Legislature of Coahuila

it

oft*

their

under formal indentures for long periods,

and Tf xas, )wing

Texas with

One mode of evading

asaction.

)

into

from the neighbouring States of this country.

has laid

;he

come

v.

I'

all

indentures for a longer period

than ten years were annulled, and provision was

imony of

made

lecreeing,

apprenticeship.

for the freedom of children

This

during this

settled, invincible

purpose

be

born

of Mexico to exclude slavery from her limits,

[he

Mexi-

created as strong a purpose to annihilate her

d should lect it

to

no

by the the go-

By

authority in Texas. wa^. virtually

this prohibition,

shut against emigration from the

Southern and Western portions of this country

and

it is

well

known

that the eyes of the South

ititutional

and West had

and

province as a

new market

conn-

field for slave

labour,

rief ;his

otation, re-

Texas

political

for

some time been turned

and

for slaves, as a

as

new

a vast accession of

power to the slaveholding

£ S

to this

States.

That

SLAVERY.

76 <«M

such views were prevalent we

know

rious as they are, they found their

public prints. !!

The

way

into the

project of dismembering a

slaveholders and

neighbouring republic, that slaves

for, nefa-

;

might overspread a region which had

been consecrated to a free population, was dish I

i

cussed in newspapers as coolly as if

it

were a

matter of obvious right and unquestionable hu-

A

manity. !

I'M

'i

'

for severing

The

powerful interest was thus created

from Mexico her distant

fact is this:

— America,

ment looked on and seized

offered

province.*"

(for the govern-

no interruption,) has

upon Texas, with a view of extending

the curse of slavery, and of finding a mart for

the excess of her negro population

admitted into the Union, abolition of slavery

all

:

if

Texas

is

chance of the

must be thrown forward to

such an indefinite period, as to be lost in the mist of futurity

;

if,

on the contrary, Texas

remains an independent province, or to her legitimate owners, slavery

is

and

in

is

restored

either case

abolished, she then becomes, from the

SLAVERY. very circumstance of her

77

fertility

and aptitude

for white labour, not only the great check

slavenj, but eventually the

means of

to

its aboli-

Never, therefore, was there a ix)rtion of

tion.

the globe upon which the moral world must

look with such interest.

England may, wisely,

if

make such terms with

as to raise

it

up

tion of

this

young State

as a barrier against the pro-

ambition of America.

fligate

promptly and

she acts

Texas was a por-

Mexico, and Mexico abolished slavery

the Texians are

bound

(if

they are Texians

and not Americans) to adhere to what might be considered a treaty with the whole Christian

world

;

if not, they

sympathy or

can make no demand upon

protection,

and

qua non with England and

it

its

should he a sine

all other

European

powers^ previous to acknowledging or entering

into

commercial relations

that she should adhere to the

with

7'exas,

law which was

passed at the time that she was an integral portion of Mexico, and declare herself to he a

»

SLAVERY.

78

Free State



are broken

if

she does not, unless the chains

by the negro

himself, the cause

hopes of Emancipation are rj

I

There certainly

is

and

lost.

one outlet for the slaves,

which as they are removed farther and farther I

I

':!

west will eventually be offered

to the

of escaping to

the Indian

tribes

:

— that

which are

spread over the western frontier, and amalga-

mating with them

;

such indeed,

some future day be the their liberty

by

result,

I

think, will

whether they gain

desertion, insurrection, or

manu-

mission.

Of insurrection fear.

there

is

at present but little

In the Eastern slave States, the negroes

do not think of it, and

if

they did, the difficulty

of combination and of procuring arms great,

that

it

partial success.

so

would be attended with very

The

intervention of a foreign

power might indeed bring to be

is

it

hoped that England, at

to pass,

but

it is

all events, will

never be the party to foment a servile war.

Let us not forget that

for

more than two centu

SLAVERY. ries

Wm

chains

t'fl^^H

American cotton

hands in exchange for

one point to which I

is

yet adverted, which

emancipation

is

is,

Whether

likely to

have not

the question of

produce a separation

between the Northern and Southern States ?

flficulty

only reply that can be given

so

*

very

foreign

4 '%

ut

it is

ts,

will

le

war.

centu

off their

such a profitable mart for their slave labour.

legroes

)

at this

encouraging slavery by affording the Americans

little

li

Nay,

'i

There

is

and not on distant islands

our manufactures, we are ourselves virtually

manu-

s

soil,

?iJ'r8^;

malga-

t

had we had the negro population

very moment, by taking nearly the whole of the

ch are

gain

are,

the condition of the mother country.

—that

;y

now

which could be legislated for without affecting

arther

will

cans

on our own

slaves,

<,

we have been particeps criminis, and should

have been in as great a difficulty as the Ameri-

and

se

79



that

it

entirely

depends upon whether the abolition party can be held in check by the Federal Government.

That the Federal Government there can be

^m MB

is,

The

ment

is

will

do

Its

utmost

no doubt, but the Federal Govern-

not so powerful as

many

of the Societies

formed in America, and especially the AboUtion

SLAVERY.

80

Society, which every

The

day adds to

its

members.

of the North are certainly at

interests

variance with the measures of this society, yet still it

?r

!

The

gains strength.

last

proceedings in

Congress show that the Federal Government

aware of to

do

its

all

is

rapid extension, and are determined

in

its

power to suppress

it.

The

following are a portion of the resolutions which r

were passed

'1

last

year by an overwhelming ma-

jority.

The ment

first

is

resolution was,

" That the govern-

of limited powers, and that by the con-

stitution of the

jurisdiction

United States, Congress has no

whatever over the institution

of

slavery in the several States of the confederacy ;"

the last was as follows that

all

:

" Resolved,

therefore,

attempts on the part of Congress to

abolish slavery in the district of Columbia, or

the territories, or to prohibit the removal of the slaves

from State to State; or to discriminate

between the constitution of one portion of the confederacy and another, with the views afore-

Pi!



SLAVERY. said, are in violation

bers.

J

ciples

at

[y

on which the union of these States

way

laid

on the

table,

without printing, reading, debate, or reference.^'

ma-

Question put,

Yeas, 198

Dvern-

;

'*

Noes,

Shall the

resolutions pass ?"

Examiner.

6.

These resolutions are very firm and decided,

con-

but in England people have no idea of the

no

acy

any

or to any extent whatever to slavery as

any further action thereon, be

vhich

on

and

aforesaid, or the abolition thereof, shall without

The

las

;

position, or paper touching or relating in

nined

B

rest?,

that every petition, memorial, resolution, pro-

ent is

3

of the constitutional prin-

and beyond the jurisdiction of Congress

yet

igsin

cr

81

fanaticism displayed

of

and excitement created

in

these Societies, which are a peculiar feature in

;"

the States, and arising from the nature of their refore, "S

institutions. ess to ia,

or

of the

Their strength and perseverance

are such that they bear

down

all

before them,

and, regardless of all consequences, they

may

eventually control the government.

ninate

As )f

the will

to the question

which portion of the States

be the losers by a separation, I myself think

afore-

E 3

82

SLAVERY.

that

:

hl.

will

it

fer.

But

rity

when

be the Northern States which will sufas I always refer to I can, I

a portion of a

had

American autho-

better give the reader

letter written

by one of the Sou-

thern gentlemen on this subject.

In a

letter to

the editor of the National Gazette, Mr. Cooper, after referring to a point at issue with the abolitionists, not

"

I shall

ject once

given,

I

necessary to introduce here,

therefore briefly touch

more

may

;

and

if further

says—

upon the subprovocation

is

possibly enter into more details

hereafter; for the present I desire to hint at

some items of calculation of the value of the

Union "

1.

to the

North.

Mr. Rhett, in his bold and honest address

has stated that the expenditures of the Govern-

ment

for twenty years, ending 1836, have been

four hundred and twenty millions of dollars

of which one hundred and thirty were dedicated to the

payment of the national

debt.

Of

the

remainder, two hundred and ten millions were

expended in the Northern, and eighty millions

SLAVERY. suf-

in the

Southern States.

83

Suppose

this

Union

to

jtho

be severed, I rather guess the Government ex-

?ader

penditure of what

Souto

ter

is

now about

fifteen millions

a-year to the North, would be an item reluc-

No

tantly spared.

do with the

aboli-

ends' than our

"

ii.

know

better

cheese-parings and

>oper,

ays—

people

'

good friends

to

the candle-

to the North.

beg permission to address

I

what

New York

In the year 1836 our exports were

e sub-

especially.

tion is

one hundred and sixteen millions of dollars, and

details

our imports one hundred and forty millions.

lint

at

of the

is

not too

much

It

to as:ign seventy-five millions

of these imports to the State of

New York. The

South furnishes on an average two-*thirds of the ddress,

whole value of the ewporta.

rovern-

fore, to say, that two-thirds of the

ve

been

consumed

in the Soutli, that

It is fair, there-

is,

imports are

fifty millions.

ollars

The

dicated

chandize, added to the agency and factorage of

Of

the Southern products transmitted to

the

mercantile profit on fifty millions of mer-

ns were

them, will be at least twenty per cent.

Millions

New York

is

pay for

That

is.

gainer by the South, of at least

SLAVERY.

84

ten millions of dollars annually is

;

for the traffic

not likely to decrease after the present year.

No

wonder

*

her merchants are like princes

Sever the Union, and what becomes of them

"

The army,

3.

!'

?

the navy, the departments of

Government, are supported by a revenue obtaxation of Custom-

tained from the indirect

house

entries, the

most fraudulent and extrava-

Of

gant mode of taxation known.

South pays two-thirds. the system

"

4.

if

What

will

the South be driven

The banking

system

this the

become of

away

?

of the Northern

States is founded mainly on the traffic and custom

of the South.

Withdraw

that for one twelve-

month, and the whole banking system of the North tumbles

all

precipitate

Down dash'd.

I

Suppose even one State withdrawn from the

Union, would not the pecuniary intercourse with

Europe be paralyzed "

5.

at once

?

The South even now are

mers of

New England

the great consu-

manufactures.

We take

SLAVERY.

her cotton, her woollen goods, her boots and

aiHe fOAY. !'

ces

n? of

its

ob-

g

^^^^B

^^B

B H

>4l^^^^^B

stomtrava-

Much

North.

the South

;

\':Mm.

many other

*

notions' are sent

among

better the value of small gains

we

and

do.

What supports the

6.

ware comes to

advantage of that wise people,

small savings than

"

of

also of her iron

us, greatly to the

who know

the

me

form an item of upwards of

last

fourteen millions annually, manufactured at the

H • ''~'

These

shoes.

{''^W^^^^^m,

is

85

shipping of the North

but her commerce ; and of her commerce two-

*'^B rthem

Nor

thirds

is

Southern commerce.

merce

in

any manner or degree necessary to the

South

;

is

her com-

F*.>^RmiB

lustom

Europe manufactures what the South

•i

welve-

v.d|MH[

wants, and the South

raises

what Europe wants.

^^ral

Between Europe and the South there

North

cannot be any competition, for there

is is

not and

no com-

~l mercial or manufacturing, or territorial inter-

i

m

the

5e

with

ference to excite jealousies between them.

want not the North, North, carriers

if

We

can do without the

we separate to-morrow.

and purchasers of

We

all

We can find

we have

to sell,

censu-

and of re

all

we wish

take glance to the North.

M

to buy,

without casting one

;

SLAVERY.

86 " 'I

The North seems

7.

to

have a strange

The

nation to quarrel with England.

late

war

of 1812 to 1814 was a war for Northern claims

I ,

1

and Northern i.!i!

incli-

i

interests,

now we

are in jeopardy

from the unjust interference in favour of the

'I

patriots of

Canada

and a dispute

;

is

threatened

on account of the North-eastern boundary. The manufacturing and commercial interferences of the North with

Europe

always remain a

will

possible, if not a probable, source of disputes.

The North

raises

what Europe

mercially they need not each other

two of a wants

IS

trade,

— they

?

and

is

are

they raise not what each other

when

Does not the South, who

not interested in

pense

— they

are rivals and competitors

they go to war.

'<

com-

rfdses;

it,

is

pay most part of the ex-

not the war expenditure applied

Vi!:

to the benefit of the please, the

North

?

you

Sever, if

Union, and the North

will

have to

pay the whole expense of her own quarrels. "8. i5

Our system of domestic

servitude is a great

eye-sore to the fanatics of the North.

i ,

,i;

,

4!tJ'!I!

"•:iL Ul|

ik

are very

many wise and honest men in

But the

there

North

;

SLAVERY. [icli-

ay,

87

even in Massachusettes.

I

ask of these

war

gentlemen, does not at least one-third of the

aims

labour produce of every Southern slave ulti-

ardy

mately lodge in the purse of the North

the

South works for

tened

it

If the

works also

for the

Northern merchant, and views his prosperity

The

without grudging.

"9. Nor

ces of

is it

ain a

arises

putes.

and Southern

py are

other

when

from the expenditure of Southern

he ex3plied

travellers,

who spend

visitors

their

sum-

The quar-

relsome rudeness of Northern society

is

diminishing this source of expenditure

among

us.

Sever the Union, and

1:

is

a trifling article of gain that

mers and their money in the North.

com-

irho

itself

?

We can

gether.

as cheaply

and

go

to

we

relinquish

it

fast

alto-

London, Paris, or Rome,

as pleasantly as to Saratoga or

Niagara.

you

" Such are some of the advantages which the

lave to

North derives from a continuance of that Union

f

s.

which her fanatic population

A

is

so desirous to

whom

a great

sever.

t there

manity, mercy, oaths, contracts, and compacts.

^orth

population with

peace,

hu-

SLAVERY,

88

—whose

pass for nothing

promises and engage-

ments are as chaff before the wind

—to whom

bloodshed, robbery, assassination, and murder, are objects of placid contemplation

row creed of bigotry supercedes .1

— whose nar-

all

the obliga-

!

tions of morality,

all

commands of posi-

the

With such men what

tive law.

can be made?

who

and

The

valid

compact

appeal must be to those

think that a deliberate compact

is

mutually

binding on parties of any and every religious creed.

To

you not

resolutely to restore peace,

men

such

I appeal,

South confidence and repose

and ask ought

and give the

?

" I have now lived twenty years

in

and have had much intercourse with her

rolina,

prominent and leading men ; not a

them

is

ignorant

spects, the 'V.

South^Ca-

South.

is

this

But

that there

decidedly,

in most re-

South would gain by a severance

fron> the North,

tageous

how

man among

is

and how much more advan-

Union I

am

to the

deeply,

not one

man

North than firmly in

to the

persuaded

South Carolina

SLAVKHY. tliat

would move one step toward a separation,

on acccount of

tlie

superior advantages

North derives from the Union. is

89

No

tlie

Southern

actuated by these pecuniary feelings;

no

Southern begrudges the North her prosperity.

Enjoy your advantages, gentlemen of the North, and much good may they do ye, as they have

But

hitherto.

tion attacks

if these unconstitutional

upon

us,

in

utter defiance of the

national compact, are to be continued,

bid this Union should

aboli-

last

God

for-

another year,

the

"

I am,

sir,

your obedient servant,

"Thomas

Cooper.'*'

IMAGE EVALUATION TEST TARGET (MT-S)

G

1.0 " -"

"2.0

1.1

FhotogFaphic

Sdeices Corporation

23 WEST MAIN STRIET WEBSTER, N.Y. MSSO (716) S72-4S03

^

90

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

.n

In theory nothing appears more

rational

than that every one should worship the Deity



^form his

own

opi-

nion as to his attributes, and draw his

own

con-

according to his

own

ideas

An established

clusions as to hereafter.

church

appears to be a species of coercion, not that

you are obliged

to believe in, or follow that

of worship, but that,

if

you do

not,

form

you

lose

your jwrtion of certain advantages attending that form of religion which has been accepted

by

the majority and adopted

In

religion, to think for yourself wears the sem-

by the government.

blance of a luxury, and, like other luxuries, is

it

proportionably taxed.

And yet

it

would appear as if it never were in-

tended that the mass should think for themselves, as every thing goes

on so quietly when other

m

;

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

91

people think for them, and every thing goes so for themselves

wrong when they do think the

instance,

first

:

in

where a portion of people

think for the mass,

all

are of one opinion

whereas in the second, they divide and split tional

Deity n opi-

n con;hurch t

that

t

form

into so

many

globules of water like

them are

That the

and

and ex-

shown to an established

church creates some bitterness of feeling true, but, being established

ending

gitimate

?

cepted

portals,

and

nment.

of their

iries, it

heat,

in a state of restlessness

partiality

partiality

sem-

when expanded by

citement.

3u lose

le

molecules, that they resemble the

shown All if

own

by law,

is it

is

most

not the

for the legitimate over the ille-

who

choose

may

enter into its

people will remain out of doors

accord, ought they to complain

that they have

no house over their heads

?

They

certainly have a right to remain out of doors if

they please, but whether they are justified in vere in-

complaining

[iselves,

Perhaps the unreasonableness of the demands of

other

afterwards

is

another question.

RELIGIOX IN AMERICA.

1)2

the Dissenters in our

own country

brought home to them by effects

my

will

be better

pointing out the

of the Voluntary System in the United

States.

In America every one worships the Deity after his

own

fashion; not only the

worship, but even the Deity

mode of Some

itself, varies.

worship God, some Mammon ; some admit, some

m

deny, Christ

some deny both God and Christ

;

some are saved by living prophets only

;

some

go to heaven by water, while some dance

way upwards. are the sects

Numerous

much

as are the sects,

subdivided.

their still

Unitarians are

not in unity as to the portion of divinity they shall admit to

our Saviour

Baptists, as to the

;

precise quantity of water necessary to salvation

even the Quakers have

and

the

men of

;

split into controversy,

peace are at open war in Phila-

delphia, the city of brotherly love.

The

following

is

the table of the religious

denominations of the United States, from the

American Almanac of 1838

:

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

o o o O O n

c c

c o o O O 00

VS

•^

s

o o o^ O O CO

o o oM O O »r

o o o ^ O »C ^

o o c O O

ff^

93

o o o o. UJ O

o o o o o

««

«o t—

en

»

12

-<

ee tj

CO

*c

Q u H

s

-rr Qo'

E

»«

c

o o c.

eo I'. o I- o — oc •« ^ CO

^ of

o »o o o o O O ^
o o o o CO

o" o" oJ "fj «C

©1

«e (A
o o o o CO

o

.a

& (A • »-•

£5fMtroo:oo(no> :o ri — n
«>

aifrt
® 9 »o o

0^
1^

«



c

«» 'A

O H

c o

•4

o

& be

Q I

.<=

o >4

o

n

2

"O

• •

S a § g t*4 '•^

I

a.

g •»

a>

n: -a .S i:

11

&>-^

^"^ §

2 e

M

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

c o 3 a. o

1 H CO

o u H

o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o o
o

>o CM

o O X '*^ o '^ s o o o^ o^ o^ o o o^ o 5 O ^" O M 22 ^ «

55 O o O »o o o :r- S- ^ ?~ "» S S 22

(M

en

u c

<0

K a o be

f o o o n

^fS

:

s? CM CM ©1

CM

(M

QC

O »0

!>.



Tfi

«5

F-i

O C^l

50 ^-

"

CM

as

a o

K

Q ao

& O 1^

3 :

5

13

o a

O

n a

5»i:;;

^^

>

CO 00

«£>

o

»

o

O

-c

Tfi

a s

(A

o H

© o or o o o

irj

"^

O '^

-f

t*

i-cc ^^ z:

(M

O

RELIGION IN AMERICA. In

many

this list

For

into one.

divided

;

96

varieties of sects arc

blended

who

instance, the Baptists

who have been

also the Friends,

are

sepa-

rated into Orthodox and Hicksite, the Camelites, &c., &c.

But

detail of the

it is

not worth while to enter into a

numerous minor

add Deists, Atheists, &c. a species of creed.

It



sects,

for even

or

we might

no religion is

must be observed,

that, ac-

cording to this table, out of the whole population

of the United States, there are only 1,983,905, (with the exception of the Catholics,

Communicants,) that fessed

any creed

;

who

who have openly

is,

the numbers put

down

are

pro-

as the

population of the different creeds are wholly suppositious.

How

can

have not professed P

be otherwise, when people

it

It is

computed, that in the

census of 1840 the population of the States will

have increased to 18,000,000, so that said that only one-ninth portion

it

may be

have professed

and openly avowed themselves Christians. Religion may, as to

its

consequences, be consi-

dered under two heads ; as it affects the future wel-

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

96

when he

fare of the individual

the presence of the Deity, and as in general, itW

is

summoned

it affects

to

society

by acting upon the moral character

of the community.

Now, admitting the

right of

every individual to decide whether he will fol-

low the usual beaten track, or

select for himself

a bye-path for his journey upward,

acknowledged that the

it

must be

results of this free-will

a moral point of view, as far as society

are, in

is

concerned, anything but satisfactory. It

would appear as

too frail

and weak

venly journey

;

to

if

the majority were

go alone upon

much

their hea-

as if they required the support,

the assistance, the encouragement, the leaning

upon others who are journeying with them, to

The

enable them successfully to gain the goal. effects

of an established church are to cement

the mass, cement society and communities, increase the force of those natural ties families is

and

relations are

bound

and

by which

together.

There

an attraction of cohesion in an uniform

reli-

gious worship, acting favourably upon the mo-

m

RELIGION IN AMERICA. rals of the mass,

and

those already united.

tem

in

the voluntary sys-

has broken one of the strongest links

man and man,

as n nation, there

acted upon ing, and

;

for each goeth his

is

l)e-

own way:

no national feeling to be

in society, there is

you ask yourself what

often creates disunion

lies it

closely

America has produced the very opposite

effects: it

tween

more

bindiiiff still

Now,

97

:

I

something want-

it is ?

and

in fami-

know one among

many

others,

to the

same house of prayer, disperse as soon

who, instead of going together

as they arc out of the dcwr

Unitarian chapel,

»

no where.

one daughter to an

another to a

parents to the Episcopal or

:

;

But worse

the

the sons, any where, effects are

even these: where any one

i^-n

Baptist,

is

produced allowed to

have his own peculiar way of thinking, his own peculiar creed, there neither to

is

a watch, nor a right

watch over each other; there

is

no mutual com-

munication, no encouragement, no parental control

;

and the consequence

YOL.

III.

F

is,

that

by the majo-

UKLIGION IN AMERICA.

98

especially

rity,

the

young, religion

liecoines

wholly and utterly disregarded.

Another great

evil, arising

of the voluntary system,

is,

from the peculiarity

that in

many

of the

principal sects the power has been wrested from

by the laity, who exercise

the clergy and assumed

an inquisition most injurious to the cause of gion

;

and to such an excess of tyranny

power exercised, that !l,-

it

is

depends upon the

reli-

this

laity^

and not upon the clergy, whether any individual shall or shall

not be admitted as a

communi-

cant at the table of our Lord.* Referring to religious instruction, Mr. Carey in his

work attempts

to prove the great superiority

of religious instruction and church accommodation in

America, as compared with those matters

• jMiss ISIartincau existinjif state

birth ?

may

well inquire, "

How

does the

of religion uccord with the promise of

In a country which professes to every

pursuit of happiness in his

own way, what

is

man

the state

of his liberty in the most private and individual of

concerns ?"

|i:'T'

its

the

all

:

UEUGIOX in this country.

the

number of

lie

IX AMERICA.

draws his conclusions from

cliurcbes built

and provided

Like most others of

the population in each. conclusions, they are

99

drawn from

for

his

false premises

he might just as well argue u])on the number of horses in each country, from the

number of

horse-ponds he might happen to count in each.

In the

first

place, the size of the churches

must

be ccmsidered, and their ability to accommodate the population is

;

and on

greatly in favour of

this point, the question

England

;

for,

with the

exception of the cities and large towns, the

churches scattered about the hamlets and rising

towns are small even to ridicule, built of clapboards, and so light that,

if

on wheels, two pair

of English post-horses would trot them away, to meet the minister.

Mr. Carey

also finds fault with the sites of

our churches as being unfortunate in conse-

quence of the change of population.

some truth in

this

remark

:

There

is

but our churches

being built of brick and stone, cannot be so

F

9,

HFJIGION IN

100 eaMl)^

removed

;

and

AIM ERICA.

happens that the

it

the niujority of the American e(|ually unfortunate, not as in

bites

cliurches

our

of

are

from

case,

the population Iiaving left them, but from the

population not

may

You

having come to them.

pass in one day a dozen towns Imving not

above twenty or thirty private houses, although

you

will invariably find in each

an hotel, a bank,

and churches of two or three denominations, built as a speculation, either

ground

lots,

or by those

and as an inducement

The

churches, as

by

those

who hold

who have

to others to

Mr. Carey

may,

at other times, pass over

settled there,

come and

;

many

I

but

while you miles with-

out finding a place of worship for the population.

settle.

states, exist,

the congregations have not arrived

the

spare

have no hesitation in asserting,

not only that our 1^,000 churches and cathedrals will hold a larger

the 20,000 stated in

number of people than

by Mr. Carey

America, but that as

many

to

be erected

people, (taking

into consideration the difference of the popula-

RKLIGION IN AMKIIICA. tion,) gt> to

101

our 12,000, as to the '40,000 in the

United States. Neither

is



Mr. Carey

insinuate that the attention given

America

in

relij^ious

to

greater tlian with

us.

would

correct wlien he

It

by the

|K»o|>le

acconunodation is

true,

that

paying an average of

church built of brick or stone a

very different thing

dollars for a

from

more

Ame-

churches, such as they are, are built in rica; but

is

JOVrl^OOi) for a

in

England,

paying

is

12,000

clap-board and shingle affair in

America, and which compared with brick and mortar are there in

of ten to one.

And

those

the projwrtion

further, the comparative

value of church building in America

much lowered by

of

is

very

the circumstance that they are

compelled to multiply them, to provide for the

immense variety of creeds which voluntary system.

When

exist

people

nity are all of one creed, one church

but

if

in is

under the a connnusufficient

they are of different persuasions, they

must, as they do in America, divide the one



;

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

102

large church into four therefore, for

Mr. Carey

But, although I

.

ill

not

fair,

to count churches.*

will

not admit

the

con-

drawn from Mr. Carey's premises, nor

that, as

he would attempt to prove, the Ame-

ricans are

a more religious people than the

English, I

am

not only ready, but anxious to

justice to the really religious portion of its

inhabitants. is

\i

It is

clusions

do ni

little ones.

there

I believe that in

more

ters, zeal

shewn by

zeal

even to the

no other country its

various minis-

of

sacrifice

life

that no

;

country sends out more zealous missionaries

no country

that

has

diiFusion of the gospel

m:

more ;

for

societies

and that

in

no other

country in the world are larger sums scribed for

« "

We

the

know

furtherance of those

also that large

the

sub-

praise-

sums are expended

annually for the building of churches or places of worship,

each

which ;

and

in cities cost

in the country

from 10,000

to 100,000 dollars

from 500 to 5,000 dollars."

Voice from America, by an American Gentleman.

must be the lars ?]

size of a

[What

church which costs 500 dol-

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

103

worthy objects as in the Eastern America.

