policies, or practices.
FOREIGN AGRICULTURE November
U. $• D.
Mexico Sells More Produce In U.S.
Winter Markets ami ament Section \ s
Foreign Ag: i-.iiltural Service U.S.
FOREIGN VOL. IX
U.S. Winter Produce
In this issue:
Crowded by Rising Mexican Sales of Competitive Crops By C. John Fliginger, Earle E. Gavett, Joseph C. Podany, and Levi A. Powell, Sr.
U.S. Winter Produce Markets
“Hypermarkets” Trend in France
By Alfred R.
and Regional Sources of Record 1971 U.S.
U.S. Businessmen Report Sales and Trade Contacts at
Rising Mexican Sales
Rotterdam Grain Facility Ups Hourly Capacity by 2,000 Tons
Markets Crowded by
Of Competitive Crops
U.S. Watermelons Popular With Consumers in United Kingdom
Crops and Markets
This week’s cover:
one of several
Secretary of Agriculture
and Commodity Programs
Faith Payne, Associate Editors; Marcellus P. Murphy, Isabel A. Smith, Daniel B. Baker, Lloyd J. Fleck. F.
Kenneth F. McDaniel, Chairman; Horace J. Davis, Anthony R. DeFelice, Robert H. Ingram, Leonard B. Kelley, Kenneth K. Krogh, J. Don Looper, Donald M. Rubel, Larry F. Thomasson, Raymond E. Vickery, Quentin
M. West, Joseph W.
Use of funds for printing Foreign Agriculture has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (May 1, 1969). Yearly subscription rate, $10.00 domestic, $13.00 foreign; single copies 20 cents. Order from Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Contents of this magazine
be reprinted freely.
Use of commercial and trade names does not imply approval or constitute endorsement by USDA or Foreign Agricultural Service.
beginning this page).
Clarence D. Palmby, Assistant Secretary for Interna-
and vegetables being shipped
in increasing quantities to U.S. winter
Workers plant strawberry seedlings one by one on ridges in irrigated field in Mexico. Strawberries are
JOHN FLIGINGEF EARLE E. GAVETI JOSEPH C. PODANY, an By
at the U.S. bora
Mexico’s deepening inroads into the U.S. winter produce market, while providing
consumers, are causing profound concern among domestic producers.
Mexican sales and fruits to
Mexico’s exports of fresh winter vegetables to the United States totaled
$137 70 percent. Mexican tomatoes compete directly with those of Florida and the competimillion, with tomatoes accounting
combined with improving production practices are giving Mexico more leverage in the U.S. tomato market. For example, by proper timing and careful application of fertilizers and pesticides and some changes in varieties, Mexico now is producing a higher percentage of larger tomatoes. In fact, it
now growing about
portion of large
tomatoes as Florida,
which had a considerable
tage only 3 years ago.
half the fresh winter toma-
toes for the U.S. market, about
the beginning of the 1970-71 sea-
advantage over Mexico for producing green peppers, this edge has not only dwindled, but has failed to keep Mexico
from taking a market.
United States in 1970-71, valued at $191 million, were nearly double those of 1967 and four times greater than the value of 1960 shipments and the peak is not yet in sight.
In 1969-70, when adverse weather reduced yields in Florida, Mexico fur-
order to forestall U.S.
Mexico imposed voluntary reson its shipments of winter toma-
export limit of 180,000 metric
larger share of the U.S.
relatively level over the past 3
while export yields in Mexico
1967-68, Florida had a 36-cent but this has virtually disappeared mainly because of In
price edge for eggplant,
Mexico’s exports of
rising labor costs.
eggplant to the United States have trip-
end of May, exports to the United States had reached 234,000 tons (in-
pled since 1967, while Florida’s produc-
cluding cherry tomatoes), less than the
per acre in both areas have
cherry tomatoes) was
previous year, but
fairly static. In gen-
acreage has risen sharply. With Florida
than the voluntary target.