I

admit

and admit

all this,

be a

fact

of

States

with

it

I only re-

pleasure, for I kriow

it

gret to add, that in

no other country are such

to

:

strenuous exertions so incessantly required to torrent

stem the

of

atheism and

which so universally exists in

infidelity,

Indeed this

this.

very zeal, so ardent on the part of the ministers,

and

so aided

by the well-disposed of the

proves that what I have just

now

laity,

asserted

is,

unfortunately, but too true. It is not

my

intention to

nuniei'ous sects,

and the

comment upon the

varieties of

practised in the United States.

church

is

The

worship

Episcopal

small in proportion to the others,

can ascertain, although

as far as

I

crease its

members with the

tion, it is

not likely to

it

may

make any vigorous or

two churches most congenial and

institutions

in-

increase of popula-

successful stand against the other sects.

feelings

and

to the

are the

The

American

Presbyterian

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

104

They may,

and Congregationalists.*

indeed, in

opposition to the hierarchy of the Episcopal, be

considered as Republican churches

mitting that

many

its

with the State, I think

will

mitre, the seceders evils

;

and have,

and ad-

errors have crept into the

Established church from

rejecting its errors

;

it

too intimate union

be proved that, in

and the domination of the have

fallen into still greater

for the latter, substituted a

despotism to which every thing, even religion itself,

must in America succumb.

In a republic, or democracy, the people will rule in

every thing

:

in

the

church they rule as deacons terian as elders.

Congregational in the

Presby-

Affairs are litigated

and de-

;

cided in committees and councils, and thus the pastoral office deprived of legitimate influence, Wii'''m

its

is

primitive and

and the ministers are

ty-

rannized over by the laity, in the most absurd " The Congregationalists answer

to the

Indepen-

dents of England, and are sympathetically, and to a great extent, lineally descendants of the Puritans."— Voice from America^ p. 62.

IIELIGION IN AMERICA.

and most unjustifiable manner.

105

If the minister

does not submit to tbeir decisions, if he asserts his right as a minister to preach the

cording to his reading of dismissed.

he

is

ac-

arraigned and

In short, although sent for to

in-

he must consent to be

in-

struct the people,

structed

it,

word

by them or surrender up

Tlius do the ministers lose

all their

his

trust.

dignity and

become the slaves of the congregation, who give them

their choice, either to read the Scriptures

according to their reading, or to go and starve. I

was once canvassing

this question with

an

American, who pronounced that the laity were quite right,

and that

was the duty of the

it

minister to preach as his congregation wished.

His argument was chester

for

I expect

it

any to

this

article

:

—" If to

I send to

be

be made exactly

Man-

manufactured, after the pat-

tern given, if not,

I will not take

with the minister

he must find goods exactly

:

suited to his customers, or expect left

on

his

hands

!"

F 3

it

:

so

it

is

them to be

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

106

And

it really

would appear as

such were

if

the general opinion in the United States. Colton, an American minister,

Mr.

who turned rom

the Presbyterian to the Episcopal church, in his

" Reasons

for Episcopacy,''

makes the following

remarks ;* speaking of the deacons and elders of their churches, he says H.'i

" They may be honest and good men, and 'II

very pious

i\ :

but in most churches they are

;

1

men

I

of

intellectual

little

less they have,

i

more

the

bending are they

culture;

and

confident

and unIf a minis-

their opinions.

in

the

I i

ter travels

vision

new

in

an inch beyond the theology,

or

circle

startles

of their

them with a

idea in his interpretation of Scripture,

it is

not unlikely that their suspicions of his ortho-

doxy

will

out of the

be awakened.

common

If he does any thing

course, he

is

an innovator.

i

r^i

* I must request the reader's forbearance at the ex-

treme length of the quotations, but

making them.

opinion of an observant traveller rally be

1

cannot well avoid

Whatever weight my opinion,

much increased

if

may have,

supported, as

it

it

must natu-

always

opportunity offers, by American authority.

as the

is

when

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

from the multiplicity of his cares and engage-

If,

ments, he

is

now and

tlien

obliged to preach an

old sermon, or does not visit so

much

For

these

be expected, he

is

lazy.

other delinquencies, as adjudged ciates,

it

I

by these

He who

is

to

first

time and the

moment

asso-

*

I

I have

me

once,

was introduced

him, after I had preached one or two Sab-

baths in the place, and, as the

for

appointed to super-

a charge to give you,' said a deacon to

word he

first

adding,

knew

'

resist

said after

happened,

was

it

we shook hands,

be an important man, and the

church

there that

it

I often give charges to ministers.'

liim to

in the

;

but as

1

had nothing

I

first

at stake

depended on his favour, I could not

the temptation of replying to

of his consequential airs,* le

and

vise the flock, is himself supervised.

the

might

as

becomes their conscientious duty to

admonish him.

and

107

«

him

in view

You may use your

ex-

avoid *

as the

*•

The American

clergy are the most backward and

timid class in the society in t

natu-

s

when

which they

live; self-exiled

frum the great moral question of the time

;

the least in-

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

108 discretion,

can

tell

sir,

in this particular instance

you that

"It seems

tolje

but I

ministers are sometimes over-

However,

charged.'

;

I did not escape.

a principle in Presbyterian and

Congregational churches, that the minister must

be overlooked by the elders and deacons ; and

if

he does not quietly submit to their rule, his condition will be uncomfortable.

expect visitations from in his

duty

;

women

'He may

also

to instruct

him

at least, they will contrive to con-

vey to him their opinions.

It is said of Dr.

Bellamy, of Bethlehem, Connecticut,

who was

eminently a peace-maker, and was always sent for

by

the churches in the country around,

all

formed with true knowledge— the tuous action

least efficient in vir-

— the least conscious of that Christian

and

republican freedom which, as the native atmosphere of piety and holiness,

it is

their

diiFuse."

Miss Martineau.

contradict

it.

prime duty to cherish and

The American

1

quote this paragraph to

clergy are, in the mass,

equal, if not superior, to any in the world

:

they have to

struggle with difficulties almost insurmountable, (as I shall substantiate,)

tasks.

and worthily do they perform

their

109

RELIGION inamj:rica. or a great distance, to settle

tlieir difficulties,

that having just returned from one of these

errands,

and put up his

horse, another message

of the same kind came from another quarter

And

'

what

is

the matter

the messenger.

has



Has

'

'

'



said the

?**

Why,'

said he,

that's

enougli.

'

Doctor to

Deacon There never

is

a difficulty in a church, but some old deacon

is

at the

bottom of

it.'

" Unquestionably,

it is

proper, wise, and pru-

dent for every minister to watch and consult the

popular opinion around him, in relation to himself,

his preaching,

and

his conduct.

But,

if

a

minister is worthy to be the pastor of a people,

he

is also

worthy of some confidence, and ought

to receive deference.

he

may be

In his

helped, he

may

own proper work

be sustained, but he

cannot be instructed by his people general be instructed

by the

;

he cannot in

wisest of them.

Respectful and kind hints from competent persons he profit

may

receive,

by them.

and should court— he may

But,

if

he

is

a

man

fit

for his

no

RELIGION IN AMERICA. he should retain that honour that will

place,

leave

him

scope,

manly

to act a

never fulfil his

and inspire him with courage

A

part.

office,

and

Christian pastor can

attain its highest ends,

without lieing free to act

among

his people ac-

cording to the light of his conscience and his

To

best discretion.

rule over

him,

a man. The

is

have elders and deacons to

to be a slave



is

not to be

responsibilities, cares, burdens,

and

labours of the pastoral office are enough, with-

out being iinpeded and oppressed by such anxieties

as these.

land,

In the early history of

a non-conformist minister, from the old

country,

is

represented to have said, after a little

experience on

England

this side

to get rid of

of the water,

my

brethren and sisters let

me have

;

save

*

I

left

lords the bishops;

but here I find in their place

and

New Eng-

me

my

lords, the

from the

latter,

the former.'

" It has actually happened within a few years in

New

England, and

I believe in other parts of

the country, that there has been a system of lay

RELIGION IN AMERICA. visitation of the clergy for the

purpose of coun-

admonishing, and urging them

selling,

duty

their

Ill

a{)ostles,

up

to

and that these self-oommissioned

;

two and two, have gone from town to

town, and from district to district of the country,

making

inquisition at

the

mouth of common

rumour, and by such methods as might be convenient, into the conduct

and

men whom they never saw

fidelity

;

of clergy-

and, having ex-

hausted their means of information, have their

teges

way into ;

the closets of their adopted pro-

to advise, admonish, pray with,

them, according as they might need. fulfilled their office,

march,

*•

staff

and

their

for

Having

a straightforward

in

scrip,'*

their visitations, to enact the till

and

they have renewed their

Avay, to the next parish in the assigned

on

made

round of

same scene, and so

work was done.

" Of course, they were variously received though, for the most part, I believe they have been treated

civilly,

and

their title to this en-

terprize not openly disputed.

There has been

KELIGION IN AMERICA.

112

an unaccountable submission to

tilings of this

kind, proving indeed that

ministers thus

tlic

manly enough

visited were not quite

;

or that a

public opinion, authorizing these transactions,

had obtained too extensive a sway connection, and

among

By many,

sisted.

own

in their

their people, to be re-

doubtless,

it

was regarded as

one of the hopeful symptoms of this age of religious experiment. ,

.

"I

have heard of one reception of these lay

apostles,

I

One and

which may not be unworthy of record.

pair of them two,'



and thus

for they

far

went forth

*

two

were conformed to Scrip-

—both of them mechanics,

ture

and one a shoe-

maker, having abandoned their calling to en-

gage in

who was

this

We

came upon a

They began

have come to

stir

to talk with

you

the shoe business in your city

man for

it

subject

not well disposed to recognize their

commission. *

enterprize,

to the shoemaker,

up.' ?'



'

him

How

is

said the clergy-

who was

the speaker

was a city from which they came.

The

RKLIGION IN AMF:RICA. shooniaker looktd

to his errand

;

and stared

vacant,

question, as if he thoiitrht

113

it

the

at

not very pertinent

and, after a

pause, pro-

little

eeeded in the discharge of his office

We

*

:

have come to give your church a shaking.' *

Is llie

market for

Abashed

gyman.

slioes jjood

at this

To

*

Your

business

is at

the dialogue went on

clergyman

wliich the

a stand,

;

obliquity,

and again went

;

you have nothing

I suppose

said the cler-

ajiparent

the shoemaker paused again

on in like manner.

?'

I

sir,

presume

to do.'

And

so

the shoemaker confining

himself to his duty, and the clergyman talking only of shoes, in varied and constantly-shifting colloquy,

till

the perverse and wicked jiertina-

city of the latter discouraged the

the shoemaker and his

former ; and

brother took

up

their

to shake off the dust of their fett,'

hats,

'

turn

away

to a

clergyman bowed

more hopeful

them

very

doors, expressing his wish, that the shoe business

subject. civilly

and

The

out

of

as they departed,

might soon

revive.

Of



——

UELIGION IN AMEUICA.

114

course, these lay u))08tles, in this instance, wef^

horror-struck

and

;

it

cannot be supposed they

were much inclined to leave their blessing behind them.

"

I believe I

do not mistake

in expressing the

conviction that there arc hundreds, not to say

thousands, of the Presbyterian and Congregaclergy,

tional

thoroughly

who

in these strictures

ments of the

laity

who groan under

it

me

sympathize with

will

on the encroach-

upon pastoral prerogative; ;

who

feel

that

it

ought to

be rebuked and corrected, but despair of

and who know that

by

it



to

their usefulness is abridged

an amount that cannot be estimated.*

"The

Rev. Mr. Ucid mentions a very whimsical in-

stance of the ir)teitVience of the laity

way.

it;

He says,

in

every possible

that bein^ at church one Sabbath,

'

there

was one reverend old man, certainly a leader among^ them, who

literally,

r.s

tjjo

sermon, kept up u sort of

preacher went on with his

rcL-itation with

instance, the preacher continuin;:^ his

The

duty here inferred

Elde)\

God enable

Prmcher. aju^ainst

God

It

is,

to

us to do

him;

deny ourselves

it.

supposes that the carnal mind •

as, for

sermon

is

enmity





RELIGIOX

——

AMEinCA.

IN'

It can hardly be denied,

115

I think, that the pre-

valence of this spirit has greatly increased within

a few years, and l)ccome a great and alarming Elder. All, indeed, Lord,

Treacher,

The

it \^.

very revorso of what

God would

liave

us to bo

Eldrr. (iod Alini{;I)tv knows

Prcnclur,

upon

lis

to

How

it's tru**

houlJ call

nccoMs;iiv, tiipn, that (iod

renounce evcrythin<:—

Elder, (iod help us! Preai'htr, Is

Elder.

it

necessary >or

No — oh— no

Preacher, Have

me

to say

more?

!

not suid onoun^li?

I

Elder. Oh, yes, quite enoufj^h.

Preacher.

I

rejoice that (iod calls nic fo give

up every»

thinp:— Elder. V'es, Lord,

Preacher. Elder.

My

Preacher. Elder.

You must

M'ould let

give up

it all

go.

all

Yes—all.

Preacher. Elder.

I

My

Your

pride

pride.

Your envy— envy.

Preacher. Your covetousness Elder.

My

covetousness.

Your anger Yes my anger.

Preacher. Elder.



Preacher. Sinner, then, Eldei'.

How

awful

how awful

is

your condition!

I

Preacher,

!

RELIGION IN AiMERICA.

116 evil.

This increase

is

owing, no doubt, to the

influence

and new

religious

world by a certain

who have

practices introduced into the

other ministers

new ways, or

of ministers,

and taken upon them-

Jstely risen

rebuke and

selves to

class

set

down

as unfaithful all

who do not conform

sustain

them

to their

in their extravagant 15

1

career.*"

The

interference, I

may

say the tyranny, of

the laity over the ministers of these democratic hi

churches

is,

however, of

sequences to those

who

and repulsive duty.

It

more

still

serious con-

arduous

accept such is

a well-known fact

that there is a species of bronchitis^ or affection

of the lungs, peculiar to the ministers in the

United

States, arising

from

their excessive la-

bours in their vocation. I have already observed, that the zeal of the minister F)'euche7'.

What reason for

is

all to

even unto death

examine themselves.

Elder. Lord, help us to search our hearts

Preacher. Could you have more motives Elder.

word.

-m

Thank God.

Amen,"

:

?

Thank God

!

1

have done.

for his holy

m



RELIGIOM IN AMERICA.

Mr. Colton

the o})servatioiis of

out in

my

assertion

" There terian

117

fully bear

me

:

another serious evil in the Presby-

is

and Congregational denominations, which

has attained to the consequence of an active and

highly influential element in these communities. I refer to the excessive

demanded of the their health,

amount of labour that

clergy, which

and sending

is

undermining

is

scores to their graves

every year, long before they ought to go there* It

is

a

new

state of things,

it

must be acknow-

ledged, and might seem hopeful of good, that great labours

and high devotion to the duties

of the Christian ministry in our country will not only he tolerated, but are actually demanded

and imperatively exacted. a most grateful feature. culars

come

that the

now

At

first

it is

But, when the parti-

to be enquired into,

it

will be

found

mind and health-destroying exactions

so extensively

made on the

energies of the

American clergy, particularly on classes I

glance,

am now

these

two

considering, are attributable,

llELIGION IN AMERICA.

118

almost entirely, to an appetite for certain novelies,

which have been introduced within a few

years, adding greatly to the rial

amount of

labour, without augmenting

but rather detracting from

it.

ministe>

its efficiency,

Sermons and

meetings without end, and in almost endless variety,

proportionate resources,

He

demand

is

made on

the intellect,

and physical energies of the preacher.

must be as much more

exercises

interesting in his

and exhibitions as the increased mul-

tiplicity of public

pall

demanded; and a

are expected and

religious occasions tend to

on the appetite of

Protracted

hearers.

meetings from day to day, and often from week to week, are

making demands upon

which no human power can sustain these are dispensed with,

it is

;

ministers,

and, where

often necessary to

introduce something tantamount, in other forms, to satisfy the suggestions

and wishes of persons

so influential as to render

attempt to gratify them.

it

imprudent not to

In the soberest con-

gregations, throughout nearly all parts of the

119

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

'I

land, these importunate and (without unkind-

disposed to add) morbid minds are

ness, I

am

to be

found,—often

considerable numbers.

in

in order to maintain their

Almost everywhere,

satisfy the taste of the times, labours

ground and

'

are

demanded of ministers enough

nations It

is

to kill

as if Satan had

any

in these

man

come

in

,ik

two denomi-

a short period.

into the world in the

form of an angel of light, seeming to be urging

on a good work, but pushing destroy the labourers

by over

it

so hard as to

exaction.

ill

—the enfeebled, ruined premature deaths— the

" The wasting energies health

— the

frequent

failing of ministers in the Presbyterian

gregational

and Con-

connections from these causes

all

over the country, almost as soon as they have

begun be

to

seen,

interest

work



all

which

which everybody in this subject

is

too manifest not to

feels that takes

—are

principally,

any

and

with few exceptions, owing to the unnecessary exorbitant their

demands on

their intellectual powers,

moral and physical energies.

And

the

RELIGION I^ AMERICA.

120 worst of

we not only have no

it is,

indemnifica-

tion for this amazing,

immense sacrifice, by a

improvement of the

state

mind

public

is vitiated

:

real

of religion, but the

an unnatural appetite

for spurious excitements, all tending to fanati-

cism, and not a Hi

^

cism,

is

little

of

it

the essence of fanati-

created and nourished.

The

religion in the land are actually

ward.

a

It is

time, pains,

fever,

interests of

thrown back-

a disease which nothing but

and a change of system can

cure.

A

great body of the most talented, best educated,

most zealous, most pious, and purest Christian ministers in the country

others

—a body which in

—not

to disparage

all respects will

any

bear an

advantageous comparison with any of their class in the world,

become

is

threatened to be enervated, to

sickly, to

have their minds wasted, and

their lives sacrificed out of season, loss

to

the

public,

and with

real

by the very means which

prostrates them, even though

we should

leave

out of the reckoning the premature end to which they are brought. This spectacle, at this moment



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

121

before the eyes of the wide community, to

fill

the

enough

mind of an enlightened Christian with I have myself been

dismay.

is

thrown ten years

out of the stated use of the ministry by this very course, and may, therefore, be entitled to

and

feel

my

see

to speak

on the

subject.

And when

brethren fallen and falling around me,

like the slain in battle, the plains of literally

I

am

that It

I

our land

covered with these unfortunate victims,

constrained to express a most earnest desire,

some adequate remedy may be applied." is

no matter of surprise, then, that

the ministers at the

I

heard

camp meeting complain of

the excess of their labours, and the difficulty of

obtaining

young men

to enter

the church :*

who, indeed, unless actuated by a holy *

The Rev. Mr. Reid observes,

gregationalists, " as requested, all

When

I

zeal,

Con-

speakinj^ of the

rose to support his resolution,

were generously

attentive.

At the

close I

alluded emphatically to one fact in the report, which

was, that out of 4,500 churches there were 2,000 not only void of educated pastors, but void of pastors

;

and

I insisted that, literally, they ought not to sleep on such

a state of thingf ."

VOL.

III.

Reid and Mathcson's Tour,

G

I

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

122

would submit to such a life of degradation

man to

?

what

and education could submit

of intellect

be schooled by shoemakers and mechanics,

to live poor,

and

drop down dead

mercy of

at the

like the

tyrants,

and

jaded and over-laden

beast from excess of fatigue and exertion ? Let

me "

again quote the same author

It is these excessive, multitudinous,

long

protracted

religious

with the spirit that for

:

occasions,

and often together

them, which have been

is in

some years breaking up and breaking down It has been breaking

the clergy of this land.

them up.

It is

era has lately

commonly observed,

of the pastoral relation.

of those

now

new

come over the Christian congrega-

tions of our country in regard to the

i

that a

living

permanence

Time was in the memory

when the

settlement of a

minister was considered of course a settlement for

life.

But now,

as

everybody knows, this

state of things is entirely

broken up ; and

it is,

perhaps, true that, on an average, the clergy of li

;n

this country

do not remain more than

five years

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

And

same place.*

in the

it is

123

impossible they

They

the present state of things.

should, in

•1'

could not stand

gagements

;

it.

So numerous are

so full of anxiety

is

their en-

their condition s

in a fevered state of the public

them from

all directions

;

so



mind acting upon

consuming are

their

labours in the study and in public, pressed and

urged upon them by the demands of the time and, withal, so fickle has the popular

become under a system that

manding some new and

—some

sure

still

it

is

mind

1

for ever de-

more exciting mea-

new society—some new monthly

or

weekly meeting, which perhaps soon grows into

a

religious holiday

—some

special effort

running

through many days, sometimes lasting for weeks, calling for public labours of ministers, of the

most exciting kind throughout each day from * " I was sorry to find that, in this part of the State, the ministers are so frequently changing the scene of their pastoral labours. selves ject, I

;

but,

am

change."

The

fault

may sometimes be

from conversations

I

in

them-

have heard on the sub-

inclined to believe that the people are fond of

Rev. Mr, Reid.

c2

r

124

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

tlie earliest

hour of the morning to a

of night

;



for reasons

now

abundant, and

and

hour

late

facts of this kind, so

so obvious to the public that

they need only to be referred to to be seen and appreciated^

it is

impossible that ministers should

remain long in the same place.

Their mental

and physical energies become exhausted, and they are compelled to change ; is

not in the power of

tite for all

novelties

quarters

man

which

making

is

because

first,

it

to satisfy the appe-

continually and from

its insatiate

demands upon they

may

purchase a breathing time and a transient

relief

them

;

and next,

that,

if

possible,

from the overwhelming pressure of

their cares

and labours. " But,

alas

there

!

is

no

relief:

they are not

only broken up, but they find themselves

breaking down.

same demand over.

There is

Wherever they go,

for the

same scene

—there can be—no

there to

is

fast

the

be acted

stability in the

pastoral relation, in such a state of the public

mind ; and, what

is

still

more melancholy and

UELIGTON IN AMERICA. affecting, the pastors themselves

it— tliey cannot

live.

stantly fluctuating

surface of the

undermined

They

— their

are fast treading

cannot endure

are not only con-



^literally afloat

community

125

—but

on the wide

their health is

spirits are sinking

upon each

—and they

others' heels to the

m

grave, their only land of rest.

" Never,

since the days of the apostles,

was a

country blessed with so enlightened, pious, orthodox, faithful, willing clergy, as the United "J

States of

America

at this

moment

;

.

<

and never -.1

did a ministry, so worthy of trust, have so

little i

I

independence to act according to their conscience

and

best discretion.

They

>.



i

are literally the vict

tims of a spiritual tyranny that has started

and burst upon the world least,

in a

new form



at

with an extent of sway that has never been

known.

It is

.

an influence which comes up from

the lowest conditions of

life,

which

the most ignorant minds, and,

is

vested in

therefore,

more unbending and uncontrollable. influence

i

up

It

is

the

an

which has been fostered and blown

« 1

1

-)

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

126

into a wide-spread flame ministers,

by a

class of itinerating

who have suddenly

started

up and

overrun the land, decrying and denouncing

all

that have not yielded at once to their sway

by

and open

direct

efforts

;

shaking and destroying

public confidence in the settled and more per-

manent ministry, leaving old paths and striking out new ones, demolishing old systems and substituting others,

and disturbing and deranging

the v.hole order of society as

And

fore.

to this

it is

new

it

had existed be-

state of things, so

harassing, so destructive to health and

life,

that

the regular ministry of this country (the best qualified,

most pious, most

faithful,

and

in all

respects the most worthy Christian ministry that

the church has ever enjoyed in any age) are

made are

overwhelmned by

The Hi

They

the victims.

fact

is,

that

II

religion in their

churches;

cannot

resist it,

is litte

or

it."

there

most numerous and

it is all

they

excitement.

no healthy influential

Twenty or

thirty

years back the Methodists were considered as ex-

RE travagaiitly fnu-

T\ AMI'lfCA.

TflTON

tic,

127

bu the Congregationists and

Presbyterians in the United States have gone far a-head of them,

in

and the Methodist church

America has become to a degree Episcopal,

and softened down

perhaps,

into,

most

the

pure, most mild, and most simple of

the

all

creeds professed. I have said that in these two churches the

''A 1

religious feeling it

to be

more or

America

;

was that of excitement

the case in all religion in

less

for the

I believe

:

Americans are a people who

are prone to excitement, not only from their

climate but constitutionally, and

of their existence.

If

it

it is

were not

the caviare

so,

why

is it

necessary that revivals should be so continually called forth believe,

—a

species of stimulus,

to almost every sect

moted and practised

Let

it

and creed, pro-

in all their colleges,

sidered as most important results.

common, I

and

and con-

salutary in their

not be supposed that I

preciating that which

is to

am

de-

be understood by a

revival in the true sense of the

word ; not those

m

hkltgion in America.

128

revivals wliicli were formerly held for the henefit

of

and for the salvation of

all

my

raising

against the

voice

nany

:

I

am

modern system,

which has heen so universally substituted for the reality

;

such as has been so ful^y exposed

by Bishop Hopkins, of Vermont, and by Mr. Colton,

who

says

" Religious excitements, religion,

have

been a

called revivals of

prominent feature in

the history of this country from

;

and the agency of man has always had

more or in

less

to

do

their originatic

theory (for will

earliest

more particularly within a hundred

periods,

years

its

man

ii

always have h

ii,

in

their

management, or

or in both.

Formerly in

naturally a philosopher, s

and

theory for every event and

every fact), they were regarded as Pentecostal seasons, as showers

from heaven, with which

this

world below had nothing to do but to receive

and be refreshed by them as they came. whole community, or the great

A

majority of

them, absorbed in serious thoughts about eter-

RELIGIOX IX AMEPICA. inquiring the

nal thin«^s,

way

129

to heaven,

and

seeming intent on the attainment of that high

and glorious condition, presents a spectacle as solemn as

it is

interesting to contemplate. Such,

doubtless, has been the condition of

many com-

Ame-

munities in the early and later history of rican revivals; fruits

and

and

it

is

no

less true that

have been the turning of many to

the

God

his ways.

" The revivals of the present day are of a very

There are but two ways by

different nature.*

which the mind of •

man

can be brought to a pro-

Tlic American clergymen are supported in their opi-

nion on the present revivals and their consequences by

Doctors Reid and Matheson,who, otherwise favourable to them, observe, "These revival preachers have denounced pastors with

whom

they could not compare, as

*

dumb

dogs, hypocrites, and formalists, leading their people to hell.'

The consequences have been most

Churches have become the sport of and disorder.

Pastors have been

dearest connections. that, in

disastrous.

derision, distraction,

made unhappy

So extensive has been

in their

this evil

one presbytery of nineteen churches, there were

only three

who had

in 1832, of a

settled pastors

;

and

in

one synod,

hundred and three churches, only

two had pastors."

g3

fifty-



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

130

per sense of religion other

by

modern

tles

;

revivals

Hopkins ample

fear

and

—one

it

is

become

is

by

by the

and the

love,

latter only that

Bishop

at all effective.

says, very truly,

—" Have we any exand

in the preaching of Christ

his apos-

of the use of strong individual denunciation?"

Is there one sentence in the

word of

inspiration

to justify the attempt to excite the feelings of a

public assembly, until every restraint of order forgotten,

is

and confusion becomes

with the word of God."* revivals of the present

Mr. Colton

rica.

ling

identified

Yet such

are the

day as practised in Ame-

calls

them

— " Those

start-

and astounding shocks which are constantly

invented, artfully and habitually applied, under all

the

power of sympathy, and of a studied

and enthusiastic preachers is their

among

elocution, us.

great secret

The same



To

by a startle

large class of

and

to shock

their power."

author then proceeds

:

* " The Primitive Church Compared, &c." by the Bishop of Vermont*

m RELIGION IN AMERICA. a Religion

is

That

is,

itself.

131

a dread and awful theme in as all

must concede, there are

To

revealed truths belonging to the category.

invest these truths with terrors that do not be-

long to them, by bringing them out in distorted shapes and unnatural forms ; to surprise a tender and unfortified

without

mind by one of awful import,

exhibiting

the

corresponding

which Christianity has provided shock, and paralyze the

and

;

mind with

to frighten, alternations

scenes of horror, carefully concealing the

ground of encouragement and hope, is

relief

shaken and hurled from

till

reason •'!'

its

throne, for the

sake of gaining a convert, and in making a convert to

make a maniac

occurs undeir this

have the proof of sibility.

girl

(as doubtless sometimes

mode of

it),

preaching, for

we

involves a fearful respon-

I have just heard of an interesting

ith

thus driven to distraction, in the city of

New York,

at the tender age of fourteen,

being approached by the preacher after a

mon

i

by ser«

of this kind, with a secretary by his side

1

.

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

132

down

with a book and pen in his hand to take the names r

I

tation,

and answers of those who, by

for

Having

remained to be conversed with.

taken her name, the preacher asked,

God

or the

devil.'*'

invi-

'

Are you

Being overcome, her

1:1

head depressed, and in r

tears, she

made no

reply.

<

'

Put her down,

then, in the devil's

the preacher to his secretary. tlie

poor girl became insane

plicity

;

book

From

!'

said

that time

and, in her sim-

and innocence, has been accustomed

to tell

the story of her misfortunes."

And

yet these revivals are looked

up

to

supported as the strong arm of religion. It

is

and not

only the ignorant or the foolish, but the enlight-

ened and the educated also,

who

support and

encourage them, either from a consideration of their utility, or

from that

fear, so universal in

the United States, of expressing an opinion contrary to the majority.

How otherwise could they

be introduced once or twice a year into colleges

—the

professors of

all

the

which are surely

most of them men of education and strong mind.^

RELIGION IN AMERICA. Yet such

is

the fact.

It

is

133

announced that

some minister, peculiarly gifted

work

to

in :

revivals, is to

come on a

thrown on one

side,

study

is

I.-

Books are

certain day.

abandoned, and

ten days perhaps are spent in religious exercises

of the most violent and exciting character. It scene of strangeconfusion, some praying,

tending to pray, some scoffing.

is

a

some pre-

Day after day is it

carried on, until the excitement is at its height, as the exhortations

and the denunciations of the

A

preacher are poured into their ears.

American who was gave

me

at

young

'1 ..

one of the colleges, and

a full detail of what had occurred, told

me that on one occasion a poor lad, frightened out of his senses, and anxious to pray, as the ven-

geance and wrath of the Almighty was poured out by the minister, sunk

and commenced

his

and diabolical God

!"

down upon

his knees

prayer with " Almighty

No

misnomer,

if

what the

preacher had thundered out was the truth.

As

an example of the interference of the

laity,

and of the description of people who may be so

:*1

in

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

134

authorized, the same gentleman told

me

that at

one revival a deacon said to him previous to the meeting, "

Now, Mr.

,

if

you don't take

advantage of this here revival and lay up a

that

your

salvation for

little

you ought

to

soul, all I

can say

is,

have your (something) con-

foundedly well kicked."

What

I have already said on

this subject

in^Ti

will, I think, establish

two points,

first,

that the

voluntary system does not work well for society

and secondly, that the ministers of the churches are treated with such tyranny and contumely, as to warrant the assertion, that in a country, like the h<:

United

States,

where a

man may, in any

other profession, become independent in a few years, the

number of those who

enter into the

ministry must decrease at the very time that i;

:l;

the population and

demand

for

them

will in-

crease.

We

have now another question to be ex-

amined, and a very important one, which

Are

those

who worship under

is

the voluntary

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

135

i

m

system supplied at a cheaper rate than those of the established churches in this kingdom I say this is

is

?

an important question, as there

no doubt that one of the principal causes

of dissenting has been the taxes upon religion in this country,

and the wish,

if it

no occasion

to any particular sect, as the system

the same with them

all,

und

is

.P\M

In entering

able of worshipping at free cost. into this question, there is

were attain-

to refer is

much

nearly as follows :t;

Some pious and certain persuasion,

f!]

well aisposed people of a

we

will say,

imagine that

M another church might, if filled is

with those of their

it

were built, be well

own

sect

;

and

that, if

not built, the consequences will be that

of their

own

persuasion will, from the habit of

attending other churches, depart tenets

many

from those

which they are anxious should not only

M

who have embraced them,

'M4

be retained by those

but as much as possible promulgated, so as to gather

strength

and make converts



for

it

should be borne in mind that the sectarian

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

136

spirit is one great

cause of the rapid church-build-

One

ing in America.* Apollos.

They

meet, and become the future

deacons and elders, in

lators,

least

whom

they agree to build a

church at their own risque

n

to

all probability,

bow ;

the minister has to If

of Paul, another of

is

:

they are not specu-

but religious people, who have not the

wish to

make money, but who are prepared,

if necessary, to lose

it.

Say then that a handsome church ferring to the cities) of brick or stone,

am

(I

re-

is

raised in

a certain quarter of the city, and that

it costs

75,000

When

dollars.

and the pews are

the interior

all built,

cost of the church

complete,

is

they divide the whole

upon the pews, more or

less

value being put upon them according to their situations.

Allowing that there are two hundred

pews, the one hundred

valued at

five

hundred

most

eligible

dollars each,

being

and the

other one hundred inferior at two hundred and * Churches are also built upon speculation, as they

sometimts are in England.

I

RELIGION IN AMKRICA. fifty dollars

dollars, the

;

137

would pay the 7-5,000

these prices

whole expense of the church building.

The pews

are then put

up

to auction

some

;

of the most eligible will fetch higher prices than the valuation, while some are sold below the valuation.

If

all

are not sold, the residue re-

mains upon the hands of the parties who built the church, and

who may

They have however,

pocket.

m

for a time be out of

to aid them, the

extra price paid for the best pews, and the sale 'f: •

'45

of the vaults for burial in the church-yard.

Most of

the pews being sold, the church

partly paid for.

The

minister, and, after

next point

due

trial,

one

is is

is

to select a

chosen.

If

he be a man of eloquence and talent, and his doctrines acceptable to the

many, the church

the reijiainder of the pews are sold,

and

fills,

so far

m ;

the expenses of building the church are de-

frayed

;

but they have

still

to

pay the salary of

the minister, the heating and lighting of the

church, the organist, and the vocalists

:

this is

done by an assessment upon the pews, each pew

)

i

RELIGION IN A:MERICA.

138

being assessed according to the sum which fetched I

when

will

sold

now

by

it

auction.

give the exact expenses of an

American gentleman

in Boston,

who has

his

pew

|i!:

in one of the largest churches.

He

purchased his pew at auction for seven

hundred and

fifty dollars, it

being one of the best

The salaries

of the most popular

iM'i

in the church.

ministers vary from fifteen hundred to three or

The

four thousand dollars.

about

five

hundred

;

organist receives

the vocalists from two to

three hundred dollars each.

To

meet his share

of these and the other expenses, the assessment

of this gentleman

annum. and

Now,

is

sixty-three

dollars

per

the interest of seven hundred

fifty dollars in

America

and the assessment being

is forty-five dollars,

sixty-three

—one hun-

dred and eight dollars per annum, or twenty-

two pounds

ten shillings sterling for his yearly

expenses under the voluntary system.

This, of

course, does not include the offerings of the plate, charity sermons, &c., all of

which are to

ri:ligio\ in America.

139

be added, and which will swell the sum, according to

my

friend's statement,

to about

thirty

!

'.T

pounds per annum.* appear by the above calculations

It does not

'd'M

that the voluntary

recommend

it,

when people worship

able manner, as

fann of

has cheapness

system

you might

hire

in a respect-

a house and

that State for the

fifty acres in

to

same

rent which this gentleman pays for going to

church; it is

go

it

must

be recollected that

church need not pay at

was

A

who do

'hin

not

all.

not, however, until late years that

such was the case. * "

also

quite optional, and that those

to It

but

In Massachusetts, and in

great evil of our

American churches

great respectability or exclusiveness.

large size and paid by Government, the church to all the citizens, with

of accommodation.

is,

their

Here, being of a is

open

an equal right and equal chance

In ours, the dearness of pew-rent,

especially in Episcopal and Presbyterian, turns poverty

out of doors. I

know many

Heaven

Poor people have a sense of shame, and a one, who, because he cannot go to

decently, will not go at all."

hy an American Gentleman.

Sketches of Paris

Ih

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

140

most of the Eastern States, the system was not voluntary, and

ascribed the superior morality religion

stiil

and reverence

for

although decaying, in

existing,

By

these States.

may be

to this cause that

it is

former enactments in Massa-

com-

chusetts, landowners in the country were

pelled to contribute to the support of the church.

Pews

in cities or

towns are mentioned

deeds and wills as personal property

;

in all

but in

the country, before the late Act, they were con« sidered as real estate.

A

pew was

allotted to each farm,

ther the proprietor occupied

obliged to

pay

for

it

;

it

and whe-

or not, he was

but by an Act of the

Massachusetts^ State regulation, passed within these few years,

it

was decided that no

man

should be compelled to pay for religion.

The

consequence has

now

refuse to

pay

been,

that the farmers

for their pews, the churches are

empty, and a porti on of the clergy have been reduced to the greatest ranter,

who

distress.

will preach in

the

An open

itinerant air,

and

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

141

send his hat round for cents, suits the fanner

much better, as it is much cheaper. does not argue

vancement of

much

religion,

s

Certainly this

the progressive ad-

for

even in the moral State

of Massachusetts.

In other points the cause of morality has,

till

been upheld in these Eastern States.

It

was but the other day that a man was

dis-

lately,

charged from prison, for

disseminating

who had

atheistical

been confined doctrines.

It

was, however, said at the time, that that was the last attempt that would ever be authorities to imprison a

science

;

and

man

I believe that

The Boston Advocate

•"'I

made by

a

the

for liberty of con-

such will be the case.

—" Abner

says

Knee-

land came out of prison yesterday, where he has

been for sixty days, under the barbarous and bigoted law of Massachusetts, which imprisons

men

for freedom of opinions.

As was

to have

been expected, Kneeland's liberation was made

a

sort of triumph.

About

three

hundred per-

sons assembled, and were addressed

by him

at

€,

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

142 the

ami

jail,

During

barouche.

tS

conveyed home in a

his persecution

sums of money have been

liberal I

he was

How much

prison,

in

sent to him.

by

has Christianity gained

this foul

blot on the escutcheon of Massachusetts?'*' It

is,

however, worthy of remark, that those

States that have enforced religion

and morality,

and have punished

are

infidelity,*

most virtuous, the most intellectual,

and

authors, like

refined,

by American

Mr. Carey, who by

of

the help

Massachusetts alone can bring out his

mark

the

and the most

are quoted as such

to anything near the

now

statistics

requisite to support

his theories. It is

my

opinion that the voluntary system

will never

work well under any form of govern-

ment, and

still less

so under a democracy.

* Miss Martineau complains of this as contrary to the "\

unalienable rights of

man

:

—" Instead

of this

laws framed against speculative atheists m

;

we

find

opprobrium

directed against sufh as embrace natural religion other-

wise than through Christianity, and a yet more bitter

who view Christianity who regard it in another."

oppression exercised by those

one way

over those

in

RELIGION IN AMERICA. Those who

live

143

under a democracy have but

one pursuit, but one object to gain, which

is 1

No

wealth.

To

one can serve

suppose that a

God and Mamtnon.

man who

ardent pursuit of wealth, as six

days in the week, can

has been in such

is

the American for

recall his attention

and

thoughts to serious points on the seventh,

absurd

;

you might as well expect him to

is

for-

get his tobacco on Sunday.

Under a democracy, for religion

among

men, and such United

"

It's

States.

only

is

therefore,

the women, not

As Sam

women who

time.'''

among

the

found to be the case in the Slick very truly says,

attend meeting ; the

folks have their politics

and havn't

you must look

men

and trade to talk over

Even an

would not make people as

established church religious

democratic form of government as

under a

would

it

under any other.* * Mrs. Trollope observes,

"

A stranger

taking up his

residence in any city in America must think the natives the most religious people upon earth." true will

;

This

the outward observances are very strict

be better comprehended when the

;

is

very

why

so

reader has

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

144 have

I

defamation

flourisli

from the

who judge

and

slander

Now,

under a democracy.

this voluntary system,

the laity,

how

to point out

yet

intcrfeic^.c^

of

not only the minister, but

the congregation, gives what appears to be a legitimate sanction to this tyrannical surveillance

over the conduct and behaviour of others. J''

really believe that the majority of

to church in

America do

wards God, but from fear of

and

persuasions,

is

the

their neighbours

the cause of thousands turning

to other sects

to scrutiny.

'U

to-

very tyranny in the more established

this

away

men who go

from zeal

so not

I

most

The

which are not subjected

Unitarian

convenient,

and

is

in this point

is

therefore

fast

'.

gaining ground.

Mr. Colton observes, " No-

thing can be more clear, than that scripture authority against meddling, tattling, slander, scandal, or in finished

my remarks

Mammon we can

any way interfering with the upon the

counti-y.

The

practise without being arraigned for

world, and at the same time go through the religion,

author of

very truly observes, that the only vice which

is

covetoumess.

ii

in this

forms of

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

145

private concerns, conduct, and character of our

neighbours,

except as

or

civil

ecclesiastical

authority has clothed us with legitimate powers, is specific,

abundant, decided, emphatic.

founded in human nature ; peace of society

;

it is

is

essential to the

a departure from

ruinous to social comfort.

It

it

would be

If therefore

it

is

proper to introduce any rule on this point into

a mutual church covenant,

seems to

it

the converse of that which

is

we have

seen,

that

usually found in

Even the

tiat place ought to be substituted. apostles, as

me

found

it

necessary to

rebuke the disposition prevalent in their time to

meddle with the

affairs,

and

to

into the conduct of others.

make

But

it

inquisition

should be

recollected, that the condition of Christians

and

the state of society then were widely different

from the same things with a new religion, and obnoxious.

its

us.

Christianity

was

disciples were generally

They were compelled by

their cir-

cumstances to associate most intimately

;

they

were bound together by those sympathies and VOL.

iir.

H

^.J

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

146 ties,

which a persecuted and suffering

always

Hence

feel,

class

independent of Christian affection.

in part

we account

for the holy

and ex-

emplary ardour of their attachments to their religion

and to each

circumstances,

other.

and

But even

under these

in these

especial

in-

timacies, or rather, perhaps, on account of them,

the apostles found

it

necessary

to

admonish

them against the abuse of that confidence so generally felt and recipocrated confessed Christ in those

by those who

unhappy times; an

abuse so naturally developed in the form of

meddling and private

inquisition.""

I quote the above passage, as, in the

United

States, the variety of sects, the continual splitting

and breaking up of those

sects,

sional violent altercations,

have

and their occaall

proved most

injurious to society, and to the cau^e of religion itself.

Indeed religion in the States may be

said to have been a source of continual discord

and the unhinging of society, instead of that peace

and good-will inculcated by our divine Legis.

It

lator.

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

147

the division of the

Protestant

is

church which has occasioned

weakness in this

its

country, and will probably eventually occasion, if

not

its total

subversion, at all events

its

sub-

version in the western hemisphere* of America. i-i

The

of

subjugation

the

ministry

tyranny of their congregations serious evil

;

for either they

is

another most

must surrender up

their consciences or their bread.

In too many

the same here in religion as in

instances

it is

politics

before the people will permit

:

to serve them in any office, he his unfitness

to the

by submitting

to

must

any one

first

1^.

prove

what no man of

honesty or conscientious rectitude would sub-

This must of course in both cases be

scribe to.

taken with exceptions, but fact. is,

And

it is

but too often the

hence has arisen another

evil,

which

that there are hundreds of self-constituted

ministers,

who wander

using the word of

upon the

over the western country,

God

feelings of the

and rendering

religion

as a cloak,

women

working

to obtain

5-

money,

a by-word among the

,1

>,

H 2 it.

**

^

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

148

men, who

up and

will in all probability

linch

some day

rise

some dozen of them, as a hint for

the rest to clear out, '

It

delity

would appear as

if

Locofoco-ism and

infi-

had formed an union, and were fighting

under the same banner. They have recently

cele*

11

brated the birth-day of Tom Paine,in Cincinnati,

New York, and Boston. Wright Darusmont,

In Cincinnati, Frances

better

known

as

Fanny

Wright, was present, and made a violent tico-atheistical speech

poll-

on the occasion, in which

she denounced banking, and almost every other established institution of the

The

country.

nature of the celebration in Boston will be understood from the following toast given on the occasion.

By George Chapman

:

—" Christianity

and

May

the hanks tottering on their last legs. their downfall be speedy," &c. &c.

Miss

Martineau

informs

us

that

<<

The

churches of Boston, and even the other public buildings, being

guarded by the dragon of

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

149

Hope, and Charity

bigotry, so that even Faith,

are turned back from the doors, a large building is

about to be erected for the use of all. Deists not

excepted, whomay desire tomeetfor free discussion.

She adds, " This at least in

a few pages further

is

an advance /" And

—" The eagerness

:

in pur-

suit of speculative truth is

shewn by the rapid

sale ofevery heretical work.

The clergy complain

of the enormous spread of bold books, from the infidel tract to the latest handling of the

miracle question, as sorrowfully as liberal

members of

society lament the unlimited

circulation of the false morals issued

Both

Religious Tract Societies. interest taken

love of truth

by the public is

also

stated the

far

of

testify to the

in religion.

The

most obvious objections to

my opinions are

can authorities.

certain

!"

the voluntary system, I shall

how

by

shewn by the outbreak of

heresy in all directions

Having

the most

The

now proceed

to

show

^^f

corroborated by Ameri-

author of "

America " observes very

A Voice from

truly, tliat the volun*

tary system of supporting religion in

America

r

-in-

'''



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

150 is

inadequate to the purpose, and he closes his

argument with the following observation

"

How

:

far that part of the system of sup-

porting religion in America, which appeals to the pride and public spirit of the citizens, in erecting

and maintaining

on a respectable footing, villages,

and among

manner operating

religious institutions

and

in towns, cities,

rival

sects

— and

in this

as a species of constraint



is

worthy to be c&lled voluntary, we pretend not to

But

say.

greatest

sum

that

is

comprehends by raised

All the

these objects.

comparison.

this

And

yet

and appropriated

rest is a it is

the

far

to

mere fraction in

allowed, and

made

a topic of grievous lamentation, that the

reli-

gious wants of the country are most inadequately supplied to be the

and such, indeed, we

believe

fact.*"

The next "

;

that the

point referred to by this author

American system of supporting

is,

reli-

gion has brought about great instability in the religious world, change.''

and induced a ruinous habit of



RELIGION IN AMERICA. This

aris.es

tion, for

151

from the caprice of the congrega-

Americans are naturally capricious and

fond of change whether it be concerning a singer, :

or an actor, or a clergyman,

the same thing.

it is

"There

This American author observes,

are

few clergymen that can support their early popularity for a considerable time as

it

declines, they

must begin

and as soon

;

to think of pro-

migrate

— and

for the

term of time, they are

same reason, liable to

13^

They go

viding elsewhere for themselves.

in

an equal

4s

be forced to mi-

i grate again.

And

thus there

no

is

stability,

but everlasting change, in the condition of the

American change



clergy.

all is

They change,

a round of change

the people

—because The

depends on the voluntary principle.

America

rical profession in

of a soldier; fighting,

is,

all

cle-

indeed, like that

:j||j

always under arms, frequently

and always ready

for a

new campaign

—a truly militant state. A Clergyman!s Guide would be of little

use, so far as the object

be to direct where to find him year where he was

last."

And,

:

he

as

is

might

not this

must be the

IV ^

f

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

162

consequence, he justly observes, " Such a system

makes the clergy

servile,

and the people tyran-

" When the enmity of a

nical."

is sufficient

single individual

to destroy a resident pastor's peace,

and to break him up, how can he be otherwise than

servile, if

whom

perpetual change

astrous

ever

he has a family about

?

There

is

not a

man

if

pack up. his

man

in his flock, influence,

how-

whom

he happens to displease

of importance, or a busy woman, there

an end to his peace

is

inconvenient and dis-

mean and unworthy of

he does not fear ; and a

is

liim, to

;

and he may begin to

This perpetual bondage breaks down

mind, subdues his courage, and makes a

timid nervous

woman

and who ought

to be, a

of one

who

man.

He

is

entitled,

drags out a

miserable existence, and dies a miserable slave.

There are exceptions

to this rule,

it

is

true;

because there are clergymen with talent enough to rise above these disadvantages, enforce reti

b.

spect,

and maintain

their standing, in spite of

enemies."

But there is another very strong objection, and

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

163

most important one, to the voluntary system, which 1 have delayed to bring forward that there

is,

is

no provision for

;

which

the poor in the

American voluntary church system. Thus only those

who

are rich

can obtain

At

it.

and able to present,

it

afford religion

is

true that the

majority of the people in America have means sufficient to

pay

for seats in churches, if they

choose to expend the

money

;

but as America

increases her population, so will she increase the

number of her poor; and what consequence hereafter, tinue

The

?

9

evil

am now

author I

" At

observes,

if this

will

be the

is

to con-

quoting from

best the poor are unprovided

for, and the talents of the clergy are always

in the market to the highest bidder.*

There

have been many attempts to remedy this •

rh

This

is

true.

When

I

was

most popular preachers quitted

go

to

salary

New York, ;

in the States

his

evil,

one of the

church at Boston to

where he was oiFered an increase of

telling his parishioners

" that he found he would

be more useful elsetvhere"-^the very language used by the

Laity to the clergyman

when

they dismiss him,

h3

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

154 in

the dense population

up a

still

But they

free to all.

;

called

is

;

first,

made by

this

free

author are

that the voluntary syssects with-

and next, that the voluntary system

a mendicant system, and involves one of the

worst features of the church of is,

<

pews are not rented, but

tem tends to the multiplication of out end

setting

are uniformly failures."

other remarks

equally correct

by

cities,

more voluntary system,

churches,' in which the

Two

of

that

frauds.

it

tends to the production of pious

But

At

must

I have already, in support of

quoted so

arguments, that I

Rome, which

much from

refer the reader to the

present, Massachusetts,

this

work

my

book

itself.

and the smaller

Eastern States, are the strong-hold of religion

and morality

;

as

you proceed from them

farther

south or west, so does the influence of the clergy decrease, until

it is

totally lost in the wild States

of Missouri and Arkansas.

With

the exception

of certain cases to be found in Western Virginia,

Kentucky, and Ohio, the whole of the States to

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

155

the westward of the Alleghany Mountains, com-

more than two-thirds of America, may

prising

be said to be either

a state of neglect and

in

daricness, or professing the Catholic religion.

Althougli Virginia there

is

more

is

a slave State,

religion there than in

more northern

free States

;

but

it

think

I

some of the

must be

recol-

lected, that Virginia has lieen long settled,

the uon-predial state of the slaves

tended with demoralizing effects

is

and

not at-

and I may here

;

observe that the black population of America

is

decidedly the most religious, and sets an example to the white, particularly in the free States.* •

Mr. Reid,

to a

"

in his

Tour, describes a

visit

which he paid

black church in Kentucky

:~

By

no coloured persons are

the law of the State,

permitted to assemble for worship, unless a white person

be present and preside. " *

One

of the black preachers, addressing

me

as their

strange master,' begged that I would take charge of

the service.

I declined doing so.

Shew

Watts' beautiful psalm, forgive.'

They all

rose immediately.

for they could not read

memory, and they sung

;

it

but

it

He

gave out Dr.

Lord They had no books,

pity.

Lord, oh

!

was printed on

off with

their

freedom and feeling.

" The

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

166 It

may be fairly inquired, can this be true? Not

fifty

years back, at the time of the Declaration

.

of Independence, was not the American com-

munity one of the most virtuous

Such was indeed the

in existence ?

case, as it is

now

equally

certain that they are one of the most demoralized.

The

question

then,

is,

what can have

created such a change in the short period of fifty

years

?

The

only reply that can be given,

that as

is,

the Americans, in their eagerness to possess

new

" Tbe senior black, who was a preacher among them, then offered prayer and preached

;

his prayer

was hum-

In one portion, he made an

ble and devotional. ing' allusion to their

wrongs.

good man, with a broken

*

voice,

Thou knowest,' *

our

state

affect-

said the

— that

it is

the

meanest*—that we are as mean and low as man can be.



But we have sinned we have forfeited all our rights to THEE, and we would submit before T%e€, to these marks of thy displeasure."

Mr. Reid subsequently

asserts, that the

vered by the black was an

''

sermon

deli-

earnest and efficient ap-

peal ;" and, afterwards, hearing a sermon on the same

day from a white preacher, he observes that 'H'ertfsotry qfair,^* in contrast with

witnessed.

it

was a

what he had before

R£LIGION IN AMERICA. away

lands, pushed

157

into the west, so did they

leave civilization behind, and return to igno-

rance and barbarism lation,

;

they scattered their popu-

and the word of

God was not

.i

A

,

4

to be heard

in the wilderness.

That

as she increased her slave States, so did

she give employment, land, and power to those

who were

And

human or divine.

indifferent to all law,

formation of the Union, the

as, since the

people have yearly gained advantages over the

Government

until they

now

control

it^

so have

they controlled and fettered Religion until

it

pro\i

duces no good

Add

fruits.

to this

the demoralizing effects of

democracy which turns the thoughts of

Mammon, rapid

and

fall is

But,

it

will

all

be acknowledged that

a to

this

not so very surprising.

if the Protestant

cause

is

growing weaker

every day from disunion and indifference, there is


I

refer to the Catholic church,

is

as rapidly gaining strength

which

;

is silently,

k

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

158

but surely advancing.* west, where, in tholics, or

some

Its great field is in the

States, almost all are

from neglect and ignorance altogether

The

indifferent as to religion.

are diligent, and

Catholic priests

make a large number of converts

every year, and the Catholic population to

by

the

is

added

number of Irish and German emigrants-

West, who are almost

to the

Ca-

of them of the

all

Catholic persuasion.

Mr. Tocqueville says I think that the Catholic religion has erro-

*<

neously been looked upon as the natural enemy

Among

of democracy.

* Although

it is

the

various

is

now

of

first

Roman

in the

United

not forty years since the

Catholic see was created, there

sects

States a Catholic population of 800,000 souls under the

government of the Pope, an Archbishop, 12 Bishops,

i

and 433 priests.

The number

houses, about 300; colleges,

men, 9 suits,

31

;

;

of churches 1

;

is

401

;

mass

seminaries for young

theological seminaries, 5

;

noviciates for Je<

monasteries, and converts,with academics attached,

seminaries for young ladies, 30

Sisters of Charity,

29

;

;

schools of

the

an academy for coloured girls at

Baltimore ; a female infant school, and 7 Catholic newspapers.

!*d.i

RELIGION IN AMFRICA.

15^

Christians, Catholicism seems to me,

on the con-

trary, to

be one of those which are most favourIn the Catholic

able to equality of conditions.

church, the religious community

only two elements

—the

The

priest alone rises

flock,

and

all

is

and the people.

priest

above the rank of his

below him are equal.

points, the Catholic faith places all cities

upon the same

composed of

On doctrinal human

capa-

It subjects the wise

level.

and the ignorant, the man of genius and the vulgar crowd, to the details of the same creed it

imposes the same observances upon the rich

and the needy

;

it inflicts

the same austerities

upon the strong and the weak

;

to

no

compromise with mortal man

but, reducing

all

the

human

founds

all

race to the

same standard,

it

con-

the distinctions of society at the foot

of the same

altar,

in the sight of

even as they are confounded

God. If Catholicism predisposes

the faithful to obedience,

certainly does not

it

prepare them for inequality

may be

;

it listens

;

said of Protestantism,

but the contrary which generally

J'



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

160 tends to

make men independent, more than

to

render them equal."