The future for vine-ripened tomatoes seems to favor Mexico, mainly because of Florida’s heavier and increasing costs and less certain weather. However, about 83 percent of Florida’s fresh market production was from mature green tomatoes in 1969-70. Florida growers are making concerted efforts to reduce production and marketing costs for mature green tomatoes by developing varieties suitable for mechanical harvesting and adapting harvesters to the needs of the product.
and Mexico now on a par and with Florida’s costs spiraling
Mexico can be expected
to grab a big-
ger portion of the U.S. eggplant market.
Fresh strawberry imports from Mex-
more than doubled
while U.S. production increased about a third.
largest output of early
where volume shipments begin
February. Florida’s production extends
from lanuary through however,
shipping in October and
May. Mexico has enlarged
Although weather throws the longterm advantage to Mexico, Florida enjoys an in-season edge because of lower
Mexican production costs were up $18.36 an acre from 1967-68, they still totaled less than $600 per acre, about a
marketing costs resulting from lower container costs and more automated
third of Florida’s nearly $1,700
to prolong Florida’s advantage with
ture greens for a while, but eventually
few years, mainly because the spread between costs of production and marketing between the United States and Mexico has shifted in Mexico’s favor. About 30 percent of Mexico’s output
Mexico, on the other hand, has had an 11-percent decline in materials costs over the last 3 years, as a result of lower unit prices for fertilizers and pes-
Mexico can be expected
Production costs also favor Mexican growers. Although in the 1969-70 season,
tag in the
Mexico has the edge
in marketing marketing costs have risen more rapidly than Mexico’s, primarily as a result of higher harvesting prices, mainly for labor.
In total, Florida’s cost for producing
and marketing winter tomatoes averages $2.39 per 20 pounds, compared with Mexico’s $2.02, giving Mexico a 37-
major winter crops: Cucum-
and cantaloups. In cucumber output, Florida
share of the
Even though production
virtually all the U.S. early
expected to expand
share at a steady pace.
Mexico ries to the
also exports frozen strawber-
these have risen dramatically over the for
has a cost advantage, but
decade, reaching a record high of
101.5 million pounds
1970. This rep-
the margin has declined sharply in re-
resented 40 percent of the U.S. market.
Per acre production costs
Cantaloups are the only item on the list not in direct competition with Mexico. Domestic production during the cold winter
and per unit marketing costs are up in both Florida and Mexico. However, a sharp
and strengthened its position in the west. At the same time, Mexico’s gain has helped weaken Florida’s position in the New York market and created an even more pronounced disadvantage in Chicago and San Francisco.
automate its and pene-
varying degrees the U.S. market for
eastern U.S. markets
more deeply into the U.S. market. The United States and Mexico share
penetration of the
cent price advantage. This has helped its
U.S. fresh strawberry market in the
rise in yields
has reduced the per
in Mexico. Furweather will continue to limit volume production in Florida during the severe winter months. Thus, imports from both Mexico and the Caribbean are expected to expand with little com-
from domestic producers. Although Florida still enjoys a cost
U.S. winter marketing
practically nonexistent, leav-
open for the MexiMexican cantaloups are winter and early spring. In
ing the market wide
can product. shipped in late
and in June when California and Arizona cantaloups start moving, Mexico stops exporting.
“Hypermarkets” Boost One-Stop r n39
by supplying French consumers with a wide variety of foods under one roof, and a fast turnover of food, which is
Trade Projects Division Foreign Agricultural Service
another of the European
where changing socioeconomic and demographic trends have altered consumer habits. In turn, these new buying practices have effected modifications in the country’s food mer-
been part of the French scene.
to the suburbs,
one-stop marketing. This
has given impetus to the formation of large
lower and more stable prices. According to a recent French poll, stores with multiple departments (supermarkets and hypermarkets) accounted for 17 percent of retail food
2,500 square meters. The average supermarket opened during 1970 with private parking facilities had space for 248 cars, or a parking area five times
Another factor is the significant number of French women who work away from the home. According to the latest official French census (1968), about 35 percent of the employed population, or 6.9 million persons, consists of
specialized neighborhood stores. Hypermarkets meet these new factors
larger than the area devoted to selling.
Self-Service Institute re-
ports that in 1970, the average return
According to the French Self-Service supermarket is a retail store
per square meter of supermarket floor-
most part food
groceries, fresh produce, liq-
further that had supermarkets in France as of lanuary 1, 1971, been in operation all
wines and soft drinks, meat and meat products and some nonfood merchandise. Most sales in a supermarket are on a Payment for purself-service basis. such
made in one operation at is checkout counters, except for items bought in special departments. The avchases
number of checkout counters is The average number of employees
erage six. is
French supermarkets keep this development is
evening hours, but
located outside the centers of the
taking hold, particularly
remain open on Wednes-
do not have time
crease in the current decade.
suburbanites have mobility, an important
normally 7:30 p.m. Supermarket selling area rims from
continuing, has given rise to
or else a distinct department within a
new construction, particularly of apartment buildings. Since automobile ownership
Closing hour for French supermarkets
space was $2,252, with 90 percent of sales consisting of food products. The
wider range of food products, more nonfood goods than the normal supermarket,
consisting of a separate establishment,
service store that offers
face with the establishment of the
large self-service stores also offer gener-
1963 French food marketing took on a
days and Fridays until 10 p.m., while others keep late hours on Fridays only.
French supermarkets and hypermarkets offer large stocks and fast service. Above, a self-service bread department; right, checkout counters. Foreign Agriculture
than that of a supermarket and includes
most of the same items offered for sale by the smaller unit such as fresh produce, meats and meat products, and dairy products. But the hypermarket also offers a variety of bakery items, frozen convenience foods, and delicatessen items. In addition, most hypermarkets sell clothing, appliances, and furniture, as well as other nonfood items.
2,500 square meters, while the average space is
1971, had a selling area of over 5,000
one of the leading hypermarkets
the area and learned
from the store’s 60 percent of the
would have accounted
The average number of parking spaces per hypermarket on July 1, 1971, was
added that 65 percent of
the beginning of 1961 there were
1,147, or a space 5.9 times larger than
percent nonfood items. This hypermar-
supermarket sales for that period would have amounted to $2.8 billion, of
for $2.5 billion.
fewer than 100 supermarkets in France
compared with 1,833 on January 1, 1971. Some 219 new supermarkets were established in 1970; this compared with 328 opened in 1969, and 217 in 1968. Based on the rate of expansion
estimated that there
were over supermarkets 1,940 France as of July 1, 1971.
such establishment, opened
doors in Sainte Genevieve-des-Bois.
so large that
shared by adjacent merchants.
The main merchandising hypermarkets retail
food items are
about 5 percent those of supermarkets.
and one operation
—except such snackbar, boutiques—being made
space was devoted to food.
sales consisted of
food items versus 35
had 40 checkout counters through which 180,000 persons passed each week. At that time, sales were about $1
million per week.
to offer discount prices.
Sales are generally
The hypermarket made its appearance June 15, 1963, when Carrefour, the
The average number
hypermarket checkout counters is 26; each hypermarket employs an average of 208 persons. All hypermarkets remain open as late as 10 p.m. once a week, generally on Friday. Others remain late every weekday evening. Between 50 and 75 percent of hypermarket sales consist of food products. According to the Institute, the average return to the hypermarket in 1970 was $2,162 per square meter, which is a little lower than the income for French
their grounds, generally at a discount.
90 percent of a is on a
hypermarkets have large parking facilities and sell gasoline on
throughout the entire
the average, about
The Greater Paris Basin has the largnumber of hypermarkets 18 as of July 1, 1971. The author recently vis-
5,872 square meters. Over 48 percent of all French hypermarkets on July 1, is
1, 1971, there were 115 hypermarkets and 6 months later the total
Institute has estimated that had 115 of the hypermarkets existing as
January throughout of
hypermarket sales for that year would have amounted to $1.4 billion, of which food would have accounted for $961 million. French merchandising experts believe that construction of supermarkets and hypermarkets will continue at a rapid pace in the future. They predict that 1970,
within the next 5 years, the hypermarkets will reach 500.