And

the author of a Voice from

America ob-

serves

" The Roman Catholic church bids importance in America.

rise to

fair to

Thoroughly

democratic as her members are, being composed, for the most part, of the lowest orders of

Euro-

ropean population, transplanted to the United States with a fixed

and implacable aversion to

everything bearing the name and in the shape of

monarchy, the priesthood are accustomed studiously to adapt themselves to this state of feel-' ing, being content with that authority that is

awarded

to their office

by

their

own communi-

cants and members."*

The Rev. Dr. Reid observes :— * " I found the people at this time undor some uneasiness in relation to the spread of Romanism. tisans of that system are greatly assisted

by supplies of money and usually

teachers.

The par-

from Europe

The teachers have

more acquired competency than the native

structors ;

and

this is a temptation to parents

who

seeking accomplishments for their children ^ and

%W\'

in-

are

who



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

Now,

I venture to disagree with both these

gentlemen.

It

human

founds

true, as

is

serves, that the

the

161

Mr. Tocqueville ob-

race to the

all distinctions

reduces

church

Catholic

all

same standard, and con-

—not, however, upon the

principle of equality or democracy, but because it will

ever equally exert

its

power over the high vMt

and the low, assuming and kings

its

right to compel princes

to obedience,

and

their dominions

'f),

4

't

to

its

subjection.

The

equality professed

have a high idea of European refinements.

by

the

It

ap1.

peared, that out of four schools, provided for the wants

of the town (Lexington, Kentucky) three were in the

hands of Catholics."

To which we may add tions

Miss Martineau's observa-

:

" The Catholics of the country, thinking themselves

now

sufficiently

numerous

to

be an American Catholic

church, a great stimulus has been given to proselytism.

This has awakened fear and persecution

;

which

last

has

again been favourable to the increase of the sect. While the Presbyterians preach a harsh, ascetic, persecuting religion,

one

;

the Catholics dispense a mild and indulgent

and the prodigious increase of their numbers

a necessary consequence.

supply the demand for

is

It has been so impossible to

priests, that the

has been shortened by two years."

term of education

if"

!

a

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

162

Catholic church, all

must

fall

is

like the equality of death,

before its power

;

whether

it

be to

excommunicate an individual or an empire it

indifferent

head, giving and taking away, and stand trembling before I

after

to

assumes the power of the God-

it

;

is

it,

its

as they

members

shall here-

do in the presence of the Deity.

The remark Amei'ica,

of the author of the Voice

from

" that aware of the implacable aver-

sion of the people to monarchy, the priesthood

are accustomed studiotisli/ to adapt themselves to this state

offeeling,'" proves rather to

universal subtlety

me

the

shewn by the Catholic clergy,

which, added to their zeal and perseverance, so increases the

Catholicism

power of the church.

At

present

comparatively speaking, weak in

is,

America, and the object of that church

become strong

;

is,

to

they do not, therefore, frighten

or alarm their converts by any present shew of

the invariable results ; but are content to bid e their time, until they shall find themselves strong

enough to exert success.

The

their

power with triumphant

Protestant cause in America

is

:

RELIGIOX IN AMERICA. weak, from the

evil

many

of the voluntary

effects

system, particularly from

163

A house divided against itself can-

sects.

not long stand

and every year

;

it

it

is

be found

will

that the Catholic church will increase

and

into so

division

its

its

power

a question whether a hierarchy

may

not eventually be raised, which, so far from ad-

vocating the principles ofequality ^

a check to the

spirit

may

serve as

of democracy becoming-

more powerful than the Government, curbing public opinion, and reducing to better order the present chaotic state of society.

Judge Hali burton will

asserts,

That

be a Catholic country.

America

that all all

America

west of the Alleghanies will eventually be a Catholic country,

I

M

have no doubt, as the

Catholics are already in the majority, and there is

nothing, as

Mr. Cooper

observes, to prevent

any State from establishing religion, as the Religion * "

There

is

that, or

of the State

any other ,•*

and

nothinjr in the constitution of the

States to prevent

all

mm

this

United

the States, or any particular State,

from

n



RELIGION IN AMERICA.

164.

is

s

one of the dark clouds which hang over the

destiny of the western hemisphere.

The Reverend Mr. Reid

says

:

—"

It

should

really seem that the Pope, in the fear of expulsion

from Europe,

in this

new

is

anxious to find a reversion

The crowned

world.

continent, having the tical institutions

religious

attempt

same enmity to

which

institutions,

to enthral

heads of the free poli-

his holiness has to free

unite

willingly

this

the foresight to see that the

the

They have

people.

heard of the necessities of the

in

West

West

;

they have

will

become

the heart of the country, and ultimately deter-

mine the character of the whole

;

and they have

resolved to establish themselves there.

Large,

yea princely , grants have been made from the

Leopold

society,

and other sources,

chiefly,

though by no means exclusively, in favour of this portion of the I

sums

empire that

is

are expended in erecting

from possessing Democrat,

an established

to be.

These

showy churches

religion."

Cooper''

RELIGION IN AMERICA. and

and

colleges,

Everything

emissaries.

and to

sustaining

in

is

The

discovered,

the

look

a system essen-

sagacity of the effort

in avoiding

to attack

the prejudices of the adult, direct

to

excellently

tainly, to

so.

qualified;

is

m

and shock

may

they

young.

and they

future;

great advantages in doing teachers

that

of the

education

the

and

priests

done to captivate,

liberalize in appearance,

tially despotic.

165

They

really

have

They send out superior,

the run of native teachers.*

cer-

Some

value the European modes of education as the

more

excellent, others value

fashion

;

the

demand

them as the mark of

for instruction, too,

is

always beyond the supply, so that they find little difficulty

in obtaining the charge of Pro-

testant children.

This, in

my

judgment,

is

the

point of policy which should be especially re-

garded with jealousy arisen

;

but the actual alarm has

from the disclosure of a correspondence

which avows designs on the West, beyond what *

^1

The

Catholic priests

ledge the best educated

who instruct are to my knowmen in the States. It was a

pleasure to be in their company.

i;1

J

RELIGION IN AMERICA.

66

I have here set down.

and

is

a curious

It is

one other evidence,

if

affair,

evidence

were

needed, that popery and Jesuitism are one." I think that the author of

be wrong in his

Sam Slick may

not

America

will

assertion, that all

be a Catholic country. I myself never prophesy

;

but I cannot help remarking, that even in the

most anti-Catholic persuasions in America there is

a strong Papistical feeling; that

is,

there is a

vying with each other, not only to obtain the best preachers, but to have the best organs and the best

singers.

It

is

the system of excitement

which, without their being aware of carry into their devotion.

them there

is

It

it,

they

proves that, to

a weariness in the church service,

a tedium in prayer, which requires to be

re-

lieved

by the stimulus of good music and sweet

voices.

Indeed, what with their anxious seats,

their revivals, their music, ?.nd their singing,

every class and sect in the States have even

now

so far fallen into Catholicism, that religion has

become more of an appeal

m

to the senses than to

the calm and sober judgment

167

}

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES

Although

a democracy

in

the

and preferments are open to

stations

directly than they

of government, insufBcient,

may be under any

still

highest all,

more

other form

these prizes are but few

compared with the number of

and

total

blanks which must be drawn by the ambitious multitude.

It

is,

indeed, a stimulus to ambition

(and a matter of justice, when

nounced equal), that they equal

all

men

are pro-

should have an

all

chance of raising themselves by their

and perseverance

talents

;

but,

competitors are permitted to

when so many

enter

the

field,

few can arrive at the goal, and the mass are

doomed

to disappointment.

fore, it

may be

certain

it is

fi

However fair, there-

to admit all to the competition,

that the competition cannot

add to

I

i

;

SOCIETIES

168

AND ASSOCIATIONS. when we consider the

the happiness of a people,

and

feelings of bitterness

naturally en-

ill-will

gendered among the disappointed multitude.

In monarchical and aristocratical

institutions,

the middling and lower classes, whose chances

of advancement are so small that they seldom eyes or thoughts above

their

lift

sphere, are therefore

own

it

may

virtuous than those

who

much

much more

be added,

their

happier, and

struggle continually for preferment in the tumul-

Wealth can give some

tuous sea of democracy.

importance, but wealth in a democracy gives an

importance ivhich loses

much of

acquired,

it

its is

is

so

value

not

common ;

many

to

and when

sufficient

it

that it

has been

for the restless

ambition of the American tempeiament, which will

The effects

always spurn wealth for power.

therefore of a democracy are, first to raise

inordinate ambition to

among

the people,

cramp the very ambition which

and,

as

I

may comment upon

it

an

and then

has raised

hereafter,

it

SOCIETIES appears as

if this

AND

ASSOCIATIONS.

169

ambition of the people, indivi-

dually checked by the nature of their institutions,

becomes, as

collected

it

concentrated and

were,

into a focus in upholding

and con-

templating the success and increase of power in

Thus has been

the Federal Government.

duced a

species of demoralizing reaction

pro;

I

the

disappointed units to a certain degree satisfying

;f ("if

themselves with any advance in the power and

importance of the whole Union, wholly regardless of the

means by which such

increase

may

I have been obtained.

But

this

ambition

unsatisfied

another vent in the formation of religious

and other

where there

it

in

will

powerful

In a country

body and every thing,

have ; and

they cannot obtain

if

the various departments of the

Governments, they will have the

Government;

VOL.

III.

found

be an attempt of the people

to tyrannize over every

power they

many

associations.

will ever

has

for

all

I

it

States

in opposition to

these

societies

and



SOCIETIES

170

associations

ASSOCIATIONS.

connect themselves

directly

description of

tie

"

these

bound up together

with

by what

It is of little consequence

politics.*

are

AND

sticks in the fable"

once bound together

;

they are not to be broken.

In America

reli-

gion severs the community, but these societies are the

unite

bonds which to a certain degree

re-

it.

To

enumerate the whole of these

societies

actually existing, or which have been in existence,

would be

difficult.

The

following are

the most prominent.

*

"Not

long afterwards, a prominent Presbyterian

clergyman of Philadelphia thought publish a sermon, wherein sively proved, that

it

was

to

preach and

set forth

and conclu-

fit

on such and such contingencies of

united religious effort of the religious public, the jority of the

American people could be made

ma-

religious;

consequently they might carry their religious inflitence to the pollSf consequently the religious

turn

all

would be able

the profane out of office ; and consequentl}', the

American people would become a Christian nation Voice from

m

to

America^ by an American Gentleman.

.'"

o

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES

171

VM l]

list

of Bcmi'olnit Son'ttus,

tvith their Receipts in the

Year 1834. Dolls. Cents

American

Board of Cnimissioncrs

for

Foreign Missions

American

Board

Baptist

of

Missions

Western

Foreign

^lission

Society

l^fcthodist Episcopal Missionary Society

Episcopal

Foreign

24

G3,000

00

at

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Protestant

155,002

Foreign

^nd

10,290

46

3.5,700

15

Do-

mestic Missionary Society

20,007

97

American

7^,911

24

Baptist

11,448

28

5,572

97

40,000

00

22

20

sembly of the Presbyterian Churches..

38,000

00

Northern Baptist Education Society ....

4,081

11

Home Missionary Society.. .. Home Missionary Society

Board of Missions of the Reformed Dutch' Church (Domestic^ Board of Missions of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (Domestic) estimated

American Education Society

,

57,1

Board of Education of the General As-

Board of Education of the Reformed Dutch Church American Bible Society

American Sunday School Union General

Protestant

Episcopal

School Union Baptist General Tract Society

American Tract Society I

2

1,270

20

88,600

82

130,855

58

6,641

00

6,126

97

66,485

83

Sunday

®

)

H

;

Mi'

km

SOCIETIES

172

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

I

pi fl

Dolls. Cents

American Colonization Society

48,939

17

2,364

00

16,064

00

5,871

12

Total.. 8,910,961

31

Prison Discipline Society

American Seaman's Friend Society

....

American Temperance Society

m

Many blished

of these societies had not been esta-

more than ten years

at the date given

they must have increased very

Of

period.

Hi 5|.

course,

useful,

and very

many

others:

many

well

much

since that

of them are very

There are

conducted.

New England

Non-resistance

Society,

Sabbath Observance Society, &c.

fact, the

Americans are Society mad.

I

;

in

do not

intend to speak with the least disrespect of the societies,

but the zeal or fanaticism

use the term) with which many,

them are carried on, in the

is

not

all,

Many

to

but

of

of

be passed over these

societies

have done much good, particularly the gious societies;

may

too remarkable a feature

American character

without comment.

if

I

(if

many

others,

reli-

from being

;

SOCIETIES

pushed too

AND

ASSOCIATIONS.

173

have done great mischief, and

far,

have very much

assisted to

demwalize the com-

remember once hearing a story of

munity.

I

an ostler

who

confessed to a Catholic priest

m

>'-it

he enumerated a long catalogue of enormities peculiar to his profession, and

him " whether he

finished, the priest enquired of

had ever greased

when he had

horses' teeth to prevent their

eating their corn ?" this

peculiar offence

not l:;,

having been mentioned in his confession. ostler declared that

he never bad

was given, and he departed.

i

I

The

absolution

;

About

six

months '

afterwards, the ostler went again to unload his

conscience

;

the former crimes and peccadilloes

were enumerated,

but added to

them were

several acknowledgments of having at various

times " greased horses eating their corn.

"why,

"

teeW

Ho

to prevent their

—ho!"

if I recollect right,

cried the priest,

according to your

former confession you had never been guilty of this practice.

added

this

How

crime to your

comes

it

that

many others

*

you have .'*"

"

May

I

m

SOCIETIES

174 it

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

please you, father," replied the ostler, " I

had

never heard of it, until you told me."

Now this story

is

very apropos to the conduct

pursued by many of these

societies in

America

they must display to the public their of immorality and vice usefulness

ignorant,

;

they n ust prove their

by informing and

statistics

those

who were

quite

therefore innocent, that there are

crimes of which they had no idea ; and thus, in their fanatic wish to improve, they demoralize.

I]

Such have been the consequences among excitable yet well-meaning people.

of " *' .1

A

The

Voice from America" observes

It has

this

author

:

been thought suitable to

call

the

I

attention of mothers Iff

wide country to the condition and thels

and of common

cities

;

'

;

and

evils of bro-

prostitution, in

to send out agents

on the subject It

and daughters over the

towns and

(young men) to preach

to organize subsidiary socie-

•'

ties,

after the fashion of all reforms.

nual report of "

Reform

The

an-

The New York Female Moral

Society," for

1838

(a

very decent name

AND

SOCIETIES

ASSOCIATIONS.

175

certainly for the object), announces 361 auxili-

and 20,000 members, with 16,500 sub-

aries,

scribers

Moral lished

(all

females

by the parent

and

results

This same

the

to

'*

Advocate of

a semi-monthly paper, pub-

Reform,''''

text of the seventh facts

!)

society,

devoted to the

commandment, and

growing out of

class

to the

its violation.

of reformers have heretofore

I I

been accustomed to strike off prints of the most

unmentionable scenes cf these houses of pollution in their naked forms, and in the very acts

II of crime, for public display, that the public

might know what they are

may

:

in other words, as

be imagined, to make sport for the

ated, to

initi-

tempt the appetites and passions of the

young, who otherwise would have known or nothing about ruin,

f

and

it,

into the

to cause the decent

little

same vortex of

and virtuous

to

turn away with emotions of ineffable regret." I cannot here help enquiring,

Americans

are, as

how

is it, if

the

they assert, both orally and

in their printed public documents, a very

m moral

SOCIETIES

176

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

nation, that they find all

necessary to resort to

it

these societies for the

brother

citizens

;

improvement of

and how

reports are full of such

is

it

unexampled

that

their their

atrocities,

as are printed and circuiated in evidence of the necessity of their

stemming the current of vice ?

The Americans were

constantly

about the occasional

cases

of

twitting

me

adultery and

divorce which appear in our newspapers, assur-

ing me, at the same time, that there was hardly ever such a thing heard of in their

community. has not only (for

Now, been

it

own moral

appears that this subject

up by the

taken

clergy,

Dr. Dwight, late president of Yule Col-

lege,

preached a sermon on the seventh com-

mandment, which an American author

asserts

" was heard with pain and confusion of

face,

and which never cap be read in a promiscuous circle

without exciting

but by one of

;!:

^n

the

same

their societies also

;

feelings;'*)

and, although

they have not assumed the

name of the Patent

AntUAdultery Society, they

are positively doing

SOCIETIES

AND

ASSOCIATIONS.

177

iv

the work of such a one, and the details are entered into in promiscuous assemblies without

he

least reservation.

The

author before mentioned says

" The common

:

^^1

feeling

on the subject has iJ

been declared

false delicacy

;

and, in order to '1

break ground against

its

sway, females have

been forced into the van of this enterprize

and

;

persuaded to act as agents, not only among their

own

must

necessarily agitate the subject with

sex,

but in circumstances where they

men,

not wives with husbands, which would be bad

enough, but young and single

women

M

with I

young and

single

men!

And we

'

have been

credibly informed, that attempts have been to form associatioriS

among wives

made

to regulate

the privileges, and to attain the end of temperance, in the conjugal relation.

The next

step,

pf course, will be tee-totalism in this particular and, as a consequence, the extinction of the

human

race, unless peradventure the failure of

the main enterprize of the I

3

Moral Reform

7o-

K>

'I

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES

178

ciety should

keep

it

up by a progeny not

to be

honoured." *

Let

it

ment of

be remembered, that

my own;

makes the true,

but

assertion,

it is

this is not a state-

an American who

which I could prove to be

might I publish what I must

From

not.

the infirmity of our natures,

and our

evil, there is

nothing so corrupting

as the statistics of vice.

Can young females

proneness to

remain pure in their ideas, who read with indifference details of the grossest nature

?

Can

the

youth of a nation remain uncontaminated who are continually poring over pages describing .1

sensuality,

If:

hi

and

will they not, in their desire of

" something new,"

as

the prophet says, run

into the very vices of the existence of which

m

they were before unconscious

?

It

is this

dan-

gerous running into extremes which has occasioned so

many

productive of

marks



'•

The * "

'^ i:

of these societies to have been

much

evil.

A

Boston editor

re-

tendency of the leaders of the

A

Voice from America."

SOCIETIES

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

179

moral and benevolent reforms of the day to run into fanaticism, threatens to destroy the really

f ifei

beneficial effects of all associations for these ob-

The

jects.

spirit

of propagandism, when

becomes over zealous,

tions of the

M.l!l

it

next of kin to the

is

Thi benevolent

spirit of persecution.

W

li

ii 'ffl

associa-

day are on the brink of a danger

that will be fatal to their further usefulness if

not checked."

Of

the Abolition Society

and

its

,|:

rl

1 1

I

tendency, I

have already spoken in the chapter on slavery. I

must

not, however, pass over another

present

at

is

rapidly extending

the whole Union, and ther

the

it

does most

Temperance

harm

its

it is difficult

or most good

which

sway over

to say



:

whe-

I refer to

Society. VV

The Rev. Mr. Reid says— " In the short space of

its

existence

upwards

of seven thousand Temperance Societies have

been formed, embracing more than one million i-i----i

two hundred and

fifty

than three thousand

thousand members.

distilleries

More

have been stop-

8

r...

SOCIETIES

180

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

ped, and more than seven thousand persons

who

dealt in spirits have declined the trade.

Up-

wards of one thousand their use.

said

vessels

have abandoned

And, most marvellous of

all

!

it is

that above ten thousand drunkards have

been reclaimed from intoxication

;"

and he adds,

" I really know of no one circumstance in the history of this people, or of any people, so exhiIt discovers that

lirating as this.

government, which

m\ i'M

xm

is

here

is

all

unexampled degree."

a remarkable instance of a traveller

taking for granted that what is

self-

the leading element of

national greatness, in an

Now

power of

the truth.

The worthy

is

reported to him

clergyman, himself

evidently without guile, fully believed a state-

i

ment which was absurd, from the simple

fact

that only one side of the balance sheet had been presented.

That 7,000 Temperance formed

is

true.

Societies

That 8,000

stopped from principle

may

have been

distilleries

also

have

be true; but

the Temperance Society Reports take no notice

G

;

AND

SOCIETIES of the

ASSOCIATIONS.

many which have been

stead by those

who

felt

up

set

181

in their

no compunction

^1

at sell-

if

ing

Equally true

spirits.

dealers in spirits have

it

may be

ceased

but, if they have declined

have taken vessels

it

up.

the

That the crews of many

have abandoned the use of spirituous is

the greatest

which has resulted from the

Temperance Society;

number

them

sell

the trade, others

liquors is also the fact, and that benefit

to

that 7,000

to

but

believe

I

—that

is,

they have signed papers and taken the oath

be true ; but their

how many have

is

the I'M

f

that

—may

•1

*i

away from

fallen

good resolutions, and become more

perate than before,

of

That 10,000

be greatly magnified.

drunkards have been reclaimed

efforts

not recorded; nor

intern*

how many

.

i

^

who, previously careless of liquor, have, out of

mi

pure opposition, and in defiance of the Society, actually become drunkards,

is

also

unknown. In

this Society, as in the Abolition Society, they

have canvassed for

©

legislative enactments,

have succeeded in obtaining them.

G

The

o

and

legisla-

o

O o

;

SOCIETIES

182

.-^ND

ASSOCIATIONS.

ture of Massachusetts, which State

is

the strong-

hold of the Society, passed an act last year, hy whicli

it

prohibited the selling of spirits in a

smaller quantity than fifteen gallons, intending

thereby to do away with the means of dram-

drinking at the groceries, as they are termed

a

however, permitted apothecaries to

clause,

smaller quantities, and

retail

was that

all

the grog-shops

out apothecaries' licences.

the consequence

commenced taking

That being stopped,

the striped pig was resorted to

:

that

is

to say,

a man charged people the value of a glass of liquor to see a striped pig, which peculiarity

was exhibited as a

sight, and,

when in the house,

the visitors were offered a glass of spirits for nothing.

But

this act of the

legislature has

given great offence, and the State of Massachusetts is tical

now

parties, to wit, the

totallers. vn

divided into two very strange poli-

It is asserted that, in the political

contest which

©

victorious;

o

topers anc' the tee-

is

and

to take place, the topers will be if so, it will

be

satisfactorily

n

c

o

SOi^IETIES

proved that, of

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

in the very enlightened

moral Siate

Massachusetts, the pattern of the

there are

In

more

intemj^erate than sober

this dispute

183

Union,

men.

between sobriety and inebriety

the clergy have not been idle alcohol from the pulpit

;

some denouncing

:

some, on the other

hand, denouncing the Temperance Societies as not being Christians,

Among

the latter the

Bishop of Vermont has led the van. his works,

In one of

" The Primitive Church,"' he

asserts

that— " The Temperance Society religious,

" That

but worldly it

is

not based

principles.

opposes vice and attempts to esta-

blish virtue in a

manner which

is

not in accord-

ance with the word of God," &c. &c.

His argument tures

upon

is

briefly this:

?

— The

'

Scrip-

If the people will

forbid drunkenness.

not do right in obedience to the word of God,

but only from the fear of public opinion, they

shew more respect

The

to

man than God.

counter argument

is

:

—The

Bible

prcv-

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AND ASSOCIATIONS,

SOCIETIES

184 hibits

many

&c.

but

;

other crimes, such as murder, theft,

if there

were not punishments

these offences agreed

of

God would

upon by

or

society, the fear

not prevent these crimes from

being committed.

That more case

United States public opinion has

in the

influence than religion I believe to be the

;

ment

and that is

in all countries present punish^

more considered than future

equally true.

But

I

do not pretend

is,

I fear^

to decide

the question, which has occasioned great animosities,

and on some occasions,

I

am

informed,

the dismissal of clergymen from their churches.

The

tee-totalers

have carried their tenets to a

length which threatens to invade the rites cf

th(9

church, for a portion of them, calling themselves the Total Abstinence Society, will not use any

wine which has alcohol ment, and as there

is

in it in taking the sacra-

no wine without a portion

of alcohol, they liave invented a harmless mixture,

which they

many

of these temperance

call

wine.

Unfortunately,

societies, in theii zeal.

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES

admit of no medium

will

either abstain altogether, or

party



185

must

^you

be put down as a

toper.

It are,

is

how

astonishing

and how great

many

I have heard

A

question.

is

obstinate

the diversity of opinion.

anecdotes relative to this

man, who indulged

recommended

to join the society

the minister,

<'

is

the

but water

els*^

man

is

as water.

can cool your parched

What

tongue like water?

did the rich

man

What

does

ask for when in fiery torments.? the wretch ask for on the rack spirits,

costs nothing,

said

thing you call for in sickness

What

always drink

was

you must allow that there

first

?

freely,

— " Now,"

nothing so good, so valuable to

What

some people

.''

You

cannot

but water you can. Water

and you save your money. Water

never intoxicates, or prevents you from going to

your work. now, Peter,

There let

" Well then,

me

is

nothing like water.

Come

hear your opinion.*"

sir,

I think water

is

very good,

very excellent indeed—for navigation."

SOCIETIES

186

An

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

Dutchman, who kept an inn

old

Hoboken, had long temperance

at

resisted the attacks of the

societies,

until one night he hap-

pened to get so very drunk, that he actually signed the paper and took the oath.

The

next

morning he was made acquainted with what he

had unconsciously done, and, much to the prise of his friends, he replied,

"Well,

have signed and have sworn, as you I have, I must keep to

my

surif

tell

I

me

word," and from

that hour the old fellow abstained altogether

from off

his favourite schnapps.

But the leaving

a habit which had become necessary had the

usual result.

and

at last

The

old

became

man was called in,

man

seriously

and,

took to his bed, ill.

A

medical

when he was informed of

what had occurred, perceived the

necessity of

some stimulus, and ordered that

his patient

should take one ounce of French brandy every day.

"

An

ounce of French brandy," said the old

Dutchman, looking

at the prescription.

" WeU,

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES

dad

goot

is

but how much

;

187

an ounce ?"

is

Nobody who was

present could inform

"

quart, a pint, or a gill of

know what a

I

brandy

yet have had

my

Well,

the

is," said

a customer

go

son,

learned man, and

much

is

Dutchman call

" but

;

him I wish

I never

an ounce.

for

to the schoolmaster tell

him.

to

he

;

is

a

know how

one ounce.*"

The message was

carried.

The

schoolmaster,

occupied with his pupils, and not liking the interruption, hastily,

and without further en-

quiries of the messenger, turned over his castle^

and arriving

Bonny-

at the table of avoirdupois

weight, replied, " Tell your father that sivteen

drams make an

The boy

ounce,""

took back the message correctly,

and when the old Dutchman heard

—"A goot

tenance brightened up clever

man



tells

taken one oath it

;

now

dat I

physician, a

only have drink twelve drams

I

a day, and he

his coun-

it,

me

when

am

to take sixteen.

I

have

I was drunk, and

I

keep

sober I take anoder, which

1*^

SOCIETIES

188 I

is,

my

AND

ASSOCIATIONS.

be very sick for de remainder of

will

days, and never throw

my

physic out of

window."

There was a cold water on which occasion the

celebration at Boston,

hilarity of the evening

was increased by the singing of the following ode.

Nobody

will venture to assert that there is

spirit in the composition, and,

any

judging from

what I have seen of American manners and customs, I

am

afraid that the sentiments of the

four last lines will not be responded to through-

out the Union. « Ode.