Hypermarkets duplicate many of the by supermarkets and at the same time have many that are unique. Because hypermarkets draw their clientele from a greater area than the normal supermarket, they must proservices offered
vide a larger inventory of merchandise.
The hypermarket has gained wide consumer acceptance because of lower and the great variety of products found under one roof.
prices to be
Supermarkets and hypermarkets have affected
trend follows the U.S. model, distribution
enced even more
in the future.
STATE AND REGIONAL
SOURCES OF RECORD 1971
U.S. By ISAAC
Foreign Development and
Economic Research Service
the world’s sin-
gle biggest exporter of
supplied the goods for
U.S. farm products are of impor-
tance to the world.
time, international mar-
About one-seventh of the average U.S. farmer’s income derives from foreign sales; and the output of about 1 acre out of every 4 harvested
ported directly or used to produce agri-
Reg on name and export
For seven major U.S. products
cotton, rice, tallow,
and cattle hides and two-thirds of
U.S. production was exported in
$ 20.7 State export values
millions of dollars
Farmers in some regions and States and producers of certain commodities had particularly large shares of U.S. farm sales abroad. This does not mean that farmers in other areas or specializ-
and vegetables ($0.6
ing in other output did not benefit also.
The outward flow of some agricultural goods from some areas enlarged the
(nearly $0.3 billion each)
lard and tallow, and rice
All were sent abroad in major quanti-
1971 U.S. farm products worth approximately $7.8 billion were In
tobacco soybean meal (nearly $0.4 billion); soybean and cot$0.6
by the leading exporting regions States.
three leading export-
West North Central region had
ing regions were
West North Central
larly strong export records in
($2.3 billion), the East North Central
($1.4 billion), and the West South Central
ings in 1971 for exports
($1.3 billion), wheat and flour billion),
and feedgrains ($1.1
Dakota was the runnerup wheat shipTogether, the two supplied more than one-third of U.S. wheat and flour per.
exports. Minnesota, besides contributing
other products, was the nation’s
Iowa, which had the second largest
among the top 10 The champion
North Central region.
nearly 10 percent of
abroad of any State in 1971, supplied 16 percent of soybean and soybean product exports, 15 percent of 13
braska ranked fourth in shipments of with Iowa, Kansas, and Minnesota, was
Kansas was the country’s leading exporter of wheat and flour while North
percent of all
low, 8 percent of dairy products, and 7 percent of hides and skins.
ports in 1971.
of the East
U.S. farm ex-
supplied 16 percent of
the feedgrains exported, 19 percent of the soybeans
and soybean products, and Foreign Agriculture
“SK%\ $U0.9 G
important amounts of wheat and animal
export share. Texas also furnished 56
fornia, another of the top 10 exporters.
dominated farm exports from East North Central region with 29
percent of the region’s livestock product
percent of the
Central region contributed 16 percent of U.S. agricultural exports.
Other regions, though not supplying large shares of total exports, were major sources of certain farm products. For example, the South Atlantic region
compare with those of the previous fiscal year? First, total exports were up 15 percent in value. However, the regions that gained receipts from exports were those whose commodities had greater sales or greater value on world
whole supplied more
than one-third of U.S. exports of soybeans, soybean
and protein meal;
one-fourth of the feedgrains and dairy
hides and skins.
State in the region,
ers of U.S.
ton sold abroad by the United States.
cause of tobacco
the top 10 export-
fourths of the rice and half of the cot-
furnished 88 percent of U.S. exports of
In contrast, the States of the
foreign sales. In total, the
Pacific region provided
cent of U.S. overseas sales of edible
glehanded and ranked fourth
63 percent of
percent of vegetables, and 22 percent of rice most of which came from Cali-
Sharp value increases occurred
ports of wheat, soybeans, cotton, feed-
cent of the region’s overseas sales sin-
farm exports. Cotton, feedgrains, wheat, and rice supplied three-fourths of Texas’
cluded the only State with no farm ex-
and meal, tallow, and dairy products. Smaller gains were made in exports of lard, tobacco, and edible nuts. Values of rice and hides and skins declined. grains,
Trade Contact Most of
92 U.S. exhibitors at the in Cologne, Germany, were pleased with the number and quality of the trade contacts they made. Several commented on the high ratio of the
third country buyers to
as far off as
Europe the Congo and Thai-
a biennial food trade
The Recently opened Koninklijke Bunge transshipment
show, was held September 25 to October
and drew more than
from 76 countries outside Germany. This was 1 including
Rotterdam harbor and the area’s second onshorebased terminal. The Grain Elevator Company (G.E.M.) owns the other on-
Europoort-area grain termi-
shore-based grain terminal, located in
Rotterdam’s grain transshipment ca-
was increased by 2,000 tons an
Bunge N.V. opened
nal in the Netherlands harbor.
some 240 yards long, capable of accommodating on one side vessels up to 120,000-deadweight tons (carrying capacity in long tons) and on the other vessels
of a jetty
tion in the facility
there has four mobile pneumatic elevators with 1,600-ton
same firm with a total capacity of 700 metric tons of heavy grain per hour. These are specially designed for
of discharging or loading grain
the transshipments of derivatives such
of up to 20,000 tons d.w.t. This
two large mobile towers capable from ocean vessels into barges and coasters at a rate of 2,000 tons of heavy grain per hour.
are linked to the
shore by an approach gallery containing
which lead into storage
operational next year, consist of a
bins with a total initial capacity of over
100,000 metric tons. The capacity of these units can be quadrupled at a later date.
corn gluten feed, tapioca
Ample anchorage and maneuver-
ing space for barges
bean meal, and beet pulp.
subsidiary, controls a total storage ca-
150,000 metric tons, all lothe Rotterdam harbor area.
on the land.
also operates 23 floating eleva-
tors with a total capacity of ric
tons of heavy grain per hour.
G.E.M. a terminal
recently decided to construct
also in the
The G.E.M. facility will not only replace some of its existing floating elevabut also expand its capacity for unloading derivatives. A jetty is planned tors
be provided in a special dock area. Rail
with two mobile towers capable of
and road connections are also
charging and loading vessels
started in April
With the opening of its facility, Bunge becomes the second company with a discharging and loading installa-
ity of more than 2,000 metric tons of heavy grain per hour. This new grain
has progressed rapidly ever since.
scheduled to be completed
— By John
By the end of the show, eight agents had been appointed by U.S. firms, and some exhibitors were staying over to select agents from among applicants under consideration. The
eight appointed will handle
Acting U.S. Agricultural Attache
rus juice; institutional packs of canned
sweet corn and salad mixes; canned, glass packed,
etables; freeze-dried chives
and Hawaiian products.
The majority of U.S.
other onshore-based mechanical
Hourly Capacity by 2,000 Tons pacity
booking orders, but Substantial
purpose of were made.
every country in Europe were reported
from the Hawaiian booth, along with an invitation for a “Hawaiian Week” sales promotion from a French retailing firm.
U.S. citrus firms also did well: reported
port Sales and
1971 made 45 fort
“excellent” contacts in
increase sales to
section of the U.S.
—which included 150 items new market—received widespread
The new products exhibit
especially high for
bread dough, portion meat handy snack packs, and conveni-
ence foods, such as “skillet dinners” and “sauce in jugs.” Precooked bacon,
British housewives take a taste of U.S. watermelon.
and can be
heated in a toaster, especially intrigued British buyers.
Meat products porter
increased his order for frozen
beef cuts by 20 tons, following his to the U.S. exhibit.
sales included a
$50,000 order for variety meats and a $150,000 sale of turkey parts.
Many German amused
Agriculture Minister Ertl, were
with the American wines exhibited at the show.
Both California and Michigan
wines were included, and some Ameri-
can wine merchants
Watermelon Popular With Consumers in United Kingdom U.S.