In Eden's green retreats

A water-brook Between

soft,

that played

mossy

seats

Beneath a plane-tree's shade,

Whose

rustling leaves

Danced o'er its brink. Was Adam's drink,

And Beside

also Eve's.

t!ic

parent spring

Of that young brook,

the pair

Their morning chaunt would sing

And Eve,

to dress

her hair.

AND

SOCIETIES

ASSOCIATIONS.

Kneel on the grass

That fringed its side, And made its tide

Her

looking-glass.

And when the man of God From Egypt led his flock, They thirsted, and his rod Smote the Arabian rock,

And forth a still Of water gushed, And on they rushed. And drank their fill. Would Eden thus have smil'd Had wine to Eden come ?

Would Horeb's parching wild Have been refreshed with rum ? And had Eve's hair Been

dressed in gin,

Would

she have been

Reflected fair?

Had Moses built a still And dealt out to that host, To every man his gill, And pledged him in a toast.

How large a band Of

Israel's sons

Had

laid their bones

In Canaan's land?

189

190

AND ASSOCIATIONS.

SOCIETIES *

Sweet <

fields,

beyond Death's

Stand dressed

flood,

in living green,'

For, from the throne of God,

To

freshen

all

the scene,

A river rolls, Where all who will May come and fill Their crystal bowls.

If

Eden's strength and bloom Csid water thus hath given—

If,

e'en beyond the tomb, It is the

Are

And

heaven-

drink of

not good wells,

crystal springs.

The very things For our hotels ?"

As

I shall return to the subject of intempe-

rance in

my

examination of society,

conclude

this

chapter with an extract from Miss

Martineau, whose work

is

of the false and the true

:

I

shall

a strange compound

—" My

own

convic-

tions are, that associations, excellent as

are for mechanical objects, are not

fit

instru-

ments for the achievement of moral aims there has

been

they

;

that

no proof that the principle

SOCIETIES

AND

ASSOCIATIONS.

191

of self-restraint has been exalted and strength-

ened in the United States by the Temperance

movement, while the already too great regard to opinion,

and subservience to

croachment, have been therefore, great as

of the institution,

may it

much lie

may

spiritual en-

increased; and,

the visible benefits

at length

they have been dearly purchased/'

appear that

192

L A W.

it'

li

The

lawyers are the real aristocracy of Ame-

rica ; they

comprehend nearly the whole of the

gentility, talent,

Any

Union.

and

liberal information of the

one who has had the pleasure of

being at one of their meetings, such as the Kent

Club there

at is

New York, would

be

satisfied

that

no want of gentlemen with enlightened,

liberal ideas in the

United States

;

but

it

is

to

the law, the navy, and the army, that you must

Such must

chiefly look for this class of people.

ever be the case in a democracy, where the mass

are to be led

country,

;

the knowledge of the laws of the

and the habit of public speaking,

being essential to those who would preside at the helm or assist in the evolutions

:

the conse-

quence has been, that in every era of the Union, the lawyers have always been the most promi-

LAW. neiu actors ever

will

;

and

193

may be added

it

play the most

that they

distinguished

Clay and Webster of the present day all

the leading

are,

and

of the former generation

Their Presidents have almost

were, lawyers. all

men

parts.

been lawyers, and any deviation from this

custom has been attended with

results;

evil

witness the elevation of General Jackson to the

presidency,

the heavy

and

Americans have paid for

which

price

their

phantom

The names of Judge Marshall and of Kent are well known deservedly so

:

latterly been the

am

and most

informed

it

has

custom in our own law courts,

to cite as cases the decisions of

superior American judges their discrimination

The

glory.

Chancellor

in this country,

indeed, I

the

and

—a

many

just

of the

tribute

to

their worth.

general arrangement of that part of the

American constitution relating to the judicature their

is

extremely good, perhaps the best of

legislative arrangements,

fome great VOL.

III.

errors

;

yet

one of which

K

is,

it

all

contains

that of dis-

LAW.

194 trict

and

inferior

judges being

and overbearing people, who

him

dictate to

he

ns

it

judge at the mercy of an excitable

leaves the

teacher.

elected,

do to

they

as

will

attempt to

their spiritual

Occasionally he must choose whether

will decide as they wish, or lose his situation

on the ensuing ligion will

Justice as well as re-

election.

be interfered with by the despotism

of the democracy.

The Americans

are fond of law in one res-

pect, that is, they are fond of is

in

going to law.

It

excitement to them, and not so expensive as this country.

It

is

a pleasure which they

can afford, and for which they cheerfully pay.

But, on the other liand, the very

first

object

of the Americans, after a law has been passed, to find out

how

their ingenuity,

serve

how

they can evade

and

it

is

it

:

this exercises

very amusing to ob-

cleverly they sometimes

Every State enactment

to

manage

it.

uphold the morals, or

for the better regulation of society, is

ately op[x)sed

is

by the sovereign

people.

immedi-

LAW.

An

act

was passed

nine pins, (a very

tu prohibit the playing at

foolish act, as the

have so few amusements)

put

in force,

was

it

195

:

Americans

as soon as the law was

notified every where,

" Ten

pins played here," and they have Ix^n played

every where, ever since.

Another act was passed to put down

billiard i!

tables,

and in

this instance every precaution

was

taken by an accurate description of the billiard table, that the

law might be enforced.

upon an extra pocket was added table,

Where-

to the billiard

u

and thus the law was evaded.

When

I

was

at Louisville,

a

bill

which had

been brought in by Congress, to prevent the

numerous accidents which occured navigation, came into force.

in

A '•

steam

Inspectors were li

appointed to see that the steam-boats complied

with the regulations

;

and those boats which were

not provided according to law, did not receive the certificate from the inspectors, and were liable to a fine of five

without

it.

hundred

A

dollars if they navigated

steam-boat was ready to start

K 2

4

ii

;

LAW.

196

the passengers clubbed together and subscribed

half the sum, (two hundred and

fifty dollars),

and, as the informer was to have half the penalty, the captain of the against

and informed

himself and received the other Imlf

and thus was the

At

boat went

fine paid.

Baltimore, in consequence of the preva-

lence of hydrophobia, the civic authorities passed

a law, that

all

dogs should be muzzled,

rather, the terms were,

" that

or,

dogs should

all

wear a muzzle,*" or the owner of a dog not wearing a muzzle, should be brought up and lined

and the regulation further stated that

;

anybody convicted of having muzzle from

off a

dog should

A man, therefore,

fined."

removed the

'^

also

tied a

be severely

muzzle

to his

dog's tail (the act not stating where the muzzle Avas to

be placed).

ceiving this

One of

dog with

his

the city

muzzle

end, took possession of the it

to the

known,

Town-hall;

its

was summoned,

officers,

at the

per-

wrong

dog and brought

master, being well

and appeared.

He

;

LAW.

197

proved that he had complied with the in

having fixed a muzzle on the dog

ther, the city officer having taken the

the dog's

act,

and, fur-

;

muzzle off

he insisted that he should be

tail,

fined five dollars for so doing.

The

striped pig, I have already mentioned

but were this

I to relate all I

head,

it

The mass

would occupy too much of the

and

reader's time

have been told upon

of

patience.

tlie

mm

citizens of the

United States

have certainly a very great dislike to

all

law I

except their own, jority

not

;

it

muist be

the deciaon of the

acknowledged that

only the principle of equality,

parties

by

and

i, e. ;

who

their

mait

is

but the

are elected as district judges, that,

own

conduct, contribute

much

to that

want of respect with which they are treated in their courts.

When

a judge on his bench sits

half asleep, with his hat on, and his coat and shoes off;

his heels kicking

or table which

head

;

is

upon the

railing

as high or higher than his

his toes peeping through a pair of ol \\

LAW.

198

worsted stockings, and with a huge quid of to-

bacco in his cheek, you cannot expect that respect will be paid to him.

now

Yet such

much

is

even

the practice in the interior of the Western

States.

was much

I

amused

at

reading an

English critique upon a work by Judge Hall (a district judge),

in

which the writer says,

" We can imagine his honour in all the solemnity of his flowing wig," &c. &c.

The

last time I

saw his Jmnour he was cashier to a bank at Cincinnati,

thumbing American bank-notes—dirtier

work than

ever practised in the lowest grade

is

of the law, as any one would say if he had ever had

many American bank-notes

in

his

new country

like

possession.

As may be

supposed, in a

America, many odd scenes take place.

In the

towns in the

interior,

rally a small

wooden house, of one room, twelve

a lawyer's

office is

gene-

feet square, built

of clap board, and with the

door wide open;

and the

its

tenant used to remind

web waiting

for

flies.

little

me

domicile with

of a spider in

its

LAW. Not

forty years back,

199 on the other side of

the Alleghany Mountains, deer skins at forty cents at

a

jier

pound, and the furs of other animals

settled price,

were legal tenders, and received

both by judges and lawyers as

The

fees.

law-

yers in the towns on the banks of the Susque-

hanna, where

it

appears the people, (notwith-

standing Campbell's beautiful description,) were

extremely litigious, used to receive in kind,

their fees

such as skins, corn, whisky, &c. &c., and,

as soon as they to

all

had

a

sufficient to load

raft,

were

be seen gliding down the river to dispose of

their cargo at the first favourable

Had

duce.

they worn the wigs and

our own legal profession, the been

much more

There

is

and

effect

gown of

would have

picturesque.

a record of a very curious

occurred in the State of

had

mart for pro-

New

trial

York.

which

A

man

lent a large iron kettle, or boiler, to another, it

being returned cracked^ an action was

brought against the borrower the kettle.

After the

for the value of

plaintiff's case

had been

m

;

;

LAW.

200

heard, the counsel for the defendant rose and said

—" Mister

Judge, we defend

upon three counts,

of which

we

shall

most

prove to you.

satisfactorily

" In the

all

action

this

first

place,

we will prove, by undoubt-

ed evidence, that the kettle was cracked when

we borrowed

it

" In the second, that the turned

"

it,

And

kettle,

when we

re-

was whole and sound in the third,

we

will prove that

we

never borrowed the kettle at all."

There

is

such a thing as proving too much,

but one thing case,

which

is,

is

pretty fairly proved in this

that the defendant's counsel

must

have originally descended from the Milesian stock.

I have heard

many amusing

stories of

the

peculiar eloquence of the lawyers in the newly settled

Western

abundant. phorical

States,

where metaphor

One lawyer was

is

so

so extremely meta-

upon an occasion, when the

stealing of

a pig was the case in point, that at last he got

——

LAW. to

" corruscating

rays."

201

The judge (who

ap-

peared equally metaphorical himself) thought

proper to pull him

—"Mr.

up by saying

,

I

wish vou would take the feathers from the wings of your imagination, and put them into the

tail

of your judgment."

Extract from an American paper

:



—A Court-house not from of Louisville— Judge presiding with the heard before the door great dignity— A — Mr. with — He looks up, "

Scene.

fifty

miles

city

noise

is

indignation.

fired

Sheriff, sir,

bring them men in here

temple of liberty tice,

and

it



;

*

this is the

this is the sanctuary of jus-

shall not

be profaned by the cracking

of nuts and the eating of gingerbread.' "

Mar-

hlehead Register. I

have already observed that there

error in the oifice of the inferior j udges

is

and

a great district

being elective, but there are others equally

serious.

In the first place the judges are not

ficiently paid.

" The low

suf-

Captain Hamilton remarks salaries

of the judges constitute

K 3

LAW.

202

matter of general complaint

among

the

members

New York.

of the bar, both at Philadelphia and

These are so inadequate, when compared with the income of a well-employed barrister, that the State

is

deprived of the advantage of having

Men from

the highest legal talent on the bench.

the lower walks of the profession, therefore, are

generally promoted to the office;

and

for the

sake of a wretched saving of a few thousand dollars, the public are content to

and properties to the decision of men of

lives

inferior intelligence *'

submit their

In one

and

respect, I

of democracy defeats

learning.

am

itself.

told, the

very excess

In some States the

judges are so inordinately under-paid, that no lawyer

who

does not possess a considerable pri-

vate fortune can afford to accept the this circumstance,

tinction has seat

than

From

something of aristocratic

become connected with

on the bench it

office.

is

now more

would be were the

it,

dis-

and a

greedily coveted

salary

more commen-

surate with the duties of the situation."

"'^

LAW.

The next

error

is,

203

that political questions are

permitted to interfere with the ends of justice. is

It

a well-known fact that, not long ago, an Irish-

man, who had murdered

upon the eve of an

to trial

though

his wife,

his guilt

election

;

and,

al-

was undoubted, he was acquit-

ted, because the Irish influential as to

was brought

which were so

party,

be able to turn the

election,

had

declared that, if their countryman was convicted,

they would vote on the other

But worst of an honest jury

all is

the difficulty of finding

— a fact generally acknowledged.

Politics, private

animosities, bribery, all

their influence to defeat the it

side.

have

ends of justice, and

argues strongly against the moral standard of

a nation that such should be the case ; but that it is

so

juries

is

undoubted.*

The

truth

is

that the

have no respect for the judges, however

respectable they

may

be,

and

as

many

of them

* Miss Martineau, speakin
the Americans and the French Creoles,

says—" No Ame-

rican expects to get a verdict, on any evidence^ from a

jury of French Creoles."

LAW.

204 really are.

The

feeling

" I'm

There

operates every where.

is

good as

as

he*'

no shutting up

a jury and starving them out as with us; no citizen,

"

free

and enlightened, aged twenty-one,

white," would submit to such an invasion of his rights.

Captain Hamilton observes

"It was not without astonishment, I that I

confess,

remarked that three-fourths of the jury-

men were engaged

in eating bread

and

cheese,

and that the foreman actually announced the verdict with

his

mouth

ejecting the dis-

full,

jointed syllables during the intervals of mastication

!

In truth, an American seems to look on

a judge exactly as he does on a carpenter or coppersmith

;

and

it

never occurs to him, that

an administrator of justice

is

entitled to greater

respect than a constructor of brass knockers, or

the sheather of a ship's bottom.

The judge and

the brazier are paid equally for their work

Jonathan firmly believes

that, while

in his pocket, there is

no

;

and

he has money

risk of his suffering

from the want either of law or warming pans."

205

J.AW.

One most vouch

for,

parties,

in

notorious case of bribery, I can as I

am

whom

one of

acquainted with the two

purchased the snufF-box

which the other enclosed the notes and pre-

A gentleman

sented to the jurymen.

at

New

York, of the name of Stoughton, had a quarrel with another of the name of Goodwin followed the former

dered

him

the latter

the street^and

mur-

open day by passing a small

in

sword through

down

:

his body.

The

case was as clear

as a case could be, but there is a great dislike

to capital punishment in America, larly

was there

and particu-

in this instance, as the criminal

was of good family and extensive connections. It

was ascertained that

all

the jury except tv/o

intended to acquit the prisoner upon some pre-

tended want of evidence, but that these two had

determined that the law should take

and were quite

inexorable.

tired to consult

upon the

mined by the

its

course,

Before the jury reverdict, it

was

deter-

friends of the prisoner that an

attempt should be made by bribery to soften

i'

II

LAW.

206

down

the resolution

As

two men.

of these

they ^vere retiring, a snuff-box was put into the

hands of one of them by a gentleman, with the observation that he and his friend would pro-

bably find a pinch of snuff agreeable after so long a notes

The

trial.

to

sterling).

the

snuff-box contained bank

amount of 2,500

The

snuff-box

and

dollars (jP500

its

contents were

not returned, and the prisoner was acquitted.

The

unwillingness to take away

life is

remarkable feature in America and were

occurred just before

A

my

An

not

it

would be a

carried to such an extreme length,

very commendable one.

a very

instance of this

New

arrival at

York.

young man of the name of Robinson, who

was a clerk in an importing house, had formed a connection with a the

young woman on

name of Ellen Jewitt.

Not having

means to meet her demands upon

had

for

the town of the

his purse,

many months embezzled from

he

the store

goods to a very large amount, which she had sold to supply her wants or wishes.

At

last.

^"^^

LAW.

207

Robinson, probably no longer caring for the

and aware

girl,

that

he was

in

determined upon murdering her.

her

power,

hardly be conceived

mulated crime can

accu-

Sucli !

He

went to sleep with her, made her drunk with

champagne before they as she lay in l)ed

retired to bed,

and then

murdered her with an axe,

which he had brought with him from his master's

The house

store.

of

ill

fame in which he

visited

her was at that time full of other people of both

who had

sexes,

retired to rest



it is

said nearly

one hundred were there on that night, thoughtless

Hi

i;

in

of the danger to which they were exposed.

Fearful that the murder of the

young woman

would be discovered and brought home to him, the miscreant resolved to set

fire to

the house,

and by thus sending unprepared into the next world so

many

of his fellow-creatures, escape (

the punishment which he deserved. to the laid,

He

set fire

bed upon which his unfortunate victim

and having

satisfied

himself that his work

was securely done, locked the door of the room,

ii

'

LAW.

208

A

and quitted the premises.

merciful Provi-

dence, however, directed otherwise

fire

was

and the flames extinguished, and

discovered, his crime

the

:

made

manifest.

The

evidence in an

English court would have been more than cient to convict

him ; but

the feeling against taking

in

suffi-

America, such

life that,

is

strange to

Robinson was acquitted, and permitted to

say,

leave for Texas, where,

under a

name.

false

he

it is said,

still

lives

I have heard this subject

New York;

canvassed over and over again in

and, although some, with a view of extenuating to a foreigner

such a disgraceful disregard to

security of

have endeavoured to shew that

life,

the evidence really

was not quite

satisfactory, there

was not a shadow of doubt

in the whole

case.*

*

i\nierica

us a

nation,

though

little

more than

Criminal Calendar (Boston, 1835). iiiy

possession, and, although in

not quite equal to our it ill

sixty years old

has already published an United States'

atrocity of crime.

Newgate

]

have this book in

number of criminals it Ciilcncar,

it f'cr

its

exceeds

LAW. But

209

leniency tow^ards crime

racteristic

is

the grand cha-

Whether

of American lc-/J>htion.

proceeds, (as 1

r/»ucli su<»p(*ct it

does,)

it

from the

national vanity being unwilling to admit that *\\,

among " a very moral

such things can take place people," or from a

am

more praiseworthy

feeling,

the reader

must

form his own opinion, when he has read

all I

I

not justified in asserting

:

ri have to say upon other points connected with the subject. I have been very

much amused with

ports of the sentences given

be one of the soundest lawyers

and a very worthy man recorder, he does not

;

excellent

He

is said

in the

Union,

New York.

friend the recorder of to

my

by

the re-

but I must say, that as

add

to the dignity of the

bench by his facetious remarks, and the peculiar lenity he occasionally shows to the culprits.*

I will give an extract from the newspapers

* Some allowance must be made

for the license of the 1

reporters, but in the

main

it is

a veryfairsj)tcimen of the

i

1

1

1

recorder's style and language.

i

i

i;

i

I

^ i

1

11

LAW.

210

of some of the proceedings in his court, as they will,

I

am

convinced,

ha

as amusing to

the

reader as they have been to me.

'i iiC

make call

Recorder then called out

the usual

proclamation ;" " Mr.

out the prisoners, and

tencing them Clerk. It

— " Mr. Crier,

let

Clerk,

us proceed to sen-

V

Put Stephen Schofield

to the bar.

was done.

Clerk.

Prisoner,

you may remember you

have heretofore been indicted for a certain crime

by you committed were arraigned

;

;

vipon your indictment

you

upon your arraignment you

pleaded guilty, and threw yourself upon the

mercy of the

court.

why judgment

What

have you now to say,

should not be passed upon you

according to law.

The prisoner, who was was

a

bad looking mulatto,

silent.

Recorder. Schofield, vou have been convicted of a very bad crime; you attempted to take

;

1

I

LAW. liberties

with a

offence.

This

Had you

I

am

:

it

must be put a stop

been convicted of the whole

we should have

prison

for

As

it

sent is,

you

court

;

;

and

that's the

1

to the State-

we sentence you

hard labour in the State-prison for five years

serious

sorry to say, to a great

crime,

life.

—a most

getting to be a very bad crime,

community

extent in this to.

young white girl

is

and practised,

211

at

to

Sing Sing

judgment of the

and when you come out, take no more

liberties

with white

Prisoner.

girls.

Thank

your honour

it

ain't

no

worse.

Clerk. Bring out It

km

Mary Burns.

was done.

Clerk. Prisoner,

you may remember, &c. &c.

upon your arraignment you pleaded not guilty, and put yourself on your country for which country hath found you guilty. have you

now

to say

trial

What

why judgment should

be pronounced upon you according to law

?

not

'

Is

LAW.

212 (Silent.)

Recorder.

Mary Burns, Mrs. Forgay gave

you her chemise

to wash.

Prisoner. No, she didn't give

Recorder. But you got stole the

it

Now, you

money.

washed, and, to do

confidence in their servants right to sew their

to me.

somehow, and you see,

our respectable

must have

fellow-citizens, the ladies,

mises

it

money up

they must put

so, ;

their che-

and they have a

in their chemise if

they think proper, and servants must not it

As

from them.

not married,

you're a

would not

it

young woman, and right to deprive

lie

you of the opportunity to get a husband years

;

so

we

shall only send

two years and

for

work you per.

— Go

in

six

steal

you

months

whatever way he

;

for five

to Sing Sing

the keeper will

may

think pro-

to the next.

Charles Liston was brought out and arraigned, fvo forma.

He

was a dark negro.

Clerk. Liston, what have you to say

judgment, &c.

?

why

LAW.

213

Prisoner. All I got to say to his honour de

honourable court

is,

dat I see de error of

ways, and I hope dey

I broke de law of

deirs.

I must lose

But

may

my

liberty,

I trow myself

and all

my

soon see de error of

my

free country,

and go

•|„JVAI

and

to Sing Sing. i

on de mercy of de Recorder

m

I got to say to his honour, de honourable

dat I hope

Richard Riker,

is,

next mayor of

New York

he'll live to

be de

come out of

I

till

II

Sing Sing.

Recorder {laughing).

A

very good speech

!

But, Liston, whether I'm mayor or not, you 'H

must

This

suffer some.

stealing

from entries

is

11

a most pernicious crime, and one against which our respectable fellow-citizens can scarcely guard.

f

Two-thirds of our citizens hang their hats and coats in entries,

and we must protect

•Wi

m

their hats 'A

and

coats.

Sing for

We,

therefore, sentence

five years.

you

to Sing-

V J

— Go to the

jj3

next.

1 {

John McDonald and Godfrey Crawluck were '.'

put to the bar. .

yB

'

sli

>'-

'^\

?

'1

^

J.-tVi

*

'

i

f'^'i.',

^^';"^i

i-.^fej

!

;1|mH i

LAW.

214

McDonald and

Recorder. stole

two

beef, I'd

beeves.

Now, however much

you

I like

be very hungry before I'd steal any

You

beef.

Crawluck,

You

are on the high road to ruin.

went up the road to Harlem, and down the road to Yorkville, and you'll soon

We

shall send

each

;

ther's

you

go

to destruction.

to Sing Sing for

two years

and when you come out, take your momaiden name, and lead

don't eat any



more beef

any more beeves.

a

good

life,

mean, don't

I

and steal

— Go to the next.

Luke Staken was

arraigned.

Recorder. Staken, you slept in a room with

Lahay,and stole all

his gold

(1000 dollars). This

sleeping in rooms with other people, and stealing their things, is a serious offence, to a great extent in this city

the matter worse, in

specie,

when

you

stole

;

and practised

and what makes

one thousand dollars

specie is so scarce.

you to Sing Sing for

We

send

five years.

Jacob Williams was arraigned.

He

looked

a

LAW. as if

lie

215

had not many days

to live,

though a

young man. Recorder. Williams, you stole a

seymere from a

store,

most pernicious crime

and ran

of ker-

lot

off with

it



But, as your health

!

is

not good, we shall only send you to Sing Sing

and

for three years

six

months.

John H. Murray was arraigned. Recorder.

You and

Murray, you're a deep

fellow.

got a green mountain boy into an alley, ])laycd at

"

shuffle

and bum," and you

burned him out of a hundred

must go

to

Sing Sing for

five

You

dollars.

years; and

we

hope the reputable reporters attending for the > :

respectable

public

press

spectable country friends,

New

re-

when they come

into

York, not to go into Orange

play at " shuffle

and bad men, or like

warn

our

will

this

green

Street,

and burn" among bad

if

and girls

they'll very likely get burnt,

mountain boy.

— Go

to

the

next.

;ri

LAW.

216

William Shay, charged with shying glasses at the head of a tavern-keeper.

Recarder. This rioting

is

Guilty.

a very bad crime,

Shay, and deserves heavy punishment

;

but as

we understand you have a wife and sundry Shays, we'll

let

you

off,

little

provided you give your

solemn promise never to do so any more.

Shay. I gives Recorder.

Shay,

it

— wery solemnonly.

Then we

discharge you.

Thank your honour

— your

honour's

a capital judge.

John Bowen, charged with

stealing a basket.

Guilty.

Recorder.

and

you'll

Now, John, we've have to get out

months on BlackwelFs Island

convicted you stone



for

three

that's the

judg-

ment of the Court. William Buckly and Charles Rogers, charged

—sleeping the park, and leaving the gate open — were discharged, with a caution with loafing

in

to take care

how they interfered with

corporation

LAW.

217

rights in future, or they would get their corporation into trouble.

Ann the

Boyle, charged with being too lively in

Let off on condition of being quiet

street.

for the time to come.

Thomas Dixon, charged

with petty larceny.

Guilty.

I

Diojon. I wish to have judgment suspended.

Recorder, It*s a bad time to talk about suspension

;

why do you

request this

Dixon. I've an uncle I want to

?

see,

and other

relations.

Recorder.

BlackwelFs

In that case we*ll send you to Island for six months, you'll be

sure to find them

all there.

Sentence accord-

ingly.

Charles Enroff, charged with petty larceny

coming Paddy over an

Irish

shoemaker, and

thereby cheating him out of a pair of shoes. Guilty.

Sentenced to the Penitentiary, Blackwell's Island, for six months, and to get out stone.

VOL.

III.,

L

,

3>-

*« £<-!

218

LAW.

Charles Thorn, charged with assaulting Miss

Rachael Prigmore.

Miss Prigmore, how came

Recorder.

man

Rachael.

(A

you

to strike

?

Because

He

laugh).

this

I

wouldn't

have him.

was always a teazing me, and

spouting poetry about roses and thorns;

when

I told

him

so

to be ofF he struck me.

Prisoner (theatrically).

Me strike you

!

Oh,

Rachael— " Perhaps

it

was right

to dissemble

But why did you kick me down Prisoner'^s Counsel. That's

Why

did she kick him

This the

down

your

stairs

it,

love,

?"

your honour.

stairs ?

Rachael indignantly denied,

fair

and the prisoner was found

guilty.

Recorder. This striking of

women

is

bad crime, you must get out stone

a very

for

two

months. Prisoner. loves "

me

On



I

She'll repent,

know

I'll

She

she does.

the cold flinty rock,

Oh, Rachael,

your honour.

when I'm busy

think of thee."

at

work.

LAW.

219

Thomas Ward, charged Guilty.

—Ward

with petty larceny.

had nothing to

was sent

off his sentence, therefore he

ward

offer to

to the

Island for six months.

Maria Brandon, charged with petty Guilty.

Sentenced

to

oakum

pick

larceny. for

six

"i1

months.

Maria. Well,

>?'»!

I*ve friends,

comfort,

that^s

they'll sing

"

Oh come

to this bower,

my OMm

stricken deer."