U.S. watermelons were introduced to U.K. consumers this summer when a test load of Charleston Grey Hybrid melons was sea-shipped to the United Kingdom. The success of the test reflects the time and effort invested in this country and in the United Kingdom.
could be successfully marketed in Ger-
many within The U.S.
item to an export market can be a
a few years.
dining room, finished in Early Ameri-
enter the previously unexplored export
style, at which key members of the German food economy were guests at
featuring U.S. choice corn on the cob, Idaho baked
daily luncheons, steaks, l
potatoes, iceberg salad,
Honored guest was Minister
at the first
and import agents and
are reluctant to handle the
velop and guide the marketing method.
For the test project the National Watermelon Growers and Distributors Association, working with the Floridabased firm of A. Duda and Sons, shipped a container load (38,500 of selected high-quality melons.
load sailed from Norfolk, on May 28, 1971, aboard the United States Lines vessel, SS American Alliance. On June 7 the ship docked at
London’s port of Tilbury.
U.S. watermelons to the United King-
these problems were effectively overcome by use of an integrated plan which fused into one program with a
objective the various marketing
from production to consump-
Tasks such as product selection and grading, packaging, transportation, retail distribution, and promotion were all
designed to facilitate the sale of U.S.
However, there were certain unique problems associated with the introduction of U.S. watermelons to the U.K. market. These included the perishability of the product and the fact that the large
melons of 16 to 20 pounds were
unfamiliar to British housewives. In order to
USDA’s Foreign cooperated
of the teamwork of
and the London importer, Safeway Food Stores Limited; and the London inspectors
Office of the U.S. Agricultural Attache
melons were ready to be proin 23 food stores in the
moted and sold London area.
with ways to prepare and serve the
and passed out samples. The initial shipment was gone in 3 days with most of the melons being sold in cellophanewrapped halves, quarters, and eighths. In view of the success of the watermelon experiment, the integrated marketing method may be utilized for other items in the future.
be short, but
The shipping season
and packaging are
overcome these problems
J.O. Sims Limited; the retailer,
Minister Ertl samples U.S. wines.
the export potential
Assistant U.S. Agricultural Attache
London Page 9
Difficulties in obtaining credit
have compounded the
causing one firm, which consumed about 30,000 bales
of cotton each year, to fold in early September. Several other companies are in serious financial trouble, and some estimate
Livestock and Meat Products
be impossible to continue operations
and European Community authorities are concerned about the Italian textile situation and are presently preparing Italian
U.S. Exports Holsteins to Yugoslavia The United
stein heifers in late
260 head of registered bred Hol-
October for delivery to Belgrade, Yugo-
Spain Reduces Cotton Import Duty
some 800 head of Holsteins few months. head of Holsteins to of U.S. cattle to Yugo-
that will be shipped to Yugoslavia over the next
In 1970 the United States exported 80
slavia in recent years.
U.S. Hereford Heifers to Spain
legislation to grant support to the industry.
551 head of U.S. bred Hereford heifers were
Spain has reduced
ad valorem import duty on cotton from
18 to 4 percent, effective September 2 through December 1, 1971. The temporary reduction in import duty will reduce
somewhat the higher prices being paid by domestic mills for imported cotton this year. Spanish imports of raw cotton averaged approximately 220,000 bales (480 pounds net) during the 5 years 1966-70. Cotton has been imported mainly from Egypt, Turkey, Brazil,
Exports of U.S. breeding cattle to Spain through August 1971 totaled 424 head, compared with 225 head during all of 1970,
Mexico, and Greece (an average of more than 18,000 bales from each of these countries during the 5-year period). U.S. cotton exports to Spain have averaged only about 5,000 bales
in recent years.
shipped from the Richmond, Va., loading
facility to Spain.
1969, and 36 head in 1968.
Spanish cotton production in 1971-72, estimated bales,
expected to be below average for the third consecutive
year because of heavy spring rains which have delayed planting.