Recorder, You're right, Maria,

bower you're going

The Court But

all

it's

an oakum

to.

then adjourned.*

these are nothing

compared with the

following, which at first I did not credit.

made

the strictest enquiry, and was informed

a legal gentleman present that give the extract as

* There

is,

it

:

was

by

correct.

I

stood in the newspapers.

as will appear

fun in the police reports in ours

it

I

by the quotations,

New York

the style of the Recorder I.

is

as

much

as in the best of

admirably taken

off.

2 ii

LAW.

220 *^

of a Pretty

In/ltience

Girl.



*

Catherine

Manly,* said the Recorder yesterday, in the Kessions,

'you have been convicted of a very

bad crime. ofFence

;

This stealing

but, as

a very serious

is

you are a pretty

girl

well

!

suspend judgment, in hopes you will do better for the future.' " justice

was blind.

Mr. Carey,

We

have often heard that

What a

fib to

say so!

in his publication

asserts that security of property

on Wealtl

and of per«o i

are greater in the United States than in land.

How

far he is correct I shall

ceed to examine.

Mr. Carey

say;-,

servations on security of person

.,

Eng-

now

pro-

in his ob-

—" Comparing

Massachusetts with England and Wales,

we

find in the former 1 in 86,871 sentenced to

one

year's imprisonment or

sentenced to more than one

The number

sentenced to one year or

70,000

more in England vania.

in the

is

latter 1 in

year.

more; whereas,

is

greater than in Pennsyl-

It is obvious, therefore, that security

is

LAW.

much

221

greater in Massachusetts than in England,

and consequently greater than in any other part of

the* world.""

Relative to crimes against security of property, he asserts—

" Of crimes against property, involving punishments of one year's imprisonment, or more, we

find1 in 4,400

In Pennsylvania

New York

1

in 5,900

In Massachusetts

I

in

In

While

in

England,

5,98^

in the year

1834, their convictions for offences against property, in'V'*; 'I

volving punishments exceed-

ing one year's imprisonment,

was

Now,

1 in 3,120 that these

numbers are

as far as they go, I have

parison

crime

is

is

no doubt

not just, because,

;

first,

not so easily detected

;

fairly given",

but the comin

America

and, secondly;

LAW.

222

when

detected,

conviction

does

not

always

follow.

Mr. Carey must be

well aware that, in

the

American newspapers you continually meet

witli

a paragraph like this :—"

A body of a white man,

or of a negro, was found floating near such and

such a wharf on Saturday

last

with evident marks

of violence

upon

inquest

is

returned either found drowned, or

violence

by person or persons unknown." Now,

let

it,

&c. &c., and the coroner's

Mr. Carey take a

books of the

manner

at

stances in

covered

;

list

number of

New York,

from the coroner^s

bodies found in this

and the number of

which the perpetrators have been let

him compare

this list

indis-

with a similar

one made for England and Wales, and he will then ascertain the difference between the crimes

committed in proportion to the convictions which take place through the activity of the police in

our country, and,

it

may

be said, the total want

of police in the United States.

LAW.

As

223

to the second point, namely, that

when

crimes are detected, conviction does not follow,* I have only to refer back to the cases of

Robinson

and Goodwin, two instances out of the many

in

which criminals in the United States are allowed to escape,

offence in

who,

they iiad committed the same

England, would most certainly have

But

been hanged. renders

if

there

is

another point which

Mr. Carey's statement

unfair,

* Miss Martineau, speaking- of a the United States, says, "

to have a doubt of bis ^uilt.

of which every one

The till

;

in

knew

She replied that there

but that

and

quitted; the examination

murder

is,

observed that no one seemed

T

never was a clearer case

trial ^or

which

trial

he would bo ac-

were u mere form,

the conclusion beforehand.

people did not chouse to see any more hanging^, and

the law was so altered as to allow an alternative of

punishment, no conviction for a capital offence would be obtainable.

I

asked on what pretence the young

would be got off, as

it

if

was represented.

found to swear an

"

the evidence against

A timdesman

quitted,

West."

alibi.

She

said

him was

man

as clear

some one would be

...

swore an

alibi ; the

young man was

and the next morning he was on

his

way

ac-

to the

LAW,

224

that he has no right to select one, two, or even three States out of twenty-six, and all

compare them

with England and Wales.

The

question

is,

the comparative security of

person and property in Great Britain and the

United

States.

I acknowledge that, if Ireland

were taken into the account,

it

would very much

reduce our proportional numbers; but, then, there crime

gogues

is

fomented by

traitors

and dema-

—a circumstance which must not be over-

looked. Still,

the whole of Ireland would offer nothing

equal in atrocity to what I can prove relative to

one small town in America Georgia,

in

:

that of Augusta,

containing only a population of

3,000, in which, in one year, there were Jiffy'

-nine assassinations committed in open day, without any notice being taken of them by the authorities.

This, alone, will exceed fore

do not

all Ireland,

and I there-

hesitate to assert, that if every crime

LAW.

225

committed in the United States were followed up

by

conviction, as

it

would be in Great Britain,

the result would fully substantiate the fact that, in security of person is

and property, the advantage

considerably in favour of

my own country^

11

"t

L 3

226

LYNCH LAW. Englishmen in a moral

express

their

surprise

that

community such a monstrosity as

Lynch law should

exist;

but although the

present system, which has been derived from the

Lynch

original

demned,

it

law, cannot be too severely con-

must, in justice to the Americans, be

considered that the original custom of

Lynch

law was forced upon them by circumstances.

Why the of, I

term Lynch law has been made use

do not know ; but

in its origin the practice

was no more blameable than were the laws established

by

the Pilgrim fathers on their

first

landing at Plymouth, or any law enacted amongst

a community sources,

ment.

and

left

to themselves, their

their

Lynch

own

re-

own guidance and govern-

law, as at

first

constituted,

was

nothing more than punishment awarded to offend-

LYNCH LAW. ers

227

by a community who had been

who had no law

injured,

and

and could have no

to refer to,

'is redress if they did not

own hands

;

take the law into their

on the contrary, an

m

Lynch law is,

the present system of illegal exercise

of the power

of the majority in opposition to and defiance of the laws of the country, and the measure of justice

administered and awarded

It

must be remembered

there were but few white

by

those laws.

M'H

that fifty years ago,

men

to the westward

of the Alleghany Mountains; that the States of

Kentucky and Tennessee were

tricts

of loway and Columbia

stitutions of the

certain

Union a

at that time as

now

scanty in population as even

;

are the dis*

by

that

M

the in-

lii

required a

district

number of inhabitants before

be acknowledged as even a

liiit'l

district

;

it

could

and that

previous to such acknowledgment, the people

who had

squatted on the land had no claim to

protection or law.

It

must

mind, that these distant

asylum to many who

fled

also

be borne

territories offered

iii

an

from the vengeance of

&

LYNCH LAW.

228 the laws,

men without

principle, thieves, rogues,

and vagabonds, who escaping interfere with the happiness

there,

would often

and peace of some

small yet well-conducted community, which

migrated and settled on these

had

regions.

fertile

These communities had no appeal against per*

no protection from rapacity and

sonal violence, injustice.

They were

of the Union

not yet within the pale

indeed there are

;

many

even

now

in this precise situation (that of the Mississippi, for instance),

who have been necessitated to make

laws of government for themselves, and acting often

upon

condemn

therefore, to

"

their

A

own

responsibilities,

do very

and execute.*

It was,

to death,

remedy the

similar case

is

to

defect of there being be found

day, west of the Mississippi. to the

United States,

for sale,

not

Upon

with the

the present

lands belonging

These persons are

called squatters^

supposed that they consist of the

West

;

yet

we

are

into the

and

elite

who have purchasing

of

intention

be brought

shall

the

no

yet surveyed or offered

them when they

to

at

are numerous bodies of people

occupied them,

who

it

is

market;

not to be

of the emigrants

informed that they have organized

LYNCH LAW. established law, that

was applied to social

without

;

law, as it,

all

it is

termed,

security, all

happiness would have been in a state of

By degrees,

abeyance. lic

Lynch

229

all

disturbers of the pub-

peace, all offenders against justice

met with 1^,

their deserts

and

;

institution,

first

it is

a query, whether on

its

any law from the benqh was

more honestly and impartially administered than this very

name

Lynch

prostituted

law, which has

by the most barbarous

and contemptuous

The examples

I

now had

am

able to bring forward of all

be found

have been based upon necessity, and a due

regard to morals and to justice. the

excesses

violation of all law whatever.

Lynch law, in its primitive state, will to

its

For

instance,

harmony of a well-conducted community

would be

interfered

scoundrel,

who would

with by some worthless entice the

young men

to

gaming, or the young women to deviate from organized a government for themselves, and regularly elect magistrates to attend to the execution of the laws.

They appear,

in this respect, to he worthy descendants of

the pilgrims."

Carey on Wealth*

'

;

LYNCH LAW.

230

He

virtue.

becomes a nuisance to

com-

tlie

munity, and in consequence the heads or elders ivould

meet and vote his expulsion.

Tlieir

method was very simple and straight-forward he was informed that his absence would be agreeable,

and that

before a

certain day, he

he did not

if

lashes with a cow-hide.

^'

clear out"

would receive forty

If the party thought

proper to defy this notice, as soon as the day arrived he received the punishment, with a notification that, if

found there again after a

would be repeated.

certain time, the dose

these

means they

subject,

and

tlie

.

.

A

By

community of a bad

rid the

morals of the junior branches

were not contaminated. the practice of

due

Lynch

Such was

in its origin

law.

circumstance occurred within these few

years in which

At Dubuque,

Lynch law was duly administered. in the

was committed.

The

loway

district^

people of

a murder

Dubuque

first

applied to the authorities of the State of Michigan, but

they discovered that the district of

LYNCH LAW. loway was not within the State

;

231

il!

jurisdiction of that

and, in fact, although on the opposite side

of the river there was law and justice, they

had neither

to

appeal

to.

They would

not

allow the murderer to escape ; they consequently

met, selected

among themselves a judge and a

jury, tried the man, and, upon their own responsibility,

hanged him.

t

i

,.,.,

There was another instance which occurred a short time since

at Snakes'

Hollow, on the

western side of the Mississippi, not far from the

.i^^i

A band of miscreants, with

town of Dubuque.

a view of obtaining possession of some valuable

<• m.i'

diggings (lead mines) which were in the possession

of a grocer who lived in that place,

murdered him in the open day.

The

parties H,ti-

were

well

known,

but

they held together

and would none of them give evidence.

As

there were no hopes of their conviction,

the

Mi

lit:

people of Snakes' Hollow armed themselves, seized the parties engaged in the transaction, f4:

and ordered them

to quit the territory

on pain



.

LYNCH LAW.

232 of having a

rifle-bullet

mediat ely.

The

through their heads im-

scoundrels crossed the river in

a canoe, and were never after heard

have collected these

I

Lynch law settlers in

that

it

rality

shew that

the Western States by circumstances;

has been acted upon in support of mo-

and

virtue,

and that

strict justice.

this practice with is

facts to

has been forced upon the American

regulated by

it

of.

its

awards have been

But I must now notice

a view to shew how dangerous

that any law should be meted out

majority, and that what was sense of justice

and

commenced from a

necessity, has

into a defiance of law, where law

be readily obtained.

by the

now changed

and justice can

The Lynch law

of the

present day, as practised in the States of the

West and

South,

ferent heads it

:

in cases in

may

the first

be divided into is,

Ttiro

dif-

the administration of

which the laws of the States are

considered by the majority as not having awarded

a punishment adequate, in their opinion, to tlie

offence committed;

and the

other,

when

'

LYNCH LAW.

233

from excitement the majority

will not wait for

the law to act, but inflict the punishment with their

own

The

hands.

)

'I

following are instances under

the

first

head.

Every crime portion as

increases in

it affects

magnitude

in pro-

the welfare and interest of ':1*,..

the

commu aity.

Forgery and bigamy are

tainly crimes, but they are not such

as

many

cer-

heavy crimes

others to which the same penalty

is 1

decreed in this country.

But

nation forgery, from

effects,

injurious, as

it

its

becomes most

have his pocket picked of dPlOOO

or more, but this

is

only the individual

tenced

bill for

not a capital offence, as

M

who

£5

he

suffers is

;

but

if

a

man

(or rather was) sen-

adduced as another instance the heinousness of :

is

not in having more than one wife,

but in the prospect of the children of the

'

it is

by our laws to be hanged. Bigamy may be

the offence

^

lii

:

forges a

.

destroys confidence and security

of property, affecting the whole mass of society.

A man may

•!

I

in a commercial

first

f !*3

3

LYNCH LAW.

234 marriage being

left

by the com-

to be supported

Formerly, that was also pronounced a

munity.

capital offence.

Of punishments,

it

will

be ob-

served that society has awarded the most severe for crimes

committed against

itself,

against those which most offend principle, in the Southern

rather that

God. Upon this

and Western

States,

you may murder ten white men and no one arraign

will

you or trouble himself about the matter;

but steal one nigger, and the whole community are in arms,

and express the most virtuous

in-

dignation against the sin of theft, although that

of murder will be disregarded.

One or two instances in which Lynch law was called in to assist justice on the bench,

came to

my knowledge. A Yankee had stolen a slave, but as the indictment

was not properly worded, he

knew that he would be acquitted, and he boasted so, previous to the

trial

correct in his supposition

ment was

you

fatal,

;

coming

on.

was

the flaw in the indict-

and he was acquitted.

so," said he,

He "

I told

triumphantly smiling as

he

"T

LYNCH LAW. left

" Yes,"

m

who had been

the court, to the people

ing the issue of the

235 wait-

trial.

replied they,

" it

is

true that you have

been acquitted by Judge Smith, but you have not yet been tried by

Judge Lynch." The

and cow-hided

till

latter

The Yankee was

Judge was very summary. tied up,

.

he was nearly dead

;

they then put him into a dug-out and sent him floating

down

the river.

Another instance

curred which

is

time, throws

some light upon the peculiar

V n oc-

rather amusing, and, at the same state

of society in the West.

There was a bar-keeper the State of Louisiana

who was

at

(if

a great favourite

;

I

some tavern

in

recollect right)

whether from his

judicious mixture of the proportions in mint, juleps,

and gin

I do not

know

cocktails, or ;

from other causes,

but what may appear strange

to the English, he

was elected to an

the law courts of the

State,

similar

office in

to our

Attorney General, and I believe was very sue* cessful, for

an American can turn

his

hand or

1.1

;

LYNCH LAW.

236 his

head to abnost anything.

that a

young man who was

happened

It so

in pri!
ing a negro, applied to this Attorney-General to defend

him

This he did su

in the court.

man was

successfully that the

acquitted

Judge Lynch was as usual waiting and when the attorney came out with the latter was

demanded

to

A

under his protection. attorney was firm

;

:

passes over dissatisfied,

my body."

'<

My

this

and

The populace were

at the

man who had

he could arrange the

and

men, you

all

man, unless he still

same time wantpaid him well,

requested the people to be quiet a

aside,

man was

the attorney not wishing to

lose his popularity,

ing to defend a

This

he drew his bowie-knife, and

no one takes

and

his client,

tumult ensued, but the

addressing the crowd, said,

know me

outside,

be given up.

the attorney refused, saying that the

but

;

affair.

He

moment

until

took his client

and said to him,'' These men will have you,

will

Lynch you,

in spite of all

my

efforts

only one chance remains for you, and you must

1

LYNCH LAW.

237

'It

f'l

accept

it

:

you know that

it is

confines of the next Stute, which if

you

will

You

be secure.

you gain

are

young and

in

m

have been in prison for

two montiis, you have lived on bread and water, and you must be

!;ii

but a mile to the

.

1

['<

good wind, moreover, you

active.

These men who wish to

get hold of you are half drunk, and they never

can run as you can. shall

Now,

I'll

m

propose that you

have one hundred and Hfty yards law,

you exert

and then

if

escape.**^

The man

yourself,

you can

easily

consented, as he could not

help himself: the populace also consented, as the attorney pointed out to them that

any other

arrangement would be injurious to his honour.

The man,

however, did not succeed ; he was so

frightened that he could not run, and in a short

I

11

.

ii

I

time he was taken, and had the usual allowance

of cow-hide awarded by Judge Lynch.

For-

m

tunately he regained his prison before he was quite exhausted,

and was

sent

away during the

night in a steamer.

At

Natches, a young

man

married a young

m

LYNCH LAW.

238

lady of fortune, and, in his passion, actually

He

flogged her to death. there were

was

tried,

but as

no witnesses but negroes, and their

evidence was not

admissible against a white

man, he was acquitted

:

but he did not escape

he was seized, tarred and feathered, scalped,

and turned

adrift in

a canoe without paddles.

Such are the instances of Lynch law being superadded, when

it

has been considered by the

majority that the law has not been sufficiently

The

severe.

when

other variety of

they will not

state of excitement,

Lynch law

is,

wait for law, but, in a

proceed to summary punish-

ment.

The

case

more than once referred to by Miss

Martineau, of the burning alive of a coloured

man

at St. Louis, is

one of the gravest under this

I do not wish to defend

head.

it

in any way,

but I do, for the honour of humanity, wish to offer all that

atrocity

held

up

:

and to

can be said in extenuation of this I think

Miss Mai'iineau, when she

public indignation the monstrous

LYNCH LAW.

239

punishment, was bound to acquaint the public •II

with the cause of an excitable people being led into sucff

'a{>

This unfortunate victim of

3rror.

popular fury was a free coloured man, of a very quarrelsome and malignant disposition

;

he had

'Mm ^M

already been engaged in a variety of disputes,

and was a nuisance to

in the city.

For an attempt

murder another coloured man he had been 'I'll: ' :>

seized,

and was being conducted to prison in the

custody of

Mr. Hammond, the

who

another white person execution of his duty.

sheriff,

assisted

As he

him

'> . '

and

in the

arrived at the

door of the prison, he watched his opportunity, stabbed the person

who was

assisting the sheriff,

and, then passing his knife across the throat of

Mr. Hammond, the and the

latter fell

carotid artery

was divided,

dead upon the spot.

Now,

here was a wretch who, in one day, had three times attempted murder, and had been successful in the instance of

Mr. Hammond, the

a person universally esteemed. it

is

sheriff,

Moreover, when

considered that the culprit was of a race

m

i

LYNCH LAW.

240

who

are looked upon as inferior

that this suc-

;

on the part of a black man was

cessful attempt

considered most dangerous as a precedent to the

negro population

that,

;

away

ness to take life

owing to the unwillingin America, he

might

probably have escaped justice; and that this

moment when

occurred just at the tionists

tion:

the aboli-

were creating such mischief and

—although

it

irritst-

must be lamented that they

should have so disgraced themselves, the sum-

mary and

cruel punishment which

by an incensed populace

is

was awarded

not very surprising.

Miss Martineau has, however, thought proper to pass over the peculiar atrocity of the individual

who was thus

sacrificed: to read her

of the transaction,

it

would appear as

an unoffending party,

sacrificed

if

account

he were

on account of

his colour alone.

Another remarkable instance was the execution

of

five

burgh, on

gamblers at the town of Vicksthe Mississippi.

It

may

appear

strange that people should be lynched for the

LYNCH LAW. mere vice of gambling understood when, in

;

my

but

241

this will

be better

second portion of this

work, I enter into a general view of society in the

United

States.

At

present

it

will

be

sufficient to «

say, that as towns rise in the

South and West, 'h

I

they gradually become peopled with a better class

;

and that, as soon as

this better class is

to accomplish their ends,

sufficiently strong

purification takes place

much

a

to the advantage

better classes

come from the Eastward.

New

Orleans, Natches, and Vicksburgh are evidences

of the truth of observations J have made. In the present instance,

it

was resolved by the people of

Vicksburgh that they would no longer permit their city to be the resort of a set of unprincipled

characters,

and that

all

gamblers by profession

should be compelled to quit

it.

But, as I

have the American account of what occurred, I think

it

will

rather as

be better to give

I was informed

siding there that

VOL.

III.

Ml

I hardly need observe, that these

of society.

it is

it

in detail, the

by a gentleman

perfectly correct

M

:

re-

!

f.

LYNCH LAW.

242 " Our

city has for

some days past been the

theatre of the most novel and startling scenes that

we have

While we

ever witnessed.

regret

that the necessity for such scenes should have existed,

we

are proud of the public spirit

indignation against offenders displayed citizens,

and

by the

and congratulate them on having

at

length banished a class of individuals, whose shameless vices and daring outrages have long

poisoned the springs of morality, and inter-

rupted the relations of society.

For years

past,

professional gamblers, destitute of all sense of

moral obligation— unconnected with society by

any of

its

ordinary

ties,

and

intent only on the

—have made Vicksrendezvous—and, in the

gratification of their avarice

burgh

their place of

very bosom of our society, boldly plotted their vile

and lawless machinations.

where

else,

Here, as every-

the laws of the country were found

wholly ineffectual for the punishment of these individuals; their

and,

numbers and

emboldened by their crimes

impunity,

have daily con-

,

LYNCH LAW. Every

tinued to multiply.

243

species of transgres-

sion followed in their train.

They supported

a

n 1

large

number of

tippling-houses, to which they

would decoy the youthful and unsuspecting, and, after stripping them of their possessions,

send them forth into the world the ready and

Our

desperate instruments of vice.

ever resounding

mth

streets

were

the echoes of their drunken

and obscene mirth, and no

citizen

was secure

from their villany. Frequently, in armed bodies, they have disturbed the good order of public assemblages, insulted our citizens, and defied our civil authorities.

grow bolder

Thus had

they continued to

in their wickedness,

and more

for-

midable in their numbers, until Saturday, the 4th of July

(inst.),

when our

citizens

had

as-

sembled together, with the corps of Vicksburg volunteers, at a barbecue, to celebrate the day

the usual

festivities.

by

After dinner, and during

the delivery of the toasts, one of the officers

attempted to enforce order and silence at the table,

when one of

these gamblers, whose name is

M 2

LYNCH LAW

244 Cabler,

who had impudently

the company, insulted the

of the citizens. high, and

officer,

and struck one

Indignation immediately rose

was only by the interference of the

it

commandant punishment.

thrust himself into

that he

He

was saved from instant

was, however,

permitted to

and the company dispersed. The military

retire,

corps proceeded to the public square of the city,

and were there engaged

in their exercises,

when

information was received that Cabler was coming

up, armed, and resolved to teers,

who had been most

from the racter,

table.

kill

one of the volun-

active in expelling him

Knowing

his desperate cha-

two of the corps instantly stepped

ward and arrested him. large knife

A loaded pistol and a

and dagger were found upon his

person, all of which he

had procured

separated from the company.

would have been respectable

for-

since

To liberate him

to devote several of the

members of the company

geance, and to proceed against

he

most

to his ven-

him at law would

have been mere mockery, inasmuch as, not having



LYNCH LAW.

245

Imd the opportunity of consummating

his de-

no adequate punishment could be

inflicted

sign,

on him.

Consequently,

was determined to

it

take him into the woods and is

a

Lynch him

mode of punishment provided

become obnoxious cannot reach.

He

in a

— which

i

for such as

manner which the law

was immediately carried out

Vi'l

under a guard, attended by a crowd of respect^ able citizens stripes



—tarred

tied

and

to a tree

— punished

feathered, and

with

ordered to

leave the city in forty-eight hours. In the mean-

time, one of his comrades, the Lucifer of his

gang, had been endeavouring to rally and arm his confederates for the

— which, however, he

:p

purpose of rescuing him

failed to accomplish.

A

" Having thus aggravated the whole band of these desperadoes, and feeling no security against their vengeance,

the

citizens

met

at

night in the Court-house, in a large number, and there passed the following resolutions

:

" Resolved, That a notice be given

to all

professional gamblers, that the citizens of Vicks-

m

LYNCH LAW.

246

burg are resolved to exclude them from place and

its

vicinity;

hours' notice be given

" Resolved, That

and that twenty-four

them

all

this

to leave the place.

persons permitting faro-

dealing in their houses, be also notified 'at they will

be prosecuted therefore.

" Resolved, That one hundred

copies of the

foregoing resolutions be printed and stuck at the

comers of the streets— and that

lication

this

up

pub-

be deemed a notice.

" On Sunday morning, one of

these notices

was posted at the corners of each square of the city.

During

that

the gang, terrified

day (the 6th) a majority of

by

the threats of the citizens,

dispersed in different directions, without

any opposition.

It was sincerely

making

hoped that

the remainder would follow their example, and

thus prevent a bloody termination of the

which had commenced.

On

the morning of the

6th, the military corps, followed several

hundred

citizens,

strife

by a

marched

to

file

of

each

suspected house, and sending in an examining

LYNCH LAW.

247

committee, dragged out every faro-table and other gambling apparatus that could be found.

At

length they approached a house which was f

occupied by one of the most profligate of the

h ^1

gang, whose name was North, and in which

it

M

was understood that a garrison of armed men had been

All

stationed.

hoped that these

m

wretches would be intimidated by the superior

numbers of

their assailants,

and surrender them-

selves at discretion rather than attempt a des-

perate defence.

The

house being surrounded,

the back door was burst open,

when four

or five

shots were fired from the interior, one of which instantly killed Dr.

universally

Hugh

Bodley, a citizen

The

beloved and respected.

terior

was so dark that the

seen

but several of the

;

S.

villains

citizens,

ilfu

guided by the

A yell

from one of the party announced that one of the shots

had been

crowd of all

effectual,

and by

citizens, their indignation

other feelings,

this time

a

overcoming

burst open every

m

in-

could not be

flash of their guns, returned their fire.

'"fit I

door of

LYNCH LAW.

248

the building, and dragged into the light those

who had

not been wounded.

" North, the ringleader, who had contrived be found in the

this desperate plot, could not

building, but was apprehended

by a

citizen,

while attempting, in company with another, to

make self,

his escape at a place not far distant.

with the

rest

Him-

of the prisoners, was then

conducted in silence to the

them, not having been

in the

scaffold.

One of

building before

it

was attacked, nor appearing to be concerned with the

rest,

except that he was the brother of

The

one of them, was liberated.

remaining

number of five, among whom was the individual

who had been

shot, but

who

still

lived,

were

immediately executed in presence of the assembled multitude.

All sympathy for the wretches

was completely merged of their crime.

in detestation

The whole

turned to the city, collected into a pile, and burnt them.

a troop of horsemen

set

and horror

procession then reall

the faro-tables

This being done,

out for a neighbouring

I LYNCH LAW.

249

hous?, the residence of J. Hord, the individual

who had attempted first

dav of

the city.

to organize a force on the

this disturbance for the rescue of

who had

Cabler,

u

He

since been threatening to fire

had, however,

made

his escape

that day, and the next morning crossed the

on

Big

Black, at Baldwin's Ferry, in a state of indes*

cribable consternation.

We

111

lament his escape,

as his whole course of life for the last three years

has exhibited the most shameless profligacy, and been a

series

the laws of

of continual transgressions against

God and man.

" The names of the individuals who perished were as follow

:

— North,

HuUams, Dutch

" Their bodies were cut down on the morning after the execution, and buried in a ditch. is

not expected that this act will pass

without censure from those

who had

not an op«

portunity of knowing and feeling the dire necessity

out of which

it

originated.

m

Bill,

Smith, and McCall.

" It

If.-

Tlie laws, how-

ever severe in their provision, have never been

1 r

LYNCH LAW.

260

to correct a vice

sufficient

blished

by

positive proof,

which must be

and cannot, like others,

be shown from circumstantial testimony. practised, too, is

by

its

It is

individuals whose whole study

to violate the law in such a

evade

esta-

punishment, and

who

manner as to

never are in want

of secret confederates to swear them out of their difficulties,

any

whose oaths cannot be impeached for

We

specific cause.

enormities until to suffer

had

liorne with their

them any longer would

not only have proved us to be destitute of every

manly sentiment, but would cated crimes.

us

in

also

have impli-

the guilt of accessaries to their

Society

may be compared

ment s, which, although ' order

is

to the ele-

their first law,'

can sometimes be purified only by a storm.

Whatever, therefore, sickly ish philanthropy

may say

sensibility or

mawk-

against the course pur-

sued by us, we hope that our citizens will not relax the code of

punishment which they have

enacted against this infamous and baleful class of society; and

we

invite

Natches, Jackson,

LYNCH LAW, ColumbuH, AVarrenton, and

251 our

all

sister

towns

name of our

tliroughout the State, in the

in-

and of slaugh-

sulted laws, of offended virtue,

'•'

tered innocence, to aid us in exterminating this

The

deep-rooted vice from our land.

revolution

has been conducted here by the most respectable citizens, heads of families, classes, professions,

and

members of

pursuits.

all

None have

been heard to utter a syllable of censure against either the act or the

manner

in

which

it

was per-i'

formed.

" An Anti-Gambling Society has been formed, the

members of which have pledged

their lives, o

fortunes,

and sacred honours

for the suppression ,itj

of gambling, and the punishment and expulsion

M m

of gamblers.

-I

u

"

Startling as the above

ers, it will ever reflect

zens of Vicksburg,

how

may seem

to foreign-

honour on the insulted

among

those

who

best

citi-

know

to appreciate the motives

by which they

now

stands redeemed

were actuated.

Their

and ventilated from

city

all the vices

and influence of

KM\

.

»

'1

LYNCH LAW.

262

gambling and assignation houses

;

two of the

greatest curses that ever corrupted the morals

of any community."

That the

society in the

towns on the banks of

the Mississippi can only, like the atmosphere,

" be purified by storm,"

is,

am

I

afraid,

but too

true.

I have

now

entered fully,

tially, into the rise

and

I

must leave

conclusions. ficial,

in

mitted

;

it

but

it

has occasionally been bene-

communities

equally certain that

it is

and that but too

only the punishment

but what

is

much

is still

it is

in

often, not

too severe for the

more to be deprecated,

the innocent do occasionally suffer guilty.

own

has been practised, must be ad-

itself indefensible,

ofPjnce,

impar-

readers to form their

in the peculiar state of the

which

trust

and progress of Lynch Law,

my

That

and I

with

the

253

'ft.

CLIMATE. I

WISH the remarks

in this chapter to receive

commenting upon the

peculiar attention, as in

character of the Americans,

them

to point out that

it is

many

but justice to

of what

may be

considered as their errors, arise from circum-

stances over which they have no control

one which has no small weight in

;

and

this scale is

the peculiar climate of the country; for various as is the climate, in such certain it

ment,

it

an extensive region,

that in one point, that of excite-

is,

has, in every portion of

it,

a very per-

nicious effect.

When

I

first

arrived at

of the climate upon the 5th of oppressive.

May,

New York,

me was

the effect

immediate.

On

the heat and closeness were

There was a

sultriness in the air.

kM

CLIMATE.

254

even at that early period of the year, which to

me

Almost every

seemed equal to that of Madras.

day there were, instead of our mild refreshing showers, sharp storms of thunder and lightning

but the

air

by them.

did not appear to

And

me

be cooled

to

yet, strange to say, there

no incipient signs of vegetation their bare arms,

were

the trees waved

:

and while I was throwing

off

every garment which I well could, the females

were walking up and down Broadway wrapped

up

in

warm

shawls. It appeared as if

twice the heat we have in our

it

own

required country,

either to create a free circulation in the blood of

the people, or to stimulate nature after

the torpor of a protracted

winter.

In a week from the period

to rouse

and severe I

have men-

tioned, the trees were in full foliage, the belles

of Broadway walking about in

and thin and

satin shoes,

the

men

summer

dresses

calling for ice,

rejoicing in the beauty of the weather, the

heat of which to

me was most

one respect there appears

to

oppressive.

be very

In

little differ-

255

CLIMATE. ence throughout

which

is,

all

Union

the States of the

summer

in the extreme heat of the

months, and the rapid changes of temperature

which take place

When

I

in

the

twenty-four

hours.

was on Lake Superior the thermometer

stood between 90° and 100° during the day,

and at night was nearly down to the freezing point.

When

as far north,

St. Peter's,

at

which

*;2l

is

nearly

and farther west, the thermometer

stood generally

at

day, and I found northern States

it

100° to 106° during the to be the case in all the

when the winter

as well as in the

more southern.

most

severe,

When

on the

is

Mississippi and Ohio rivers, where the heat was

most insufferable during the day, our navigation

was almost every night suspended by the

thick

dank

fogs,

which covered not only the

waters but the inland country, and which must

be anything but healthy.

In

fact,

in

every

portion of the States which I visited, and in those portions also which I did not visit, the

CLIMATE.

256

extreme heat and rapid changes in the weather

were (according to the information received from other persons) the same.

But I must proceed to the climate

on the

T consider

particulars.

sea-coasts of

the eastern

from Maine to Baltimore, as the most

States,

unhealthy of

all parts

of America ;

added to

as,

the sudden changes, they have cold and easterly winds,

which occasion a great deal of

The inhabitants, more

consumption.

damp

especially

the women, shew this in their appearance, and it is

by the inhabitants that the climate must be

The women

tested.

pretty

;

are very delicate, and very

but they remind you of roses which

have budded

fairly,

but which a check in the

season has not permitted to blow.

Up

to six-

!

teen or seventeen, they promise perfection

;

at

that age their advance appears to be checked.

Mr. Saundersop, work, which called

I

in a very clever

and amusing

recommend every one

" Sketches of

Paris,"

says

t

to read,

" Our

CLIMATE.

257 jiji!

climate

noted for

is

— extreme

three

eminent

qualities

heat and cold, and extreme sudden-

ness of change.

bad

If a lady has

teeth, or

a bad complexion, she lays them conveniently to the climate;

her beauty, like a tender

if

flower, fades before noon,

it

the climate

is

she has a bad temper, or a snub nose,

But our climate

the climate.

lectual, especially in winter,

is

active

and

still

and

—why not

It sustains the infancy of

why

It spares the

?

intel-

skies

1 %t

beauty

bud

i.:fti

Our

negroes are perfect in their teeth

not the whites

beauty

in

?

any country

The

health,

is

To be

tended to as in America.

you must

visit

Europe



illll

chief preservation of

and there

place in which this great interest

^you

is

is

no

so little at-

sensible of this,

must

see the deep-

bosomed maids of England upon the Place Ven-

dome and I

-»p:gfl

not the opened blossom, or the ripened

fruit ?

why

maturity

its

it is

in all seasons

more pure and transparent than the inky of Europe.

if

;

the

Rue

have quoted

Castiglione." this passage, because I think

I

Mi

CLIMATE.

268

Mr. Saunderson upon

his fair

not just

in

countrywomen.

I

is

bad temper does not

that a

these

slurs

acknowledge

directly proceed

from climate, although sickness and suffering, occasioned it.

As

by

climate,

may

produce

indirectly

snub nose, I agree with him,

for the

that climate has not so

Mr. Saunderson

is

much

to

do with

right in saying,

chief preservative of beauty

is

health

;

that.

that the

may

but

I ask him, upon what does health depend but

upon

exercise? and

there in the

if so,

how many days

American summer

in

are

which the

heat will admit of exercise, or in the American

winter in which

it is

possible for

women

to

walk

out ?



if it

were, from the changes in the weather in

^for

carriage driving

is

not exercise, and

I

America, fact

is,

it

will

always be dangerous.

The

that the climate will not admit of the

exercise necessary for health, unless

by running

great risks, and very often contracting cold and chills,

which end in consumption and death.

To

accuse his countrywomen of natural indolence,

CLIMATE. is

unfair ;

As

it is

259

an indolence forced upon them.

for the complexions of the females, I con-

sider they are

much injured by

the universal use

of close stoves, so necessary in the extremity of

Mr.

the winters.

S.'s implication, that

because

negroes have perfect teeth, therefore so should

the whites,

is

The

another error.

and

negroes were

a torrid clime, and there

born

for,

some

difference between their strong ivory mas-

ticators

in,

and the transparent pearly

teeth

is

which

so rapidly decay in the eastern States, from

no

other cause than the variability of the climate. Besides,

do the

teeth

western States decay so fast situation,

women

of the .''

in

the

Take a healthy

with an intermediate climate, such

as Cincinnati,

and you

will

there

find

not

only good teeth, but as deep-bosomed maids as

you

will in

England

;

so

you

will in Virginia,

Kentucky, Missouri, and Wisconsin, which, with a portion of Ohio, are the most healthy States in the Union.

There

is

another proof,

and a positive one, that the women are affected by

mm

CLIMATE.

260

the climate and not through any fault of their

own, which

American

is,

that if

girl to

you transplant a

England, she

delicate

will in

a year

or two become so robust and healthy as not to

be recognized upon her return home that the even temperature of our is,

from the capability of constant

shewing

;

damp

climate

more

exercise,

conducive to health, than the sunny, yet variable atmosphere of America.

The Americans consider

it,

and

are fond of their climate,

as they

do every thing

as the very best in the world.

in

America,

They

are, as I

have said before, most happy in their delusions.

But

if

the climate be not a healthy one, it

tainly a beautiful climate to the eye clear, the air so dry, the tints

inexpressibly beautiful in the

winter months brilliant,

:

;

the sky

is

so

of the foliage so

autumn and

and at night> the

hundreds being

cer-

is

early

stars are so

visible with the

eye which are not to be seen by us. that I

naked

am

not

surprised at the American praising the beauty of their climptj.

The

sun

is terrific

in his heat.



CLIMATE. it is

true,

want of

but

it,

in

try, the

of

England, he

my

Since

shine for weeks.

261

one cannot help feeling the

still

when

ll

will disdain to

return to this coun-

English reader can hardly form an idea

how much

have longed for the sun.

I

After

having sojourned for nearly two years in America, the sight of

it

has to

and I

necessity,

am

me

almost amounted to a

not therefore at

all asto-

nished at an American finding fault with the clima*e of

England

but nevertheless, our

;

cli-

mate, although unprepossessing to the eye, and depressive to the animal spirits,

is

much more

healthy than the exciting and changeable atmosphere, although beautiful in appearance, which

they breathe in the United States.

One

my

of the

points to which I directed

first

attention on

my

arrival in

the diseases most prevalent. States, as

may be

is

hardly

In the eastern

supposed, they have a great

deal of consumption plaint

America, was to

;

known

in the western, the :

of the American diseases

com-

but the general nature ai'e

neuralgic^ or those

-:i

262

CLIMATE.

which

afTect the nerves,

and which are common

the Union.

Ophthalmia, particu-

to almost

all

larly the disease of the ophthalmic nerve, is very

common

in tHe eastern States.

men

me

told

that there were annually

eases of the eye in

perhaps

all

The

New York

correct I cannot say

;

far this

but this I can

I never had any complaint in

more

dis-

city alone, than

How

over Europe.

medical

my

may be

assert, that

eyes until I

arrived in America, and during a stay of eighteen months, I was three times very severely

The

afflicted.

that he

The

oculist

had seven hundred tic

doloureuw

plaint throughout is

is

patients.

another

America,

common com-

—indeed so common

that I should say that one out of ten

it,

suffers

from

ever, are

I

who attended me, asserted

it,

more or

less

;

the majority, how-

women.

saw more

cases of delirium

tremens in

America, than I ever heard of before. the climate

is

In

fact,

one of extreme excitement. I had

not been a week in the country before I dis-

CLIMATE.

how

covered

to drink as

impossible

much wine

England, and

I

it

was for a foreigner

or spirits as he could in

believe that thousands of emi-

grants have been

carried

alteration in their habits

The

263

off

upon

by making no

m

their arrival.^

winters in Wisconsin, loway, Missouri,

and Upper Canada, are dry and healthy, enabling the inhabitants to take any quantity of exercise,

and

I

found that the people looked

forward to their winters with pleasure, longing for the heat of the

summer

Michigan, Indiana,

to abate.

Illinois,

and a portion of

Ohio, are very unhealthy in the autumns from the want of drainage ; the bilious congestive fever,

ague, and dysentery, carrying off large bers.

Virginia, Kentucky,

num-

North Carolina, and

the eastern portions of Tennessee, are comparatively healthy. •

Vermont,

the State of

South

Carolina,

and

all

the

New Hampshire, the interior portion of New York, and all the portions of the

other States which abut on the great lakes, are healthy,

owing to the dryness of the atmosphere being softened

down by the proximity of such large bodies of water.

iH^

CLIMATE.

264

other southern States, are, as

by the yellow

visited

migrate every

fall to

well

it is

known,

and the people

fever,

the northward, not only to

avoid the contagion, but to renovate their general

which

health,

upon

suffers

their energies, the western

country being even cast.

from the continual demand

There

a

is

more exciting than the

fiery disposition in the

erners which is very remarkable

more

;

and

their feelings are

more

this is the effect of climate I shall

the is

by one

many which

much

Spaniard or violent

unrestrainable, as I shall hereafter shew.

to prove

South-

they are

easily excited than even the

Italian, !'<

and southern

and

That

now attempt

or two circumstances, out of fell

under

my

observation.

It

impossible to imagine a greater difference in

character than exists between the hot-blooded

Southerner, and the cold calculating of the eastern States. that tion

and

there

is

I

Yankee

have already said

a continual stream of emigra-

from the eastern States to the southward westward,

the

farmers

of the

eastern

CLIMATE.

265

States leaving their comparatively barren lands to settle

down upon

the interior.

known

a very few years the cha-

Eastern farmer

the

He

changed.

a singular, yet a well

it is

fact, that in

racter of

careful,

Now,

the more grateful soils of

there a

arrives

and sober man;

three years his

ground

is

crops are abundant; but

a different character

is

ii

completely

hard-working,

for the first

well tilled,

two or

and

his

by degrees he becomes

he neglects his farm, so

:

that from rich soil he obtains

no

better crops

than he formerly did upon his poor land in

Massachusetts; he becomes indolent, reckless,

and often intemperate.

Before he has settled ..hi

five years in the

Western country, the climate

has changed him into a Western man, with the peculiar virtues

and

all

vices of the country.

A Boston friend of mine told

me

that he was

"1

once on board of a steam-boat on the Mississippi^

and found that an old schoolfellow was first mate

' If'

of the vessel.

They ran upon a

snag^ and were

obliged to lay the vessel on shore until they

VOL.

III.

X

i'l

CLIMATE.

•266

could put the cargo on board of another steam-

The

passengers,

as usual on such occasions, instead of

grumbling

boat,

and

repair the damage.

what could not be helped, as people do in

at

England, made themselves merry

;

and because

they could not proceed on their voyage, they

They

very wisely resolved to drink champagne.

did so: a further supply being required, this first

mate was sent down into the hold

it.

My

to procure

Boston friend happened to be at the

hatchway when he went down with a

flaring

candle in his hand, and he observed the mate to creep over several small barrels until he found the *'

champagne

What

the mate

is

cases,

and ordered them up.

in those barrels ^" enquired

when he came up

" Oh, gunpowder r

he of

again.

replied the mate.

" Good Heavens !*" exclaimed the Bostonian, "

is it

possible that

you could be

so careless ?

%vhy I should have thought better of you '

;

you

used to be a prudent man."

" Yes, and

so I was, until I

came

into this

CLIMATE.

267 ll

part of the country;" replied the mate,

"but

ill :ti<1

somehow or another,

I don't care for things

which, when I was in frightened

me

my own

out of

my

State,

wits."

now,

would have

Here was a

good proof of the Southern recklessness having been imbibed by a cautious Yankee.

have adduced

I

the above instances,

be-

cause I consider that the excitement so general

throughout the Union, and forming so remarkable a feature in the American character, ed

much more by

cause

climate than

is

occasion-

by any other

that the peculiarity of their institutions

:

affords constant aliment for this excitement to

upon

feed

is

true,

and

it

is therefore

seldom

allowed to repose. I think, moreover, that their climate

is

the occasion of two bad habits to

which the Americans are prone, namely, the use of tobacco and of spirituous liquors.

An !

it'

Englishman could not drink as the Americans do ;

it

time,

would destroy him here

by the

his nerves.

irritation it

But

in a very short

would produce upon

the effect of tobacco

is

narcotic

ill

;

CLIMATE.

268 and

anti -nervous

it

;

allays that irritation,

and

enables the American to indulge in stimulating habits without their being attended with such

immediate

To

(jonsequences.

ill

the rapid changes of the climate, and to

the extreme heat,

must be

also to a great degree

ascribed the excessive use of spirituous liquors

the

system

being

;

by the sudden

depressed

changes demanding stimulus to equalize the pulse.

mer

The

another cause or

is also

Reid says,

extraordinary heat during the sum-

in his

the States, " the

Tour through

disposition to drink

only to consider

The Rev. Mr.

it.

now became

how we might

the thermometer rose to 100°,

to

acknowledged

;

we had

safely gratify

it

and the heat and

perspiration were intolerable." tian divine

intense

Now,

if

this feeling,

a Chrisit

is

not

be supposed but that others must be equally

affected.

heat

To drink pure water during this extreme

is ^^ery

dangerous

some wine or

spirit

;

:

it

must be

and thus

led into a habit of drinking,

is

qualified with

an American

from which

it is

not

M CLIMATE.

269

very easy, indeed hardly possible, for him to abstain, except during the winter, in

America are too cold

any of

his habits.

it

ricans,

my

and shew, that

:

them than there

is

from

far

it

but

;

remarks upon the Ameif

they are intemperate

(which they certainly are), there for

to leave off

not be supposed that

I wish to excuse intemperance

I wish to be just in

man

for a

Let

and the winters

is

more excuse

for other nations,

from

their temptation arising out of circumstances.

There in

is

but one

otlier point to

be considered

examining into the climate of America.

will

be admitted that the American stock

It

is

the

very best in the world, being originally English, with a favourable admixture of German, Irish,

French, and other northern countries.

It

more-

over has the great advantage of a continual importation of the same varieties of stock to

and improve the breed.

The

'-ross

question then

is,

have the American race improved or degenerated since

the

first

settlement

?

If they have de-

generated, the climate cannot be healthy.

.

CLIMATE.

270 I

I

was very particular

point,

in examining into this

and I have no hesitation in saying, that

the American people are not equal in strength

may

or in form to the English.

I

Americans by

and they may

this assertion,

displease the

forward their Backwoods-men and tuckians,

who live

Alleghany

Mountains, as evidence to the contrary

are not well made, nor so well ginians,

who

Ken-

their

at the spurs of the

although they are powerful and

bring-

;

but

tall

men, they

made

as the Vir-

are the finest race in the Union.

There

is

figure

common

one peculiar defect in the American to both sexes,

rowness of the shoulders, and

which

it is

is,

nar-

a very great

defect; there seems to be a check to the expansion

of the chest in their climate, the physiological causes of which I leave to others.

On

the whole,

they certainl}^ are a taller race than the natives of

Europe, but not with proportionate muscular strength.

Their climate, therefore,

I

unhesi-

tatingly pronounce to be bad, being injurious to

them

in the

two important

points, of healthy

CLIMATE.

271

action of the vigour in the body, and healthy

mind

;

to deenervating the one, and tending

moralize the other.

«\

rr

272

EDUCATION.

Mb. Caret,

in his statistical work, falls into

the great error of most American writers

—that

of lauding his own country and countrymen,

and inducing them to believe that they are superior to

all

injudicious,

character

:

nations under heaven. This

is

very

and highly injurious to the national

it

upholds that

self-conceit to

which

the Americans are already so prone, and checks that improvement so necessary to place them

a level with the English nation. ricans have gained

more by

on

The Ame-

their faults

having

been pointed out by travellers than they will choose to allow; and, from his moral courage in fearlessly pointing out the truth, the best friend

to America,

among

been Dr. Channing.

their

own countrymen, has

I certainly

impression, previous to

my

was under the

visit to

the United

ifs

EDUCATION.

versal there than in I

took,

much more

was

education

that

States,

England

and every mile I

my my

opinion

cult

;

273

as,

but every step

;

travelled, lowerecT

To

estimate on that point.

by

statistical tables

much

after

uni-

diligent

substantiate

would be

diffi-

search, I

find

that I can only obtain a correct return of a portion of our own establishments

;

but, even were I

able to obtain a general return, avail

me much,

as

return to oppose to

it

would not

Mr. Carey has no general

He gives

it.

us, as usual,

Massachusetts and one or two other States,

but no more

;

Massachusetts

and, as I have before observed, is

His remarks

not America.

and quotations from English authors are not fair;

they are loose and partial observations,

made by Not

those

who have

that I blame

a case to substantiate.

Mr. Carey

for

making use of

those authorities, such as they are

;

but I wish

to shew that they have misled him. I

must

first

observe that Mr. Carey's estimate

of education in England

is

much

lower than

it

N 3 I

EDUCATION.

274 ought to be

and I may afterwards prove that

;

United States

his estimate of education in the is

equally erroneous on the other side.

To

estimate the

amount of education

Eng-

in

land by the number oi national schools must ever

be wrong.

In America, by so doing, a

proximation of

may be

arrived at, as the education

all classes is chiefly

England the rich

case

and those

fair ap-

is

confined to them different

;

but

not only the

;

the middling classes of

in

in

life,

but a large proportion of the poor, sending their

Could

children to private schools.

I

have ob-

tained a return of the private seminaries in the

United Kingdom, Carey.

The

would have astonished Mr.

small parish of Kensington and

vicinity has only tains

it

two national

schools, but

292* private establishments

and I might produce

it

its

con-

for education

fifty others, in

;

which the

proportion would be almost as remarkable.

I

have said that a large portion of the poorer classes in

England send

ers.

This

arises

their children to private teach-

from a

fv ^ling

* I believe this estimate

is

of pride

;

below the mark.

they

EDUCATION.

275

prefer paying for the tuition of their children

by

rather than having their children educated

the parish, as they term the national schools.

The

consequence

hamlet, you

lage, or

" dame

that in every town, or vil-

is,

will

find that there are

schools," as they are termed, at which

about one-half of the children are educated.

The

subject of

national education has not

been warmly taken up in England until within these last twenty-five years,

and has made great

progress during that period.

England Society

for National

established in 1813.

mation

tliere

Two

number of

By

this Society,

these schools

of

Education was

years after

its for-

were only S30 schools, contain-

ing 40,484 children.

Report of

The Church

the Twenty-seventh

ending the year 1838,

had increased

to 17,341,

scholars to 1,003,087.

and the

But

this, it *ii

must be

recollected, is

but a small proportion

of the public education in England senters having been equally diligent,

schools being quite as

numerous

;

the Dis-

and

their

in proportion



EDUCATION.

276

We

numbers.

to their

have, moreover,

the

workhouse schools, and the dame schools before mentioned, for the poorer classes rich

and middling

;

and

for the

classes, establishments

them

private tuition, which, could the returns of

and of the scholars be made, would, vinced,

amount

to

more than

I

am

five times the

for

con-

num-

ber of the national and public establishments.

But

as

Mr. Carey does not bring forward

statistical proofs,

can do

all that I

and

I cannot

is to

venture

what I learnt and saw during

his

produce mine,

my opinion from my sojourn in the

United States, or have obtained from American

and other

The may be Reid

authorities.

State of Massachusetts

is

a school

said that all there are educated.

states in his

" It was 161 towns

work

it

Mr.

:

lately ascertained ir\

;

by returns from

Massachusetts, that the number

of scholars was 12,393

;

that the

number of

persons in the towns between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one

who

are unable to write

EDUCATION. was

fifty-eight

and

;

only three persons

one town there were

in

who

277

could not read or write,

,!»

and those three were dumb." I readily assent to

and

tiiis,

necticut equal to Massachusetts

leave these

two

you

States,

and thus the

in rank,

but as you

;

find that education

New York

gradually diminishes.*

Con-

I consider

is

the next

scale descends until

you

arrive at absolute ignorance. I will

now

give what I consider as a fair and

impartial tabular analysis of the degrees of education in the different States in the Union.

may be

cavilled at, but

it

It

will nevertheless be a 'ilf.i

fair

approximation.

it is

It

must be remembered that

not intended to imply that there are not a

certain portion of well-educated people in those

States put *

A

down

in Class 4, as ignorant States,

church-yard with

its

mementos of mortality is which to judjj^e of the

sometimes a fair criterion by

degree of the education of those

who

live

of the church-yards in Vermont, there

near

is

it.

with an inscription which commences as follows "

(^

©

Paws,

reader,

paws."

In one

a tomb-stone

:—

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^"^ ^

o^

EDUCATIOX.

278

but they are included in the Northern

States,

where they principally receive their education.

Degrees of Education in the different States in the Union, Population.

Ist Class.

Massachusets

700,000

Connecticut

298,000

998,000 2nd Class.

New York

2,400,000*

Maine

555,000

New Hampshire

300,000

Vermont

330,000

Rhode

110,000

New

Island

360,000

Jersey

Ohio

1,300,000

5,355,000 • list;

no

New York but Ohio

closer.

is

is

superior to the other States in this

not quite equal.

I

can draw the line

EDUCATION. 3rd Class.

279 Population.

Virginia

1,360,000

North Carolina

800,000

South Carolina

650,000

Pennsylvannia

1,600,000*

Maryland

500,000

Delaware

80,00

Columbia

50,000

(district)

Kentucky

800,000

u,840,000 4th Class.

*

Tennesse

900,000

Georgia

620,000

Indiana

550,000

Illinois

320,000

Alabama

500,000

Lousiana

350,000

Missouri

350,000

Mississippi

150,000

Notwithstanding that Philadelphia

the State of Philadelphia

is

is

a great dunce.

_

the capital,



280

KDUCATION. Population.

Michigan

'.

1520,000

Arkansas

70,000

Wisconsin

20,000

...

50,000

Florida (territory)

5,000,000 If I

am

correct,

appears then that we

it

have,

Highly educated

998,000

Equal with Scotland

5,355,000

Not equal with England... 5,840,000 Uneducated This census

is

5,000,000

an estimate of 1836,

sufficiently

It is supposed that the

near for the pur|)ose.

population of the United States has since increased about two millions, and of that increase the great majority

is

in

the

Western

States,

where the people are wholly uneducated. Taking, therefore, the first three classes, in

education in various degrees,

amount

to 12,193,000

;

we

which there

is

find that they

against which

we may

EDUCATION.

281

fairly

put the 5,000,000 uneducated, adding

to

the 2,000,000 increased population, and

it,

3,000,000 of I believe

slaves.

the above to be a fair estimate,

although nothing

|x)sitive

can be collected from

In making a comparison of the degree of

it.

education in the United States and in England,

In Eng-

one point should not be overlooked. land, children

are taken

have

away

little

afterwards. is

may be

m

sent to school, but they

as soon as they are useful,

and

time to follow up their education

Worked

like machines, every

hour

devoted to labour, and a large portion for-

get,

from disuse, what they have learnt when In America, they have the advantage

young.

not only of being educated, but of plenty of time,

if

they choose, to profit by their

education in after

ought,

having

life.

The mass

in

America

therefore, to be better educated

than

the mass in England, where circumstances are against

it.

I must

now examine

the nature of

education given in the United States.

i

EDUCATIOX.

282 It

axiom

as an

admitted

is

in the

United

States, tliat the only chance they have of up-

holding their present institutions cation of the mass

that

;

is

is

by the edu-

who

to say, n people

would govern themselves must be enlightened. Convinced of

this

necessity,

every pains has

been taken by the Federal and State govern-

ments to provide the necessary means of educa-

This

tion.*

is

granted

;

but now we have to

inquire into the nature of the education, and

the advantages derived from such education as is

received in the United States.

In the

what

place,

education?

Is

teaching a boy to read and write education ?

If

so,

first

is

a large proportion of the American com-

munity may be

said

to be educated

you supply a man with a therefore

;

but, if

chest of tools, does he

become a carpenter? You

certainly

give him the means of working at the trade, but Miss Martineau says nation nation,

is

:

" Though, as a whole, the

probahly better informed than any other entire

it

inferior to

cannot be denied, that their knowledge

what their safety and their virtue

is

far

rcqiiire.''

^

:

EDUCATION.

may only

cut

his

Reading and writing without

tlie

fur-

of

instead lingers.

283

learning

he

it,

ther assistance necessary to guide people aright, is

nothing more than the chest of

Then, what

is

education.'*

tools.

I consider that

education commences before a child can walk the

first

principle of education, the

and without which

portant,

tempts at

it

subsequent

are but as leather and prunella,

lesson of obedience

control

all

— of submitting

is

at-

the

to parental

— " Honour thy father and thy mothei*

Now, any one who has been States

most im-

in the

must have perceived that there

no parental

control.

/"

United

is little

or

This has been remarked by

most of the writers who have visited the country indeed, to an Englishman

How

able feature.

is it

it is

a most remark-

possible for a child to

be brought up in the way that

when he parents sort of

?

is

I

;

it

should go

not obedient to the will of his

have often

musing

fallen into

a melancholy

after witnessing such

remarkable

specimens of uncontrolled will in children

;

and



EDUCATION.

284 as tlic father

and mother

have tliought that they

1)oth smiled

at it,

I

knew what sorrow

little

and vexation were probably in store for them,

own

consequence of their

in

ment of

Imagine a child of

offspring.

their

three years old in

injudicious treat-

England behaving thus:

"Johnny, my

dear,

come

here,"

says his

mamma. "

I won't," cries

*'

You

must,

Johnny.

my

love,

you are

all

wet,

and

you'll catch cold.'* *'

I won't," replies

" Come,

my

Johnny.

sweet,

and

I've something for

you."

«

I won't."

" Oh Mr. !

,

do, pray

make Johnny come

m.

" Come

in,

"

I won't."

*'

I

tell

Johnny," says the

father.

you, come in directly,

sir

—do you

hear ?"

"

I won't," replies the

heels.

urchin, taking to his

EDUCATION. "

A

sturdy republican,

sir,"

285 says

liis

father to

111

me, smiling at the boy's resolute disobedience.

Be

it

recollected that I give this as one in-

stance of a thousand which I witnessed during

my

sojourn in the country.

It

may be

inquired,

case at present,

how

is it

that such

when the obedience

is

the

to parents

was so rigorously inculcated by the Puritan fathers, that

by the Blue Laws, the punishment

of disobedience was death cribes

it

?

to the democracy,

Captain Hall

as-

and the rights of

equality therein acknowledged;

but I think,

allowing the spirit of their institutions to have

some

producing

effect in

cipal cause of

this evil, that the prin-

the total neglect of the chil-

it is

dren by the father, and his absence in his professional pursuits,

and the natural weakness of

most mothers, when

their children are left alto-

gether to their care and guidance.

Mr. Saunderson, serves

—" The

so eulogized

by

in his Sketches of Paris, ob-

motherly virtues of our women, foreigners, is not entitled to un-

u

;

286

EDUCATION.

qualified praise.

There

maternal care

none

is

is

no country

so assiduous

in

wiiicli

hut also there

;

is

which examples of injudicious tender-

in

ness are so frequent.**' This I helieve to be true

not that the American

women

more

are really

injudicious than those of England, hut because

they are not supported as they should be by the authority

whom

of the father, of

the child

should always entertain a certain portion of fear

mixed with

affection,

to

counterbalance the

indulgence accorded by natural yearnings of a mother's heart.

The

from

self-will arising

error manifests itself

fundamental

this

throughout

the

whole

career of the American's existence, and, conse-

quently,

At

it is

a self-willed nation pai'

the age of six or seven you will hear both

boys and

girls contradicting their fathers

mothers, and advancing their

a

firmness which

At

ecccellence.

is

own

and

opinions with

very striking.

fourteen or fifteen the boys will seldom

remain longer at school.

At

college,

it

is

the



:

EDUCATION. and they learn

thinrr;*

saiiic

and no more.

please,

not jxjrmitted

an extract case

I took

we

is

judge from

are to

from an American paper, the

reversed.

is

The

following

"

Ilules" arc posted

Jersey school-house

No

**

what they

precisely

Corporal punishment

indeed, if

;

287

up

in

New

:

kissing girls in school time

;

no licking

the master during holydays.*'

At sixteen, often niiifh earlier, cducatiun ends and inoiioy making begins; the idea that INFrs.Trollopp says'

more

learniti^

time,

is

is

'*

necessary than can be acquired by that

tjctiorally ridiculed as

added to which,

if

money

monkish

bip;otry

more prolonged

When

would refuse submission.

^cttinjif l)0|;ins,

which can be

absolute

the seniors willed a

disci|iline, the juniors tiie

'

leisure ceases,

and

all the lore

itcquired afterwards is picked

up from

novels, majjazines, and newspapers."

Captain Hall also remarks upon this point:—''

now from There

men

is

the authority of the

I

speak

Americans themselves.

the greatest possible difficulty in fixing

young

long enough at college. Innumerable devices have

been tried with considerable ingenuity to remedy this

evil,

and the best possible intentions by the professors and other public-spirited persons to see so

many

who

are sincerely grieved

incompetent, half-qualified

every corner of the country."

men

in

almost

^%

EUUCATTOX.

288

At

(ifteeii

or sixteen,

assumes the .nan

not at

if

he enters into business, as a

;

cleri< to

some merchant, or

father^s

home

is

collcfre, tlie l)oy

some

in

His

store.

abandoned, except when

it

may

suit his convenience, his salary being sufficient

for most of his wants.

He

frequents the bar, calls

for gin cocktails, chews tobacco, and talks poli-

His

tics.

profited

theoretical education,

much by

by a more

it

or not,

now superseded

practical one, in which he obtains

a most rapid proficiency. in asserting that there

ledge

is

whether he has

among

is

I

have no hesitation

more

practical

the Americans than

know-

among any

other people under the sun.* Cu|jtHii)

I

Hamilton very truly observes

— "Though

New York

with many

have unquestionably met in

most

intelligent

and accomplished gentlemen,

still

I

think the fact cannot be denied, that the average of ac-

quirement resulting from education

is

a good deal lower

in this country than in the better circles in England.

In

all

the knowledge

which must be taught, and which

requires laborious study for

its

attainment, I should say

the Americans are considerably inferior to

men.

my

country-

In that knowledge, on tho other hand, which the

individual acquires for himself by actual observation,

which

EDUCATION. r

It is singular that, in

'a

whether

be of good or

289

America, every thing, evil,

appears to assist

the country in going a-head.

This very want

it

lis

\y

of parental control, however

it

may

the

affect

It

morals of the community,

is

certainly advan-

IS

tageous to America, as far as her rapid advance-

ment

is

concerned.

Boys are working

like

men

years l)efore they would be in England

for

time

is

money, and they

assist to

;

bring in the

IS

harvest.

But does

tliis

independence on the part of the

r_

youth of America end here what at

first

?

On

the contrary,

was independence^ assumes next the

form of opposition, and eventually that of control.

The young men,

before they are qualified

by

age to claim their rights as citizens, have their societies, their

book-clubs, their political meet-

which bears an immediate marketable value and

is di-

rectly available in the ordinary avocations of

I

life,

do

not imagine that the Americans are excelled by any peo* plo in the world."

VOL. III.

4 O

EDUCATION.

290

ings, their resolutions, all of

ated in the newspapers

young men's

;

which are promul-

and very often the

upon by the

societies are called

newspapers to come forward with their opinions.

Here

is

opposition.

"Democrat"

(p.

Mr. Cooper

says, in his

152)—

" The defects in American deportment are,

Among

withstanding, numerous and palpable.

the

first

may

not-

be ranked, insubordination in

children, and a great want of respect for age.

The former

vice

may be ascribed

to the business

habits of the country, which leave so

little

for parental instruction, and, perhaps, in

time

some

degree to the acts of political agents, who, with their

own advantages

in view,

among

the other

expedients of their cunning, have resorted to the artifice of separating children from their natural advisers by calling meetings of the to decide

young

on the fortunes and policy of the

country.*"

But what

is

more remarkable,

society has been

th2

is

the fact that

usurped by the young people,

married and old people have been, to a

EDUCATION. certain

291

degree, excluded from

lady will give a

men and young women

of her acquaintance;

permitted to enter, and her

is

father

and mother are requested

stairs,

that they

amusement.

young

and ask none but young

ball,

not a chaperon

A

it.

may

This

to stay

not interfere with constantly

is

the case

up the in

Philadelphia and Baltimore, and I have heard bitter complaints

ple concerning son, in his ''

it.

made by Here

Mr. Sander-

give a tone to society should

have maturity of mind

ment of taste, which

is

;

they should have refine-

a quality of age.

As long

beaux and hoarding-school misses

take the lead,

it

must be an insipid

whatever community villainous, in

may

it

exist.

society, in

Is

it

not

your Quakerships of Philadelphia,

to lay us, before

upon the

control.

" Sketches of Paris," observes

They who

as college

is

the married peo-

shelf?

we have

lived half our time out,

Some of the native tribes, more

merciful, eat the old folks out of the way."

However, retribution follows: in

o2

their turn

H

EDUCATION.

292

they marry, and arc ejected

they have chil-

;

The pangs which

dren, and are disobeyed.

they

have occasioned to their own parents are now suffered

by them

their

own children

go on,

in return,

and thus

;

until the system

All this

is

through the conduct of goes on, and will

changed.

is

undeniable

it

;

and thus

appears

it

that the youth of America, being under no control,

acquire just as

more, of what

This

ledge.

is

education, for will learn

much

may be termed the

first

nca

is

theoretical

know-

great error in American

how many boys

will not

ten, and, therefore, it

Now,

and no

who

are there

without coercion, in proportion to the

number who

one in ten

as they please,

is

.''

Certainly not one in

may be assumed

that not

properly instructed.*

that the education of the youth of

much

injured

by

this

Ame-

want of control on

* The master of a school could not manage the gals they being exceedingly contumacious.

Beat them, he

dared not; so he hit upon an expedient.

He made

a

very strong decoction of wormwood, and, for a slight offence,

more

poured one spoonful down their throats

serious one, he

made them take

two.

:

for

a

EDUCATION. the part of the parents,

•293

by

is easily establislied

the fact that in those States wliere the parental control

is

education great

the greatest, as in Massachusetts, the is

proportionably superior.

error

followed

is

more lamentable

it is

:

But

this

by consequences even

the

first

dissolving power

of the kindred attraction, so manifest througliout

all

American

infancy there

and children tion

;

Beyond the period

no endearment between

none of that sweet

between brothers and

links

sisters

which unite one family

confidence; cess

is

society.

;

of

parentis

spirit of affec-

none of those

;

of that mutual

;

that rejoicing in each other's suc-

that refuge,

when we

are depressed or

bosoms of those who love us

afflicted, in the

the sweetest portion of

human

existence,

which

supports us under, and encourages us firmly to brave, the

ills

In short, there rica as

of is

"Home,

life

—nothing

of this existi^

hardly such a thing in sweet home.'*

exceptions to this, I grant great majority of cases,

;

That

but

there

ari**

I speak of the

and the

the character of the nation.

Ame*

results

upon

Mr. Cooper, speak

EDUCATION.

294

ing of the weakness of the family

tie in

Ame-

rica, says

" Let the reason be what to cut us off

ness that

The

it

will,

is

from a large portion of the happi-

dependent on the affections."

is

next error of American education

in their anxiety to instil into the

a proper and ardent love of their feelings

the effect

is,

that

minds of youth

own institutions,

and sentiments are fostered which ought

to be most carefully checked.

It matters little

whether these feelings (in themselves vices) are directed against the institutions of other countries; the

vice once engendered

remains, and

hatred once implanted in the breast of youth, will not

be confined in

its action.

Neither will

national conceit remain only national conceit,

or vanity be confined to admiration of a form of

government

;

in the present

the youth of America, lity,

all

mode of educating

sight is lost of

humi-

good-will, and the other Christian virtues,

which are necessary to constitute a good man, whether he be an American, or of any other country.

EDUCATION.

295

Let us examine the manner in which a is

Democracy, equality, the vastness of

taught.

Is

his

cliild

own country,

the glorious independence, the

superiority of the

Americans

in all conflicts

upon

sea or land, are impressed

his

by

mind before

All their elementary books

e can well read.

contain garbled and false accounts of naval and

land engagements, in which every credit to the Americans,

narchy

clared; all

man

de-

uncharitableness, and

invective,

is

Mo-

opponents.

their

derided, the equal rights of

is

given

and equal vituperation and

upon

disgrace thrown

is

falsehood.

That

I

may

asserted too

from a

not in this be supposed to have

much, I

child's

book, which

rica as a curiosity, it

is

called the

Children

;"

will quote a reading lesson

and

is

I

purchased in

now

in

this, relative to

my possession

" Primary Reader

and contains many

Ame-

for

Young

stories besides

the history of the country.

"Lesson

62.

" Story about the 4th of July. 6.

"

1

must

tell

you what the people of

New

'"""I



EDUCATION.

296

York

In a certain spot in that city there

did.

stood a large statue, or representation, of King-

George TIT.



hand he held a on

his

was made of

In one

lead.

sceptre, or kind of

sword

;

and

head he wore a crown.

"

7.

it

When

the news of the Declaration of

Independence reached the

city,

a great multi-

tude were seen running to the statue.

" The cry was heard,

8.

down

with

about

its

it

!''

*

Down

with

it

and soon a rope was placed

neck, and the leaden

King George

came tumbling down. 9.

" This might

fairly

be interpreted, as a

striking prediction of the downfal of the mo-

narchial form of government in these

United

States.

10. " If

we look

into history,

we

shall fre-

quently find great events proceeding from as trifling causes as the fall

of the leaden statue,

which not unaptly represents the character of a despotic prince. 11.

"I

shall only add, that

when the

statue



;

EDUCATION. was

fairly

down,

was cut

it

verted into musket

whom

his majesty

to pieces,

and con-

to kill the soldiers

balls,

had

297

sent over to fight the

Americans."

This

quite sufficient for

is

have no doubt that

Americans

— "We

it

a specimen.

be argued by

will

tlie

are justified in bringing

our youth to love our institutions."

I admit

up it

but you bring them up to hate other people, before they have sufficient intellect to under-

stand the merits of the case.

The

author of

"A

Voice from America"

observes

" Such, effect

to a great extent, is the unavoidable

of that political education which

pensable to

all classes

They must be it

must go

of a self-governed people.

trained to

into all schools

from their cradle

it

;

it

leaven the national literature

upon

line,

and there a

;

must thoroughly it

must be

precept upon precept,' little

;

it

indis-

is

here a

'

line

little

must be sung, discoursed, *i

o 3

»m;vg,uvr^

EDUCATION.

298

and thought upon everywhere and by everybody."

And

so

were not

it is

;

and

sufficient,

as if this scholastic drilling

every year brings round the

4th of July, on which

is

read in every portion

of the States the Act of Independence, in sufficiently vituperative,

up by one speech

itself

but invariably followed

not more) from some great

(if

personage of the village, hamlet, town, or city, as it

may

against

more he is

be, in

which the more violent he

is

monarchy and the English, and the flatters his

own countrymen,

the

more

his speech applauded.

Every year

is this

American boy, he

takes

drilled into the ears of the

until

he leaves school, when

a political part himself, connecting

himself with some

young men's

society,

where

he spouts about tyrants, crowned heads, shades of his forefathers, blood flowing like water, inde-

pendence, and glory.

The Rev. Mr. Reid

very truly observes, of

EDUCATION.

299

the reading of the Declaration of Independence

—" There

one thing, however, that

is

may

justly claim the calm consideration of a great

and generous people. has passed away,

is it

Now

that half a century

necessary to the pleasures

of this day to revive feelings in the children

which,

if

they were found in the parent, were to

be excused only by the extremities to which they

were pressed

Is

?

it

generous,

now

tliat

they

have achieved the victory, not to forgive the adversary

?

Is

it

manly, now that they have

nothing to fear from Britain, to indulge in expressions of hate

and vindictiveness, which are

the proper language of fear

Would

there be

because there was more charity

less patriotism,

America should and peculiar.

?

feel that

?

her destinies are high

She should scorn the patriotism

which cherishes the love of

by the hatred of all

one''s

own

country,

others.""

I think, after what I have brought forward,

the reader will agree with mc, that the education of the youth in the United States

is

im-

;

EDUCATION.

300

moral, and the evidence that demoralization

which has

is so, is

it

in the

place in the

taicen

United States since the era of the Declaration of Independence, and which fact

by

so

is freely

admitted

many American writers— " ^tas parentum pojor avis

Nos nequ lores, mox

tulit

daturos

Progeniem vitiosiorem." HoruvCy

I shall

by and bye shew some of

duced by

this injudicious

of which,

if it is

lib, iii.,

ode

the effects pro-

system of education

necessary to uphold their demo-

cratical institutions, I can only say, with

Franklin, that the Americans

dear for their It

is,

I have

more equally

it

fact, that

to be)

diffused.

is

too

education (such as

in the United States

They have

citizens of the States (except

the West)

"pay much

Dr.

whistle.''''

however, a

shown

H.

very few

a portion of those in

who may be considered

wood and drawers of water,"

as

" hewers of

those duties being

performed by the emigrant Irish and German,

EDUCATION. and the

The education of

slave |iopulation.

higher classes

is

not

301

by any means equal

You

of the old countries of Europe. rarely with a

good

classical

the

to that

meet very

scholar, or a very

highly educated man, although some there certainly are,

The Americans attainments

the legal

especially in

;

profession.

have not the leisure for such

hereafter they

may have

;

but at

present

they do right to look principally to

Europe

for literature,

as

thence cheaper and better.

you

fession

they can obtain

In every liberal pro-

will find that the ordeal necessary to

be gone through

is

not such as

it is

were, the difficulty of retaining the college

would be much

such

the case, I will

is

it

increased.

with us

;

if it

young men at

To show that

now just give the difference

of the acquirements demanded in the new and old

country to qualify a young

American Physician.

English Thysician. 1.

A regular classical edu-

man as an M.D. :—

1.

Not required.

2.

One

cation at a college. 2.

Apprenticeship of not less

than

five years.

'^wri(^B'i?'*>

year's apprentice-

ship.

EDUCATION.

302 3.

Preliminary

4.

Sixteen months' attend-

tion

ill

exaniina-

3.

Not

4.

Eiffht

re4 ired.

the cla9nica,&o.

ance at lecturcH

in

months

in

t,rO

early into

life

year*/

2^

years. 5.

Twelve months' hospi-

5.

Not

required,

n.

Nut

required.

tal practice. G.

Lectures on botany, natural, philosophy, &c.

If the

men

in

America enter so

that they have not time to obtain the acquire-

ments supposed to be requisite with

us,

it is

much

the same thing with the females of the upper classes,

who, from the precocious ripening by the

climate and consequent early marriages, said to

may be

throw down their dolls that they

may

nurse their children.

The Americans

are very justly

women, and appear

tacitly to

want of theoretical education

by the care and

their

acknowledge the in their

attention which they

the instruction of the other. are,

proud of

own pay

sex to

Their exertions

however, to a certain degree, checked by

the circumstance, that there

is

not sufficient time

303

EDUCATION.

allowed previous to the marriage of the fenialet to f^ive that solidity to tlieir

knowledge which

would ensure

They attempt too

much

its

pernianency.

a space of time.

for so short

years arc usually the

(leriixl

young women remain

at

colleges I

male

may call them

colleges).

Two or three

during which the

the establishments, or

(for in reality they arc fe-

In the prosf>ectus of the Albany

Female Academy,

I

find

that

through the following branches

:

the classes run

— I're»rh, b
keeping, ancient history, ecclesiastical history, history of literature, composition, political eco-

nomy, American ology,

constitution, law, natural the-

mental philosophy, geometry, trigono-

metry, algebra, natural philosophy, astronomy, chemistry, botany, mineralogy, geology, natural history,

and technology, besides drawing, pen-

manship, &c. &c. It is almost impossible for the

for

mind

to retain,

any length of time, such a variety of know-

ledge, forced into

it l)efore

a female has arrived

to the age of sixteen or seventeen, at which age,

--%,'t

EDUCATION,

304 the study of in

these sciences,

as

is

the case

England, should commence, not Jinish.

I

have already mentioned, that the examinations

which I attended were highly creditable both to preceptors

and pupils

American woman,

;

but the duties of an

as I shall hereafter explain,

soon find her other occupation, and the ologies are lost in the realities of

life.

Diplomas are

given at most of these establishments on the

young

ladies completing their course of studies.

Indeed,

it

appears to be almost necessary that a

young lady should produce certificate

" Yes,"

I

observed to an American gentle-

youthful his wife appeared to be

replied he,

after she

diploma as a

of being qualified to bring up young

republicans.

man how

this

"I

married her a month

had graduated,""

The

following are

the terms of a diploma, which was given to a

young lady mitted

at Cincinnati,

and which she

per-

me to copy :—

" In testimony of the zeal and industry with which Miss

M

T

has prosecuted the

EDUCATION.

305

prescribed course of studies in the Cincinnati Fe-

male Institution, and the honourable proficiency

which she has attained

in

penmanship, arithmetic,

English grammar, rhetoric, position, ancient

and modern

belles-lettres,

com-

and modern geography, ancient

history, chemistry, natural philoso-

phy, astronomy, &c.

Sec.

&c,, of which she has

given proofs by examination.

" And

also as a

mark of her amiable

deport-

ment, intellectual acquirements, and our

we have granted her

tionate regard,

—the

highest honour

bestowed

affec-

this letter

in this insti-

tution.

" Given under our hands " Cincinnati,

(Seal.)

"

this

19th day of July,

The ambition

at

Anno Domini

1837."

of the Americans to be a-head

of other nations in every thing, produces, however, injurious effects, so far as the education of the

women

is

concerned.

The Americans

" leave well alone^' they must " gild

will

not

refine

EDUCATION.

306

gold," rather than not consider themselves in

advance of other countries, particularly of Eng-

They

land.

alter our language,

they have improved upon

it

;

and think that

as in the

same way

they would raise the standard of morals higher

than with us, and consequently

fall

much below

us, appearances supplying the place of the re-

In these endeavours they sink into a sickly

ality.

sentimentality, and, as I have observed before,

attempts at refinement in language, really excite

improper

ideas.

As

excess to which this insert

such

is

a proof of the ridiculous occasionally carried, I shall

an address which

a

papers,

I observed in print

document appeared it

;

had

in the English news-

would have been considered as a hoax.

" Mrs. Mandelle's Address " To the Young Ladies of the Lancaster Female

Academy, at an Examination on the 2d of

March, 1838. "Affectionate Pupils: this is

our

final

—With many of you

meeting in the relative position

EDUCATION. of teacher and pupil, and to meet

no more.

from my mind influence,

Hope,

I

'

we must part perhaps

That

this reflection filtrates

my

heart with saddening

to

need

scarce

in a voice sweet as

the Eolian harp,'

assure *

we may again meet'

the vapery

sail,''

you.

But

the wild strains of

whispers in dulcet accents,

In youth the impres-

sions of sorrow are fleeting '

307

and evanescent as

that momentarily o'ershadows

the luciferous orb of even, vanishes and leaves

her disc untarnished in

with you

its lustre

— may the gloom

:

so

may

it

be

of this moment, like .

the elemental prototype, be but the precursor of

reappearing radiance

undimmed by

the transi-

tory shadow.

" Happy and bright indeed has been

this small

portion of your time occupied, not only in the interesting pursuit of science, but in a recipro-

cation of attentions

by that religion,

holiest

and sympathies, endeared

ligament of earthly

which so

oft

sensibilities,

has united us in soul and

sentiment, as the aspirations of our hearts simul-

.^1

EDUCATION.

308

taneously ascended to the mercy-seat of the great

Jehovah

The remembrance

!

these are ineffaceable

of emotions like

by care or sorrow, and

only blotted out by the immutable hand of

These halcyon hours of budding

death.

exist-

ence are to memory as the oasis of the desert,

where we

may

recline beneath the soothing in-

fluence of their umbrage, and quaff

mthe goblet

of retrospection the lucid draught that refreshes for the

me

moment, and

is

again forgotten.

Permit

to solicit, that the immaculate principles of

and so carefully incul-

virtue^ I have so often cated,

may

not be forgotten, but perseveringly

cherished and practised. tates of reason

May

the divine dic-

murmur in harmonious

cadence^

bewitching as the fabled melody of the musical bells

on the trees of the Mahomedan Paradise.

She dwells not alone beneath the glittering nor

is

star,

always encircled by the diamond cestus

and the jewePd brilliancy

tiara

!

indeed not

!

and the

emulged from the spangling gems,

but make more hideous the dark, black spot

EDUCATION.

209

The

enshrined in the effulgence.

traces of her

peaceful footsteps are found alike in the dilapi-

dated hovel of the beggared peasant, and the velveted saloon of the

may

coroneted noble;

then apportion her a

In making

clime?

my

home or

instructions

;

as a compliment to

my

tions live in

received

advice,

it is

not

your vanity, but a debt due

your politeness and good

beloved pupils,

you

and the respectful regard you

manifested in appreciating

to

assign her a

acknowledgments for

the attentive interest with which

my

who

may my

sense.

Long,

my

precepts and admoni-

your hearts; and hasten you,

(in ('

the language of Addison,) to to the care of Omnipotence,

ing calls again to

toil,

commit yourselves

and when the morn-

cast all

your cares upon

him the Author of your being, who has conducted you through one stage of existence, and

who

will

always be present to guide and attend

your progress through

An

eternity.''

advcrti semen t of

Mr.

Bonfil's Collegiate



EDUCATION.

310 Institute for

Young

Ladies, after enumerating

the various branches of literature to be taught,

winds up with the following paragraph **

And finally, it

will

:

be constantly inculcated,

that their education will be completed

when they

have the power to extend unaided, a

spirit

of

and appreciating truth,

investigation, searching

without passing the bounds assigned

to the

human understanding^ now completed

I have

three volumes,

although I omitted the major portion of

and

my

Diary, that I might not trespass too long upon the reader, tion.

my

task

The most

is still

far

from

its

termina-

important parts of it-—an exa-

mination into the American Society and their

Government, and the conclusions to be drawn

from the observations already made upon subjects

blem, as

;

in short, the it

were,

is still

several

working out of the proto be executed.

I have

not written one line of this work without deliberation

and examination.

What

I

have already

EDUCATION. done has cost to

do

mc

mucli labour

mc more

will cost

311

I

— what

I have

must, therefore,

claim for myself the indulgence of the jnihlic,

and request

in justice to the Americans,

that,

they will not decide until they have perused the

second portion, with which I shall as speedily as I can

wind up

United States, and

my

observations upon

their Institutions.

F.

THE END.

Ptinted by J. L.

the

Cox and Sons,

75,

Great Queen Street,

Lincoln's-Itui
M.

{'•^

i

ERRATA.— Vol. Page Gl,yor 64,000,000

I.

bales, read 64.,000,000 dollars.

173, for Sandresky, read Sandusky. 196, for pasturage, read portage.

213, for Willend, read W«lland. 259, for peroration, read conclusion.

i