Dairy and Poultry
Cotton Textile Industry Threatened
Rising costs and constant market prices for cotton textile goods have caught the Italian textile industry in a squeeze that is transforming profits into losses. Spinning capacity has reportedly been permanently reduced, and domestic consumption of cotton has fallen as synthetics continue to Mill arrivals of
n 1970-71 (A
gust-July) to approximately 873,000 bales (480 the lowest since 1964.
crease by as
However, 25 percent
arrivals are expected to inin
1971-72, to more than
and to meet a slight and household cotton goods. This increase in consumption might be jeopardized by continued high cotton prices and the failure of the currently demillion bales, in order to rebuild stocks
increase in the
Egg Imports Decline
Japanese imports of frozen liquid eggs during January-June 1971 amounted to 13,965 metric tons, a 24-percent decrease from comparable imports in 1970. Imports of frozen egg albumen in this period totaled 5,174 tons, or more than double the quantity imported a year ago.
mercial users continues
eggs were Australia with 36 percent of total imports, the United Kingdom with 15 percent, and the Netherlands with
14 percent. Currently, the United States
not a major supplier
of frozen egg products to Japan.
economy to improve. Compared with 1969-70, the Italian textile manufacturer had to pay 20 percent more for lint cotton and 10 percent more for labor in 1970-71, while yarn prices remained almost
supplier with 910,000 chicks, or almost 80 percent of the
unchanged. Low-priced cotton yarn and fabrics imported from
the developing countries
at prices that reportedly
covered the cost of the cotton used to make them also undermined the competitive position of domestic Italian cotton textile
Total imports of baby chicks during the
half of 1971
estimated at 1.16 million, a decrease of 20 per-
cent from the previous year.
was the major
Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry requested the
Egg Importers Association
June to voluntarily reduce 1970
imports of frozen eggs to around 24,000 tons, which would represent a 15-percent decline from the 28,519 tons imported Foreign Agriculture
in 1970. Reportedly, this
in order to prevent do-
mestic egg prices from declining further. After February, egg prices to producers declined steadily to 149.2
yen per kilogram
(approximately 26 cents a dozen, U.S. medium-grade basis).
mills to reduce foreign
exchange expenditure for sugar.
private mill under construction at Zaio will raise total
can processing capacity to 280,000 tons. As the crushing season
beet varieties are being sought in
order to lengthen the season.
Japan Moves To Counter Low Egg Prices Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry recently estab-
measures to raise low egg prices. As a result, the Ministry will guide and adjust egg production and marketing in producing areas, subsidize producer organizations for their expenses in stockpiling when producer egg prices decline below a certain level, pay producers when egg prices decline below a certain level (from a fund accumulated in normal times), and assist the establishment of the All Japan Frozen
Grains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds
Rotterdam Grain Prices and Levies Current offer prices for imported grain
Egg Company. The All Japan Frozen Egg Company began operations on
domestic egg prices, especially during the is
frozen egg imports.
total original capital
was 717 million yen (about US$2.15 million). The Company plans to buy eggs when producer prices fall below 140 yen per kilogram (about 25 cents a dozen, U.S. medium-grade basis). They will manufacture these into frozen eggs for stockpiling and sell them at 190 yen per kilogram (about 34 cents a dozen) when domestic egg prices are favorable. The Company plans to manufacture 500 metric tons of frozen eggs in 1971 and expand to 2,000 tons in 1972. invested
Wheat: Canadian No. USSR SKS-14
2 Dark Northern
Spring: 14 percent 15 percent
U.S. No. 2 Hard Winter: 13.5 percent
Hard Amber Durum.
U.S. No. 2 Soft
Coffee production in Peru for the current 1971-72 crop lb.),
estimated at 1,030,000 bags of 60 kilograms each (132 up about 4 percent from the previous harvest. This rep-
resents a continuation of the steady
few years. During 1971 several large coffee farms have been expropriated under the terms of the Agrarian Reform Law and turned
tion of coffee during the past
over to peasants organized into a production cooperative, subject to
Dol. per bu.
0 0 C)
Wheat 3 Corn 4 Sorghum 4 x Not quoted. “Manitoba No.
Soybeans U.S. No. 2 Yellow EC import levies:
Feedgrains: U.S. No. 3 Yellow corn .... Argentine Plate corn U.S. No. 2 sorghum Argentine-Granifero sorghum U.S. No. 3 Feed barley ....
Peruvian Coffee Production Expands year
Cents per bu. 2
Dol. per bu.
Sugar and Tropical Products
of this year to help prevent the further decline of
Netherlands, compared with a week earlier and a year ago:
has a separate levy. 2. 4 Until Aug. 1, 1972, Italian levies are 19 cents a bu. lower than those of other EC countries. “Effective October 14, 1971, validity of licenses with levies fixed in advance is a maximum of 30 days. Note: Basis 30- to 60-day delivery.
Government guidance. The cooperative movement con-
tinues to develop,
and approximately 60 percent of Peru’s now harvested by cooperatives.
taking steps to increase domestic con-
sumption of coffee and promote more efficient cultural pracwhile maintaining a balance between production and consumption and possible exports.
Grain Stocks of Major Exporters Drop Stocks of grain in the United States, Canada, Argentina,
and Australia on July 1, 1971, totaled 120 million metric tons, 18 percent below those of a year earlier and 12 percent lower than on July 1, 1969.
Moroccan Sugar Output Grows
GRAIN STOCKS IN EXPORTING COUNTRIES United
Production of sugar in Morocco
1971 reached 210,000
up 41 percent from last year. All of Morocco’s produced from sugar beets. The planted area was
Morocco’s domestic sugar production amounted to over 50 percent of the expected 1971 sugar consumption of 410,000 tons and raised sugar mill utilization to about 88 percent of
Wheat Rye Barley
The Government November .It
Canada Argentina Australia 1,000 metric tons
1,000 metric tons 8,412
Total 1,000 metric tons 53,328
1,000 metric tons 19,872
1,000 metric tons 22,154
3,398 7.429 39,734
1,099 7,829 10,740 46,534
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stocks declined 22 percent, barley 29 percent, and
detailed table of grain stocks appears in the October
World Agricultural Production and Trade:
Soybean Harvests Increase
corn 14 percent, while stocks of rye gained 20 percent and oats were 1 percent higher.
1971 soybean crop, harvested in the early months of
estimated at 2.1 million metric tons
1.33 million in 1970. This
an increase of 21
Early reports of the forthcoming 1972 harvest indicate that it
reach 2.8 million tons. If achieved, this would be an
additional increase of 26 million bushels, most of which would
be available for export in 1972.
Australian Oilseed Production Increasing Combined
major oilseed crops in Australia is expected to be approximately 400,000 tons in 1971-72 compared with 211,500 in 1970-71. The increase is largely the result of an 82-percent increase in planted area. Sunflowerseed production, at 140,000 tons, will account for one-third of the estimated increase. Rapeseed production, at 100,000 tons, will account for another 30 percent of the increase. The remaining increase reflects larger cottonseed, safflower, and soybean harvests. oilseed output of the
Australia, traditionally an importer of vegetable
become a in
significant exporter of oilseeds.
1972 are now expected
approximate 50,000 tons.
Crops and Markets Index Cotton 10
Dairy and Poultry 10 Japan’s Frozen Egg Imports Decline Japan Moves To Counter Low Egg Prices 1 1 Fats, Oils, 12
Coconut Exports Up Sharply
Combined exports of coconut products from
during January-August 1971 totaled 561,000 metric tons, oil basis. This represents an increase of 179,000 tons, or 47 percent more than exports during the same period last year. Exports for calendar 1971 could reach 820,000 metric tons
compared with only 606,000 tons cant increase
Australian Oilseed Production Increasing Philippine Coconut Exports Up Sharply Brazil’s Soybean Harvests Increase
Grains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds 1 1
Italy’s Cotton Textile Industry Threatened Spain Reduces Cotton Import Duty
Rotterdam Grain Prices and Levies Grain Stocks of Major Exporters Drop
Livestock and Meat Products 10 U.S. Exports Holsteins to Yugoslavia 10 U.S. Hereford Heifers to Spain
Sugar and Tropical Products .11 Peruvian Coffee Production Expands 1 Moroccan Sugar Output Grows 1
expected in 1972.
Foreign Agriculture U.S.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE