Foreign agriculture :weekly magazine of the United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Historic, Do not Archive Document assume content scientific knowledge, reflects current policies, or practices. OCTOBER 21, 1963 OUR 320-...

0 Downloads 13 Views
Historic,

Do

not

Archive Document

assume content

scientific

knowledge,

reflects current

policies, or practices.

OCTOBER

21,

1963

OUR 320-YEAR-OLD

WHEAT TRADE HURRICANE DAMAGE IN

THE CARIBBEAN

THE SPANISH

POULTRY INDUSTRY

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including

FOREIGN CROPS

AND MARKETS

A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including

FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS

OCTOBER

21,

VOLUME

NUMBER 42

1



1963

Contents

3

Our 320-Year-Old Wheat Trade

5

Spain Strives To Update Poultry Industry

6

Australian Pricing Plan Lowers

Wheat Guarantees,

Both Export and Domestic Grain

will

be pouring out

of U.S. storage elevators into ships and railcars for

movement abroad

7

Wreak Havoc

Hurricanes

in

Caribbean

this

marketing year in the highest quantity in history:

8-10

Market Development

close to a billion bushels.

U.S.

Amsterdam

Exhibition To Show Space Food and Schirra's Spacecraft

Japanese Feed Industry Likes U.S. Feather Meal U.S. Seed

Cultivating U.S.

11

Our Customers

Foods Star at Cologne Fair

World Crops and Markets

(Commodity index on page 16

R.

Renne, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs

Raymond A.

loanes. Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service

Editor: Alice Fray Nelson

Associate Editor: Ruth A. Oviatt

Advisory Board: W. A. Minor, Chairman; Wilhelm Anderson, Dean,

)

Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture

Orville L.

Roland

Industry Begins Eight-Country Promotion

F. Leslie

This magazine printed freely.

Erhardt, David L. is

Burton A. Baker, Douglas M. Crawford, John H. O. Link, Kenneth W. Olson, Donald M. Rubel.

Hume, Robert

published as a public service, and

its

content

may

be

re-

Foreign Agriculture is published weekly by the Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Departof Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 20250. Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (December 22, 1962). Yearly subscription rate is $5.50, domestic, $8.00, foreign; single copies are 15 cents. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20401.

ment



Our 320-Year-Old Wheat Trade From

Colonial times American farms have supplied wheat

markets. This year exports are rapidly The United States’ wheat exports for the current marmay well reach 1 billion bushels a record



keting year

moving toward an alltime

Closest to this figure are the

718

million bushels shipped abroad in 1961. Sales to the Soviet

Union and East European

approved by President Kennedy on October partly responsible for breaking the

possible shipments of tries

were counted

in,

international

a

around 800 million.

new

and even without

to Eastern Its

nearest

Europe,

it

alter the U.S.

the world’s

now this

ranks as the No.

commitment

to sell

are

is

shipping

wheat to Communist China and has just agreed to

(

ex-

that position.

which

Canada,

1

wheat

sell

239 million bushels to the USSR, and Australia, which exporting to both countries.

is

York,

New

and

Jersey,

Pennsylvania, which based

economy on wheat, was

its

when England issued an edict stating that wheat and flour, and also many other commodities, could hard pushed

be exported only to the mother country.

But

the

like

other colonies, Pennsylvania disregarded these regulations

and continued

ship

to

wheat where

its

it

wanted

— not

only to other British possessions but to the Dutch, French,

and Portuguese West Indies

These West Indian

as well.

had found sugar growing so profitable

preferred to buy their food crops than to

position in

leading wheat

would have retained

competitors

wheat

high.

Pennsylvania became the "bread” colonies.

colonies

direction in this year’s

Long

markets.

grower, the United States porter,

to these coun-

our wheat exports for 1963-64 were

shipments will not

trade, these

be only

Even before

record.

200 million bushels

unofficially estimated at

Though introducing

countries,

9, will

New

and the middle colonies of

never before attained in the 320-year history of the American wheat industry.

world

to

was

It

Pennsylvania that the

in

Many

laws were adopted.

first

that they

grow them.

wheat inspection

small flour mills had been built,

and by 1700 much of the colony’s wheat was being exported as bread and

The General Assembly adopted

flour.

regulations in 1699 stipulating that "all Bisket and flower

made

for transportation shall be well

truly pack’t.”

made &

honestly

&

Apparently, standards were not always ad-

hered to for Pennsylvania’s trade with the West Indies fell

off until a

rigid inspection

law was passed

in

1720.

Exports of wheat and other food products rose sub1

The early years The United l640’s.

stantially

States’

When

wheat trade dates back

to the early

the southern colonies were clearing their

land to plant rice and tobacco, the northern fields were

going to Europe, but soon the

Some of this wheat was West Indies became the im-

portant market, often buying

wheat

being

prepared

and bread.

for

Later

wheat.

New

in the

form of

flour

Englanders found that with their

rocky fields they could not compete in

wheat production,

after

From 1790

Revolution.

the

until

1807

crop failures and the Napoleonic wars caused food shortages in Europe and a steady

Then came fell

off

and

it

a period

seriously

was not



when

for

American wheat.

food shipments to Europe

partly because of the

until the

growing

ain in the 1840’s that they

In

demand all

1849 Britain abolished

combined with the famine

were resumed its

War

of 1812

industrialization of Brit-

duties

in Ireland

Combining wheat on

a

in

any volume.

on grain, and

that,

and part of Europe, Nebraska farm

1

The

— and

later

compared with around 715 million

Wheat had a direct effect on the outcome of the Civil War. The South hoped that Britain would recognize the Confederacy

But

in order to obtain cotton.

hope was

this

soon snuffed out, for Britain was more interested in the

wheat grown on American farmlands. running

failed for 3 years in

— 1860,

other wheat-growing

the

from 2.6 million

From

crop had

1861, and 1862

—and

of Europe harvests

nations

from 4 million bushels

rose

own

Its

During these years our wheat exports

were below normal.

to

37 million, and our flour

barrels to nearly 5 million.

time on until the end of the 19th century,

this

wheat rather than cotton was the No.

American food

1

Railroads pushed across the prairies and into the

export.

Great Plains.

New

land was opened for commercial wheat

production, and immigrants poured in from Europe to tle

Soon

on these lands.

large-scale

this

of

half

last

19th

the

mechanized wheat

American

century

to

655 million

in 1900,

and

in this

same period our

wheat exports mounted from 13 million bushels to 221 After 1900 not only wheat but

million.

all

food

U.S.

1935-39.

in

exports increased at the end of

World War

However,

exports high.

economies abroad recov-

as the

ered and foreign grain production increased, the for U.S.

wheat dropped.

At

this point,

and the

States harvesting record crops

demand

with the United

scales tipped in the

government price support began

direction of surplus,

to

assume new importance.

(The Commodity Credit Corporation price support program was begun in 1938 but had not been a factor during the war because of the de-

mand

for all-out production

thermore,

favorable prices.)

at

Fur-

1949 the International Wheat Agreement,

in

under which specified quantities of wheat are sold abroad range of prices, became

at a fixed

effective.

Wheat

under

480

P.L.

I

new

in 1954, a

stimulus was given wheat ex-

ports by the passage of the Agricultural Trade Develop-

ment and Assistance This

known

Act, better

law authorized the United

ments for the

and other

and

aid,

to barter

plus for materials required by our government.

Europe, greater competition, and a better balance between

the law was

production and consumption in the United States.

farm products

amended

to

Wheat

.

agree-

farm

sur-

In 1959,

increase dollar sales of surplus

to friendly nations

ments and extension of

world wars

Law 480

make

to

farm products for foreign currency,

sale of

for emergency relief

as Public

States

exports declined as a result of increasing nationalism in

Two

II.

Lend-lease had ended but emergency relief programs kept

Beginning

wheat production increased from 170 million bushels in

1866

Wheat

set-

farming developed and spread westward.

During

close to the World War I recOur wheat output was now 1,152 million bushels,

end of the war they were ord.

War

Civil

European market.

to the

opened the gate again

through long-term agree-

credit.

has benefited the most from this law.

In 1954

With World War I the picture changed dramatically. The first effect on agricultural markets was depressing, but

our wheat and flour exports totaled 217 million bushels.

within a short time both England and France appealed to

ed to 274 million.

Wheat,

the United States for food supplies and credit.

because of greatest els in

its

demand.

1913

and ease of transport, was

storability

Exports jumped from 146 million bush-

335 million the following

to

in

time the Nation’s crop exceeded

first

billion

1

Also, between 1913 and 1919 the area in food

bushels.

480 wheat

year, the first

And

under P.L. 480, they amount-

every year since then, these P.L.

have mounted

sales

— 176

million bushels in

1955, 36l million in 1959, 482 million in 1962.

480 has functioned,

For the 9-year period that P.L.

2,872 million bushels of wheat and wheat products have

year.

This was also a peak year in U.S. wheat production.

For the

The following

moved abroad under

its

This represents 63

provisions.

percent of our total wheat exports during this period, and in value

amounts

to a little over

$5,145 million.

grains, mainly wheat, increased

26 percent. Yet no sooner had the United States geared

greater wheat output than

nations

would continue

demand fell off. It was World War I the European

to

United States curtailed

in

the face of

boosted their

buy large quantities of U.S.

The

crops. its

countries had only limited

American

loans abroad

means

to

would accept

the wartime peak,

foreign

the

same

time, they

did their buying from

goods

World War larger

Page 4

II

stimulated

and with the

start

There was a

slight

but in 1941 they had

usual wartime

demand

wheat shipments began moving

to Europe.

By

the

that

despite a near-

Many

wheat- importing nations needed to import

found themselves looking around for wheat U.S. wheat industry was able to

situation,

new

hard to

is

to buy.

The

But whether

the gap.

fill

these sales of wheat to the Soviet

rope are establishing a

Union and Eastern Eu-

trend or merely relieving a say.

thing, though, does stand out.

Through

the long

history of the U.S.

wheat industry there have been periods

when wheat made

a

omy. dent

of the lend-lease program,

became apparent

it

more, and some that were exporters, such as the USSR,

One

II,

the

tributed.

critical

reached the lowest point in nearly 70 years. for food,

This summer

record world wheat harvest, supplies were unevenly dis-

payment.

in

and the worldwide depression begin-

World War

Latest phase

exports were well below

industrial

ning in 1929 caused a further decline. increase just before

so that

pay for food products

At

tariffs.

From 191 8 onward, our wheat

The

reverse happened.

own production and

nations which

to

the

generally believed that after

wheat and other farm

itself

wheat

This

is

Kennedy

tremendous contribution to our econ-

perhaps another such instance. cited

sales to the

in

USSR

As

lion plus shipping charges received by U.S. carriers

approximate one-sixth of

Presi-

October 9 press conference, and Eastern Europe at $250 mil-

his

last year’s

budget

would

deficit.

Foreign Agriculture

Spain Strives To Update Poultry Industry '

Spain’s poultry

put of both

and eggs

is

rising

Out-

Com-

rapidly.

mercial hatcheries are appearing throughout the country,

and broiler processing plants are being established.

Baby

and eggs are imported for foundation

New

chicks

feed mills have been built,

and eggs

is

stock.

and these are processing

creasing quantities of poultry feed each year. of both broilers

The

The Spanish

120,153.

Livestock Board forecasts

nearly 50 percent more, or 176,371

Spain’s poultry development has been stimulated by the

government, which, in attempting to improve the people’s nutrition,

poultry, icio

is

encouraging greater production of milk, meat,

and eggs.

One avenue

has been through the Serv-

de Extension Agraria, which promotes local poultry

cooperatives.

These buy feed and baby chicks and

eggs and broilers for members. technical advice

Below, pullets

farm near Madrid.

room with

at

sell

the

Extension agents also give

on poultry production

to co-op

made

members.

distribution.

efficiency in

However,

progress

both probeing

is

them.

in solving

Income, prices, and nutrition As with Western Europe

in general,

improved incomes

Spain have spurred poultry and egg consumption.

in

$85

to

From

1958, per capita Spanish income rose from U.S.

to

$255, and by 1962

it

had increased

to

Be-

$318.

tween 1958 and 1962, poultry meat consumption per capita,

to

tons, for 1963.

and

duction

1950

also improving.

plague the Spanish poultry industry are

to

problems of disease control and of

in-

quality

Between 1959 and 1962, production of poultry meat more than doubled, increasing from an estimated 52,470 tons to

Remaining

almost entirely

developing and changing.

is

broilers

recently

until

industry,

a backyard operation,

reported from commercial sources,

more than doubled

around 8 pounds per person. Consumption of shell eggs is also rising

— 13.7

per person

1952-53.

1960-61

in

This

figure,

pounds

compared with 10.4 pounds

however,

is

in

the lowest in Western

Europe except for Portugal, and about one-third that of the United States. Prices have fallen as production has risen. price of eggs declined between

The

retail

1958 and 1962, from an

average of 55^ per dozen to 48 4.

From August 1962

to

modern poultry Right, incubator

capacity for 1 million eggs

every 21 days.

Right below, another

big poultry plant in Valencia area.



*\ /

/

I

I

y

October 21,

1963

/

'

Vt

,1 It;

U.

Page 5

May fell

(New York

1963, prices of broilers

from 490 per pound

Those of ready-to-cook frozen poultry

market.

58.50 per pound

sumer

dressed fresh)

460 per pound in the Madrid

to

expected to decline

is

from

fell

Guarantees, Both Export and Domestic Under

further as production in-

still

from 100 million bushels

over 200 hatcheries in Spain, with total

estimated annual capacity of over 150 million eggs. Hatchin all areas of Spain, with the heaviest

eries are located

concentration in the provinces of Tarragona, Valencia,

In

Ma-

Of

number 585,000 were Leghorn and 584.000 were White Rock. During the same year 549,000 hatching eggs were imported. Most of the baby chicks and hatching eggs came from the United States. this

now

Eight broiler processing plants

exist,

To

facilities,

in Spain,

how

owned

one needs to

is

ex-

some of the modern

visit

One

The

technical

The guaran-

exported.

set

$1.61 per bushel (in bulk,

at

1

(e

wheat consumed domestically, has been

all

ports)

f.o.r.

—a

ji

reduc&

The new

like previous

price,

assessed cost of production,

such large plant

is

manager comes from the United

was based on the

ones,

each year by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The reduction came from the Bureau's use of a larger yield figure 17 bushels per

acre

of

instead

15.5

calculated





in

calculations

its

this

S'

year.

Recent yields have averaged 19 to 20 bushels.

The

wheat for home consumption (to be

price of

fixed

by State legislation) will be based on the guarantee plus a

loading cost to cover transportation to Tasmania, and 6

will probably be about $1.63.

Principal result to Australia

by two American firms and one Spanish

jointly

company.

one case to

in

rapidly the poultry industry

plants installed in recent years.

and

for export

or will install them.

realize fully

panding

capacity,

All but two of the plants have

12.000 birds per hour. freezing

and others are

Most manage-

1200 birds per hour; two, of 600 birds. ments have plans for increasing

now

is

teed price for 1963-64, covering this 150 million bushels

Six of the plants have a capacity of

being established.

150 million, in view of the

to

more of the crop

fact that

1961 around 1,363,000 baby chicks were imported

into Spain.

Scheme

Stabilization

tion of 15.9 cents.

and Valladolid.

drid, Barcelona, Seville,

Wheat

on export wheat has been extended

the price guarantee

Production and processing

now

new

Australia’s

covering the 5 years commencing with the 1963-64 crop,

creases and distribution improves.

There are

Wheat

Cost of broilers to the con-

51.50.

to

Australian Pricing Plan Lowers

may be

a significant reduc-

tion in Treasury cost for the deficiency

between

differences

export

payment covering

and

prices

producer

This sum, a Treasury responsibility since the

about $26.1

at

million

l,

Stabii

Fund was exhausted

lization

prices.

Wheat

in

for

1961, has been budgeted

By

con-

1963-64

crop

1962-63 crop.

the

.

having been

States as well,

The company’s expansion

Spain for

in

than 2 years.

plans have expanded rapidly, and further

A new

already underway.

is

less

unit will be com-

with

trast,

anticipated

payments

for

the

ranging between 5.6 cents and 8.4 cents per bushel over prospective export prices, government cost would be only .

Arganda

pleted in

Rey

del

this fall

with hatchery capacity

of approximately 1.5 million eggs set

at once.

pany plans two new broiler hatcheries, one

$8.4 million to $12.5 million.

Reduced domestic

This com-

in Seville

and

terial

prices are not expected to cause

wheat

increases in Australian

ma-

use.

the other in Valladolid, both to be in production by the

end of 1963.

company

this

time the total capacity of this one

will be over 2 million eggs

fiscal

first

pullets,

By

2

year in business, will

Leghorn

million

top

set.

2

2y2

for the

million Leghorn

one-half

cockerels,

meat-type parent stock breeders, and

Sales,

million

commer-

or in the

As

of the poultry installation at Alcira near Va-

produce 50,000 birds daily soon.

under construction

is

These will probably continue

form of soybeans

in the case

to

for processing.

of poultry processing, American capital

has figured in the expansion. facturer has recently

lencia described plans to

Now

States.

be purchased from outside the country, either as soy meal

million

cial broiler chicks.

The owner

from the United

a

formed

a

An

American feed manu-

company

in cooperation with

Spanish firm, and will soon have new feed mills in Bar-

celona and Madrid.

an automatic slaughterhouse

i

Import-export situation

with a capacity of 3,600 birds per hour.

Last year, the country became a net exporter of eggs for

Feed industry Also

the

undergoing

mixed feed

a

transformation

are

now

Spain’s

related

This has grown rapidly, from 67

industry.

feed mills in 1952 to 444 in 1961. in active operation.

was 1,653,476 tons

is

in

However, only 335

Annual production of feed

1962, with almost 70 percent of

output intended for poultry production.

Spain continues to import large quantities of grain for the poultry industry.

Imports of corn for the 1962-63 sea-

son are estimated

over 600,000 tons, with 90 percent

at

coming from the United States. Protein supplements in the form of soy meal are also imported, almost entirely Page 6

as

time since records have been kept.

first

recently

now

Spain

dozen.

when

1957,

as

local supplies

import

licenses.

egg imports numbered

By

contrast,

14 million

permits imports of shell eggs only

seem inadequate, by means of issuing

In the same way, the government has

granted import licenses for foreign poultly only grudgingly

and infrequently because

it

deems domestic supplies ade-

quate.

Today

there

is

poultry industry.

great enthusiasm in Spain for building a

These enthusiasts envision the day when

they can ship poultry into the present for admission to

Common

Market,

which the country has already applied. Foreign Agriculture

Wreak Havoc

Hurricanes

Caribbean

in

-with severe damage to both food and export crops During the 2-week period of September 25-October

and Flora brought heavy damage

hurricanes Edith

Caribbean Islands; Flora was reported as the most destructive

The double blow

storm in the area’s history.

Windward

most harm in the

Islands,

did

Tobago, Haiti, and

Result to agriculture will be severe shortages

in

local

food supplies and reduced export sales of sugar, bananas,

and cocoa, on which the area

heavily

is

de-

Reports indicate that this year’s main cocoa crop

in April. is

a

total

harvested throughout the year, and both ripe and immature

reduction

during the next year. of food crops,

tities

Moving west-northwest over Martinique, she

left

5

10 inches of rain, with winds of 115 miles per hour.

Her

was

effect

Dominica and

also

felt

But on September 26 she turned

Lucia.

St.

on the neighboring islands of

abruptly north, bringing heavy rain and winds a southern

Rico and

Puerto

Dominican Republic. Bahamas on September 28.

As

Tobago, she dumped 10 inches of

rain,

and winds of 100 miles per hour were reported.

late

and exports

Trinidad also

October

Windward

from Trinidad and the Dominican Republic

felt

in

3

southwest

Haiti;

were reported

swept through the

Passage, leaving torrential rains in the Jamaican

The banana crop

major export crop.

struction of the

yam

little

Thus no major decline

injury.

foreseen in local

is

food supplies. In Haiti,

apparently

crops suffered heavy damage.

all

unconfirmed reports estimated

Early

destruction

—75 percent In

rice crops.

some

least

at

areas

many dead

another

Flora’s

day.

after

career,

glancing blow at Bermuda, ended the next

weekend

a off

— including

And,

is

What

they did to crops

90 percent of the banana trees on the islands of MartiLucia,

St.

since

this

Haiti

depends largely on

and Dominica, along with about one-

fourth of this major export crop not yet harvested.

extensive.

Since

About half of

and fragmentary reports indicate

effects likely to

only a small fraction of normal output.

Damage

to sugar-

not expected to be severe; but

on Dominica the crop of limes suffered severely

—and lime

All their

three

sufficient

damage sion,

islands

normally import the major part of

food requirements. in

However, they are largely

the production

to these crops

of

root crops.

presumed from flooding and

an increase in food imports

is

to

self-

With some ero-

be expected.

Rice

is

1963

produced

Cuba’s

a total reduction in

at least

in

Preliminary

some

10 percent, with

normally harvested

in

Cuba from August

to

lies

De-

along

While unharvested rice was known what percentage of the crop this represents. The main corn crop, normally harvested in January and February, may be largely washed the path of the hurricane. total loss,

it

is

not

out in this section, where about half

age to the sweetpotato crop

grown ditional

October 21,

re-

continue to the 1965 crop.

is

fruits are reported heavily

bananas, and cotton.

Prepared by Donald E. Turner, Agnes I. G. Sanderson, and Woodrow A. Schlegel, of the Western Hemisphere Branch, Regional Analysis Division, Economic Research Service.

is

cember, and one of the country’s main rice areas

probably a

juice is a principal export.

sugarcane

its

the battered eastern section of the country.

producing, the next year’s crop from these islands will be

is

crop damage

Cuba's agricultural expectations were apparently dealt a serious blow.

1964 sugar production of

major crop,

food produc-

if

food imports may be

Substantial

10 to 12 months are required for banana trees to begin

cane, another

The effect on may be heavy.

local

food shortage may become serious

pigs,

Some

surviving.

quired to avoid famine conditions.

Preliminary estimates indicate that the storms destroyed

nique,

apparently

sugar, Haiti’s principal agricultural export,

tion, the

Scotia.

—were

were reported,

cattle

sugarcane plantings appeared washed out.

turned back again across the hard-hit island,

and chickens

70 percent

for the banana, potato, coffee, and

on October

for

said

crop in this section, but lack of dam-

goats,

it

was

in the area

have been 50 percent destroyed by wind and the coffee crop 10 percent. Early reports indicated 2 5 -percent de-

slowly and destructively across to the southwest coast; then, 7,

—an important

to

but another report indicated that livestock

pummeling

how-

In ]amaica,

in the north

producing area for coconuts and coffee and for bananas, a

North-

Flora smashed ashore

her passage.

on either exports or food supply.

effects

ever, flash floods

mountains; landed in northeast Cuba October 4; drifted

Nova

certain

is

Tobago produces only small quanso that little effect is expected on its

age reports on other food crops probably means relatively

days later Flora was born, east of Trinidad.

she hurried across

east

She

the eastern

died out over the

Two

Thus, a substantial

trees.

coconut production

in

have indicated only slight crop damage, with no serious

Hurricane Edith formed east of Barbados on September

to

Coconuts, another important export, are

loss.

Reports

moved

the hurricanes

24.

cocoa, harvested

is

food supplies and imports.

pendent.

How

Tobago

principal export crop of

mainly from October to December with a smaller harvest

coconuts were blown from the

eastern Cuba.

coconuts,

The

8,

to the

The

is

produced.

reported light,

damaged,

anticipation

food imports will be needed

is

to

Dam-

but tree-

as are coffee,

that large ad-

avoid

further

decreases in consumption.

(Continued on page 16) Page 7

MARKET DEVELOPMENT

& export programs This

ing.

Amsterdam Exhibition To Show

U.S.

done

is

which could

avoid crumbs

to

around the cabin

float

and damage equipment.

Space Food and The

importance

vital

— whatever

man

be

will

his

dramatized

environment in

"Food

a

to

— in

projection of a 6-minute motion pic-

"Menu

ture entitled

which contains

ment and points out the importance

U.S.

feeding techniques will help demonstrate to the

West European

the

versatility

variety,

quality of U.S.

nauts eating in a weightless environ-

the

Nov. 7-24, the U.S.

of a food supply that

The

Department of Agriculture announced

tion

and

exhibit

with

the

Space

developed

—presented National

around

the

on

nauts

Aeronautics

may weigh



be

actual

space-

their

Sigma

Walter M.

7,

freeze-dried

Other features of the Amsterdam

which

foods,

ultra-modern as

little

as

one-fifth

original

weight and

are

with

water

into

dishes without loss of caloric content.

Because of the absence of gravity, the dehydrated food

Along with the spacecraft will be shown the food and liquids consumed

out of

during space of

flights

and a reproduc-

low-residue

the

breakfast

eaten by an astronaut before take-off.

A

quarter-scale

man Gemini

mock-up of the two-

spacecraft

will

also

be

displayed.

The

major U.S.

exhibit will include continuous

its

motion

pushed or pressed the food

placed

food

is

November

the

container

and

be

will

11-15,

Symposium

European-American

a

on

Food and Agricultural Trade.

the

stored for later use.

Another

shown

in

spe-

agricultural

Running concurrently with the Exhi-

desired

has been eaten, a preservative tablet is

on

picture

and an exhibit on the whole-

bition, all

agri-

a

someness and quality of U.S. foods.

container directly into the

When

mouth.

is

commodities;

tasty

Commander

space flight in October 1962.

tion

export

cultural

reconstituted

demon-

market;

easily

trade; Jr.,

food

of

in his 6-orbit

used by

Schirra,

has

States.

Exhibition will include a fully stocked

cial

craft,

exhibit

been shown outside the United

stration areas for all

will

time the

first

"Food-in-Space”

film will demonstrate, for ex-

in coopera-

Administration

nutritive

processed foods, and

will be the

It

NASA

ample, the heavy reliance of the astro-

recently.

The

lightweight,

is

and palatable.

nutritious

audience

and

the competence of the U.S. food industry.

Agriculture Exhibition in Amsterdam, the Netherlands,

the

actual scenes of astro-

Food and

of

features

that

for Spaceflight,”

Space” exhibit which will be one of the

believes

presentation of these and other space

food

of

The Department

Schirra's Spacecraft

is

special

the

technique

preparation

to

be

foods such as sandwiches and desserts in bite-size pieces

Japanese Feed Industry

of certain

Meal

Likes U.S. Feather

with an edible coat-

meal—a

Feather " Space foods” pictured here are ready-to-eat bars (left) and (in big plastic bags) shrimp, apple juice, and potato salad that have to be combined with water.

highly

source of protein

trated

concen-

—has

on with the Japanese feed

industry.

Rising sales are an outgrowth of the

Feed Grain Council’s

U.S.

push good, balanced animal

effort

to

rations in

Japan. Last year,

meal

to

U.S.

exports of feather

Japan hit 7,437 metric tons,

worth approximately $828,000

West

smaller

Coast;

f.o.b.

amounts

also

went from North Korea and Peru. Previously, Japan took very

Feather meal

is

little.

produced by cook-

ing feathers under peak pressure to

make

protein

their

cent protein

the

well

digestible.

The

concentration— 87.4 per-

meal’s high

—makes

it

economical for

long Pacific haul and adapts for

use

as

it

an additive to the

high-energy feed rations coming into favor with the Japanese.

expansion

of

Japan’s

The

livestock

rapid

and

feed industries means good prospects for even larger sales of feather meal.

Page 8

(

caught

Foreign Agriculture

|

;

I

Seed Industry Begins

U.S.

Our Customers

^Cultivating

Eight-Country Promotion

RICHARD

By

K.

Wheat

Western

BAUM,

Executive Vice President Inc.

Center Show, October 21-25, and in

Food and Agricultural ExAmsterdam in November

the U.S.

Every farmer knows that cultivation necessary to produce a crop.

is

vation

Culti-

also a necessary step in ob-

is

techniques are being used to

expand

more

include

quality

on

nutri-

as

This

and product promotion.

the most effective tools in cul-

however,

of the

representatives

foreign

where the wheat

to

Wheat

Associates

to bring

is

carefully

selects

teams from key govern-

trade

ment and industry personnel hance

the

gram

in

While

the visitors follow i i tailored program.

may

Tours

United

in the

an

development of relationships

creased

— from

farm

They

and

visits

to a large grain

the Chicago, or

Kansas

stor-

include

exchange

like

Board of

City,

Trade, to flour mills, and to bakeries, large

and small.

There are confer-

ences with U.S. industry

ment

leaders.

there

are

As

and govern-

For a change of pace, to

visits

dinners in

supermarkets and

these trips involve considerable

stateside effective

amount of

planning to arrange the most itineraries

the

for

the question could rightfully

about whether

not

or

market development It is

most

effective

it

ways

1963

of

off.”

During 1963, Western Wheat Aswill bring five major trade

sociates

and

for

is

month

this

ranking

individuals

The



last

is

to

the

scheduled

of four high-

that

Japanese

The

ficials.

three

States.

Government

of-

countries represented this

year have been Japan, Pakistan, India,

and the Philippines. is

a

dollar

flour mills.

The

Philippines

market with seven new Pakistan and India

now

buy wheat through P.L. 480, but are interested in

becoming dollar markets of these teams this year

have allowed U.S. wheat exporters to initiate

shipping programs to ensure

that each country gets the

suited to

many

needs.

wheat most

In this way, the

different qualities of U.S.

will be

We

its

wheat

marketed to best advantage.

know proper and

one of

to develop in-

and mutual

of a crop. Similarly,

market

development

program of the American Seed Trade

FAS.

Association, in cooperation with

During Center



and

week’s vegetable

this

symposium

flower seed

the Trade

at

the largest overseas trade

-

ASTA —U.S.

event ever sponsored by

and U.K.

seed

of mutual

growers,

processors,

Topics

concern.

include

the changing needs of the vegetable

market,

trade

seed

improved seed

and

regulations,

On

varieties.

display

samples of seeds and panels of

photographs depicting

produce

varieties

how new

vegetables

seed

better

adapted to modern canning, freezing,

and dehydrating techniques.

A U.S. seed team — members of ASTA and the USDA — after partici-

pating in the symposium will inspect large seed firms to

evaluate

and research

stations

the market potential

for

At the Amsterdam Exhibition, November 7-24, the U.S. Garden Seed Industry will exhibit under the theme

timely culti-

we

are convinced

hibit will point

U.S. seed

is

up how high

and that

The

fiber.

ex-

quality

produced and distributed

the world over to

grow

food,

feed,

exhibit will stress, too,

favorable weather conditions

in

the United States guarantee a dependable supply of high quality seed.

The Netherlands ranks

fifth

a

as

world market for U.S. vegetable seeds

The United

for flower seeds.

first

Kingdom

second largest buyer of

is

U.S. flower seeds and sixth of vegetable seeds.

Under

ASTA

the

will

new also

agreement,

3-year

conduct market

re-

search and sales promotion in Chile,

Venezuela,

Argentina,

Germany, and Japan, United lands.

Kingdom It

France,

West

as well as in the

and

the

Nether-

will sponsor trade teams to

that proper cultivation of our foreign

and from the U.S. and

customers will pay off in higher

ative

sales.

The

of "Seed for the World.”

and

in the future. visits

under a new

first activities

U.S. seed sales to Britain.

vation pays off during the harvesting

does.

ternational understanding

October 21,

kind

this

People-to-people contact the

be raised

"paying

is

our belief that

visitors,

wheat and

sales of

its

market.

this

to

The

American homes.

expense, plus a tremendous

that

Japan has been the United

plier to increase

of

to the ex-

usually

to

was the only major grain sup-

States’

teams

vessel.

wheat

of U.S.

sales

country.

United

port

Japan

during the past 2 or 3 years have been a key factor, for instance, in the in-

with exporters, a look at U.S. grain

age of grain

from

teams

trade

States

meetings

will be the

eight-country

are

Foreign

States,

inspection

the harvesting, handling,

sound business transac-

to

tions.

grading and inspection services, and at

Pos-

accomplishment

effective

at

and traders are discussing problems

No. 1 cash wheat buyer since During 1962-63, the United

individually 1

facilities,

than

basis

the obvious objective.

is

lead

that

flour

include

dock and terminal

wheat of high

I960.

country

particular

the foreign

competitive

a

hibition

For

in-

market development prothe

volved.

en-

to

show

classes of

more

the

is

custo-

grown.

is

to

prestige

return.

any other exporting nation.

sibly a

tivating markets,

these

such

demonstra-

training,

we want

his

customer that the United States can

school lunch programs, techni-

One of

mer

our part,

furnish

tion

cal

agricul-

while

gained

him added

here often gives

For wheat, these

things

tions,

knowledge

and

and authority upon

products.

tural

In

markets

U.S.

for

many cases, the trade team member may be making his first trip to the United States. The experi-

confidence.

ence

taining markets for the crop.

Many

London Trade

Participation in the

US. A.,

Associates,

sampling and

set

trial

up cooper-

programs.

Page 9

Cologne

U.S. Foods Star at Some 800

U.S. food products were

month

displayed last

Fair in Cologne,

at the

Germany

served

fruit

the larg-

chocolate drinks and milk



Europe

and

fruit

juices,

cream,

ice

ANUGA

international food fair in

est

booths

Special

Fair bread,

raisin

made from

nonfat dry milk, and honey.

Other

devoted exclusively to consumer foods.

attention-getters

Around 30,000 people attended daily. Competing with some 40 countries,

bean demonstrations and the kitchen

including

from

several

the

Bloc, the U.S. food exhibit to

For the

selling.

men



food

—were

few days

only business-

principally the buyers

of

ers

was geared

first

after the Fair opened,

Soviet

and

sell-

This

admitted.

permitted the American food industry to

bid strongly for Europe’s trade.

A try

a

big hit at the kitchen

turkey

where

sandwich

and cranberry

chicken

—served

with

sauce, could be

and



or

rice

bought

rice

premixed,

America’s

dehydrated

and

soy-

frozen,

were quickly

foods

prepared while visitors watched.

Among

the

participating

were

:

U.S. in

industry

the

Grocery

groups

ANUGA

Manufacturers

Fair

of

America, Institute of American Poultry

Industries,

tional, the

show was the poulfried

where

were the

ica,

Dairy Society Interna-

Soybean Council of Amer-

the U.S. Rice Export

Development

Association, the Millers National Association,

the

Floney

Dealers

and

Packers Association, and the U.S. fruit All of them had experts on

for a mark, or less than a quarter in

industry.

terms of U.S. money.

hand for consultation with importers.

Reception for German importers Breakfast foods at Groceteria

Page 10

Trade contacts

U.S.

honey booth

U.S. poultry snack bar

Foreign Agriculture

1



MARKETS

AND

CROPS

ORLD

However, there are no indications

German Exports of Wheat Flour to USSR West Germany

has been confirmed that

It

300,000 metric tons of light wheat

at least

moved from

ing

the intervention level toward the target

EEC Sets Quotas Under

Tobacco Exports

for Turkish

the Association

the European Economic

Agreement between Turkey and

Community (EEC), signed Sep-

tember 12, quotas have been established for exports of Turkish tobacco to member countries.

it.

has been reported

It

metric tons

USSR

that the

of wheat flour from

Italy

will

will export

sometimes reaching and occasionally even surpass-

prices,

USSR

the

flour to Russia.

domestic wheat has increased considerably and prices

for

have

that

import potatoes.

commitment, the demand

a result of this large export

As

1

will

buy 40,000

and 80,000 tons

from France.

ing

million pounds,

27.5

Luxembourg;

1.3

France;

million,

1 4.

5

are

The

quotas, total-

million

2.8

Belgium-

for

the Netherlands;

5.6

million,

West Germany; and

3.3

million,

million,

Italy.

The Agreement

Another Poor Bean Crop Indicated for Europe Four of the

five

that to date have

European countries

reported their 1963 bean production estimate an outturn

lower than their poor crops of these countries

— France,

aggregate

In

Greece, Spain, and Yugoslavia

370,000 metric tons

produced

year.

last

this

compared with

year

the

EEC

contains provisions which will enable

munity further agreed

to preserve the outlets for

exports even after the

give

The Com-

to increase the quotas after 2 years.

Turkish

tobacco

12-year transitional the

same customs

stage

duty

Turkish

and

to

afforded

Greek tobacco. /

420,000 metric tons in 1963, 530,000 in 1961, and the This

1955-59 average of 450,000. last year’s

crop, 30 percent

12 percent below

is

below the average.

and cold

in

excessive rain in Spain,

the

There are strong

indications that this drought has extended into

bean growing areas of the Balkans.

will be

If so,

few beans

last is

is

crop, always very small,

2 seasons but

crop

its

still

is

is

up 100 tons

this

larger than in either of the

below the 1955-59 average.

There

no 1963 estimate available from Mexico, but the crop expected to reach an alltime record.

Annual

Average

Germany Greece Japan

Lebanon Mexico Spain

Yugoslavia

1962

1963

1955-59

1961

Metric

Metric

Metric

Metric

tons

tons

tons

tons

107,000 3,000 46,000 155,000 500 430,000 111,000 184,000

France

Norway

Average export prices per pound of major destinations

in

65,000

80,200 3,270 64,261 129,800

3,900 49,972 100,700 1,000

820 620,000 142,818 240,000

520,000 126,000 178,000

50,000 4,000 49,651 141,100

West Germany,

as follows:

leaf tobacco shipped

52.0;

Norway, 41.1; Belgium,

and the United

25.0; the Netherlands, 56.3;

totaled 1.2 million pounds,

from the United

compared with

States accounted for

Imports of U.S. leaf tobacco

last

Last Year's

1963 portato harvest is about short crop. It was only 68.8 million

were erratic and quality poor. Larger harI960 and 1961 totaled 84.4 million tons and 84.3

tons; supplies

million, season,

Harvest losses may be lower

respectively.

but

October 21,

quality

1963

of

the

potatoes

has

not

year

1.8 million in

Reduced takings

most of the

decline.

amounted

to 966,-

year

an upward trend, were 263,000 pounds, compared with

242,000

Cuba

in

1961, and

and 2,000

Imports from

187,000 in I960.

totaled 15,000 pounds,

compared with 6,000

in

1

96

in I960.

II

1,400

Record 128,000 141,000

Indications are that the

vests in

21.1.

last

000 pounds, compared with 1,304,000 in 1961 and 2,303,000 in I960. However, imports from Turkey, which show

U.S. Tobacco

totaled

equal to last year’s

States,

Venezuela’s imports of unmanufactured tobacco

Exports Larger

in

August

U.S. exports of unmanufactured tobacco

USSR Potato Crop About Same As

com-

took 87,000

1962, in terms of U.S. cents, were

1961 and the I960 high of 2.7 million.

DRY BEANS: PRODUCTION IN SELECTED COUNTRIES Country

totaled 544,000 pounds,

United States 7,000.

to

Japan reports

substantially above

pounds, Belgium 21,000, the Netherlands 8,000, and the

exported from that area to Western Europe this

The German

Germany

Exports to West

pared with 28,000 pounds in 1961.

winter.

year.



the 28,000 exported in 1961.

France, delayed seeding in Greece, and

drought in both Greece and Yugoslavia. unofficial

Venezuela’s exports of unmanufactured tobacco during

1962 totaled a record 668,000 pounds

The poor crops were caused by rain

Venezuela's Leaf Tobacco Exports at Record

below 196l’s, and 18 percent

this

improved.

in

August 1963

40 million pounds (export weight), compared with

34.9 million in August 1962.

Exports of flue-cured, burley, and dark-fired Kentucky-

Tennessee were larger than those for August 1962. Maryland exports, however, were only 314,000 pounds, com-

pared with 1.9 million in August 1962.

For the

first

8

months of 1963,

total U.S.

exports of

unmanufactured tobacco were 249.1 million pounds

—up

Page

1

3.6 percent

from the 240.3 million exported

in January-

down

0.4 percent

Flue-cured exports were

August 1962.

from a year

earlier,

but burley rose 23.6 percent and dark-

Gains were also

Kentucky-Tennessee, 24.7 percent.

fired

recorded

Virginia

for

Black

fire-cured,

Total value of

binder.

all

and

Fat,

tobacco exports

in

cigar

January-

August 1963 was $190.3 million, compared with $183.4

The continued

downward

Output of dark-type pieces in

1

96 1

production of dark-type ciga

rise in the

again offset the

rettes

trend in the light type

lion

11.7

billior

1962 and accounted fo

to 12.6 billion in

54.0 percent of total production. type totaled

from

rose

cigarettes

Production of the ligh

10.8 billion pieces, compared with 11.2 bil

produced during the previous

year.

million for the same period of 1962.

U.S. exports of tobacco products in August 1963 were

valued

$12.5 million compared with $9.9 million in

at

August 1962.

There were gains

1963, the total value of

all

U.S.

in all kinds of products,

except smoking tobacco in packages.

For January- August

tobacco product exports was

Exports of Soybeans, Edible Oils, Meals

U.S.

of soybeans and oilcakes

exports

August dipped below those for

and meals

ir

July; however, cumulative

exports in the October- August period of the 1962-63

mar

$79-9 million, compared with $77.5 million in the same

keting year significantly exceeded the record levels for the

period of 1962.

entire

U.S.

EXPORTS OF UNMANUFACTURED TOBACCO, AUGUST 1963, WITH COMPARISONS

ued

to be

by

July

1,000

1,000

pounds

pounds

pounds

pounds

27,378 2,173

31,218 4,645

188,933 23,555

188,178 29,107

905 398

1,210

250 314

7,557 3,035 6,372

9,424 3,137 6,327

32 19

623 213

498

338 258 86 20

2,439 3,474

2,913 3,057

418

647 189

+54.8

1,169

1,643

3,717

5,472

+47.2

pounds.

34,932

40,033

240,338

249,106

+

gust of the current marketing year totaled over 1.4 billion

Mil.

Mil.

Mil.

Mil.

dol.

dol.

dol.

dol.

27.9

32.3

183.4

190.3

76 24 339 421 116

...

...

...

Percent



+23.6 +24.7

+ —

3.4



3-6

U.S.

soybean exports were Japan 26;

termined

quantities

of

exports

August edible were up from

pounds

oil

shipments (soybean and cottonseed) by nearly 14 percent to 111.8 million

Cumulative shipments of edible

—about

1,000 Product

through Au-,

oils

14 percent below those for the comparable Foreign donations under Title

last year.

480 during the 11-month period

this year

compared with 15

soybean

oil

exports

in

August,

at

87.9

Change from

major

destinations,

with

percentages

the

of

total

Pakistan 58; Turkey 12; Israel 8; Colombia 4; and Moroc-

1962

1963

1962

1,530

4,076

13,317

22,385

+68.1

bean

2,448

16,069

15,818



tenth from the corresponding 11-month period in 1961-62.

2,062

19

52

429

381

—11.2

pounds, were up by more than two-fifths from the previ-

107

87

577

561



total

Egypt, and oil

Hong Kong

about 2 each.

shipments through August were

Cumulative

soy-

down by

one-

1.6

U.S. cottonseed oil exports in August, at 23.9 million;

in pkgs.

pounds

ous month. 2.8

Smoking tobacco

Major

destinations with their percentages of

exports were Turkey

60;

South Vietnam 6; and Sweden

bulk

pounds

541

Total declared value Million dollars

9-9

967

4,801

12.5

77.5

6,968 79-9

Canada

13;

Morocco

riod through August, shipments lagged behind those of

+

year by

3.1

more than

at

nearly 15 percent from July.

103,900 tons were

A

decline in ship-

ments of soybean meal was accompanied by

Argentina's Cigarette Output output

Page

II

of

—up but

billion.

Up

cigarettes

2.4 percent still

4.3

Slightly

during

gains in shipments of linseed meal.

1962 totaled

from the 22.9

percent below the

billion

1958

ports,

comprising

last

one-fifth.

August cake and meal exports

down

9;

In the cumulative pe-i

5.

+45.1

Bureau of the Census.

high of 24.4

The were,

1963

Smoking tobacco

1961

million*

1962

pounds

in

percent'

pounds, were 8 percent above the previous month’s.

ro,

23.4 billion pieces

accounted

same period a year ago.

U.S.

1963,

Cigars and cheroots

produced

III of

3.8

1,000

January-August

trans-

July’s

for about 7 percent of the total

August

Canada were

to

shipped to Europe.

for the

OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, AUGUST WITH COMPARISONS

Major

one-fifth.

their respective per-

Canada 16; Denmark and West Germany about 14 each; Italy 11; and the Netherlands 10. Significant but unde-

period of

1 1,000 Includes sun-cured. Bureau of the Census.

pieces Cigarettes Million pieces Chewing and snuff

August shipments and

of total

centages

12.0

Percent

+

11-month period of 1961-62 by nearly destinations for

.7

—20.1 —26.3 +19-4

157

2

0.4

cumulative exports exceeded those of the corresponding

P.L.

Argentina's

in

the

1,000

One Sucker

in

while

million

1,000

1,933

1,000 EXPORTS U.S.

11.8

to

1963

...

Declared value

bushels

1962

1

1962

million

2.5

1963

Maryland Green River

Total

somewhat below those of the comparable period

1962

Kind

Black Fat, etc. Cigar wrapper Cigar binder Cigar filler Other

oil;

contin-

U.S. soybean exports in August declined from those

Change

Ky.-Tenn. Va. fire-cured

U.S. exports of edible

year.

last year.

(Export weight)

Flue-cured Burley Dark-fired

1961-62 marketing

August increased, but October- August exports

in

about

88

percent

significant

Soybean meal of

the

total

ex-

U.S.

monthly shipments of cakes and meals, moved principally to

Canada, which took 23 percent (largely transshipped to Italy, 18 percent; and Spain and the Nether-

Europe);

Foreign Agriculture

1

:

Also, France and

14 percent each.

lands,

West Germany

10 percent each.

took about

U.S. exports of cakes and meals in the 11 -month period,

now

million tons

at 1.5

(See Foreign Agriculture, July

stand 47 percent above those for

the comparable period of last year and exceed total

ex-

1961-62 marketing year by more than one-

ports for the

production for the 1962-63 crop year

is

106,100 tons com-

pared with a 196l-62’s revised estimate of 107,780 tons.

yields, the decline

from

an expansion in planted seed crop

is

1,

1963.) Despite reduced

The

area.

to

bulk of the sunflower-

Exports comprise rough-

harvested in April.

one-fifth of the crop.

third.

ly

US EXPORTS OF SOYBEANS, EDIBLE OIL, AND OILSEED CAKES AND MEALS, AUGUST 1963

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: PEANUT AND SUNFLOWERSEED AREA, YIELDS AND PRODUCTION 1958-62

October- August

August

Soybeans

Equiv Meal Equiv Oil

1

1

Unit

1962

Mil. bu. Mil. lb. 1,000 tons

8.4

11.8

92.6 198.2

129.2 276.5

Item

1963

1961-62

1

Crop year 1

1962-63

173.2 1,901.4 4,070.0

145.9 1,601.6 3,427.8

Edible oils:

Soybean:

Commercial

2

4

3

984.8

137.5

87.0

1,013.2

do

12.1

.9

168.0

69.0

do

15.7

23.7

384.2

327.7

Mil.

Foreign donations Cottonseed

lb.

Commercial

2

Foreign donations

4

do

5.1

.2

76.7

28.7

do

170.4

111.8

1,642.1

1,410.2

87.1

91.3

1,010.8

6.2

1.8

1,386.3 76.3

1.0

8.7

9.2 12.7

94.3

103.9

1,033.0

beginning

Produc-

Planted

May

Yield

area

1

Peanuts (Shelled basis): 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63 Sunflowerseed: 1958-59 1959-60 1960-61 1961-62 1962-63

Cakes and meals: Soybean 1,000 tons Cottonseed do do Linseed

46.0

Meals

do

Pounds

1,000

per acre

short tons

634.8 526.9 732.1 683.6 740.6

436

138.4 151.9 193.1 134.4 195.0

840.4 438.1 482.5 444.4 476.2

460 457

577 528 393 527

513 485 446

Canadian Oilseed Crops Up Sharply Canada’s

one-third

47,824 long

at

tons, against

January-May amounted

in

oil

43,482

in the

to 45,-

comparable period of

tons in contrast to the 13,003 exported in the

According to the of South Africa’s

revised

latest

estimate,

1962-63 peanut crop

ord 195,000 short tons, shelled basis.

an

increase

of

45

above the previous record crop

The Republic’s peanut crop tween

March and May.

and

is

peak

in

last

year,

1960-61 and

is

re-

in

starts

in

October 21,

estimate

1963

flower-

Mustard

seed

seed

Soybeans

~

ACREAGE 1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

acres

acres

acres

acres

acres

245 212 221 228

36 34 23 38

Average 1955-59 2,593 1961 2,086 1962 1,445 1,685 1963

389 710 371 483

95 121 121

N.A.

YIELD PER ACRE Pounds 708 790 789 929

Bushels 8.7

6.9 11.1 11.7

Bushels

Pounds

Pounds 785 310 602

545 711 755

25.3 31.3 29.9 26.5

860

N.A.

PRODUCTION Average 1955-59 1961 1962 1 1963 1

As

...

indicated

1,000 bushels

pounds

1,000 bushels

22,544 14,318 16,042 19,778

275,404 561,000 293,000 449,000

6,187 6,631 6,608 6,042

on the

1,000

basis of conditions

1,000

1,000

pounds

pounds

19,477 24,107 17,360 32,688

74,701 37,500 72,900

N.A.

on or about Septem-

ber 15.

Dominion Bureau of

Statistics,

Ottawa.

August and September, to

Flaxseed production,

be held and sold

Significant quantities of both

peanuts and peanut oil are exported. revised

Rapeseed

Flaxseed

placed at a rec-

harvested principally be-

may continue

throughout the crop year.

Year

the Republic

Marketing of the crop

sales usually hit a

although small quantities

The

CANADA, ACREAGE, YIELD PER ACRE, AND PRODUCTION, AVERAGE 1955-59, ANNUAL 1961-63

OILSEEDS:

Average 1955-59 1961 1962 1 1963

This amount, rep-

from

over-

favorable seasons for field crops in Canada’s history.

1962 period.

both expanded acreage and increased yields.

flects

July

percent

is

15, ac-

The

average yields per acre resulting from one of the most

14,694

South Africa's Peanut, Sunflowerseed Output

slightly

Statistics.

expansion was due to increased acreage and better-than-

all

in the cor-

Registered exports of palm kernels were

resenting

up sharply from

is

on September

cording to the Dominion Bureau of

were up by more than

tons,

from the 34,975-ton volume exported

Exports of palm

1962.

basis of indications

Sun-

responding period of 1962.

400 short

1963 oilseed production

on the

Exports of Copra, Palm Products

Registered exports of copra from Indonesia in January

May 1963,

110.4 100.0 123.7 107.8 106.1

2

last year,

Indonesia's

2

Calculated from the data here presented. Includes estimates of annual "farm retentions” which for peanuts is 5,000 tons and for sunflowerseed is 1,100 tons.

1,520.1

Preliminary. 2 Includes Title I, II, and IV, P.L. 480, except soybean and cottonseed oils contained in shortening exported under Title II. Excludes estimates of Title II exports of soybean 3 Includes 32,855,509 and cottonseed oil not reported by Census. pounds exported to Spain in January, but returned without being 5 4 Includes peanut cake and Title III, P.L. 480. discharged. meal and small quantities of other cakes and meals. Compiled from records of the Bureau of the Census and USDA.

tion

acres

Total Cakes and 5

1

1.000

1

Total oils

,

owing

last year was only slight,

of the Republic’s

one-fourth above els

sunflowerseed

less

at

19-8 million bushels,

last year’s

is

almost

outturn but 2.8 million bush-

than the 1955-59 average.

Acreage was 17 per-

cent above last year's, and average yields, 5 percent.

Page 13

Estimated at 449.0 million pounds, rapeseed production

50 percent larger than the reduced output of 1962 and 60 percent above the 1955-59 average. Acreage increased by almost one-third and average yields by almost one-fifth.

The 1963

sunfloiverseed crop

double

almost

pounds,

and two-thirds

crop

Sunflower acreage was up by

above the 1955-59 average.

two-thirds from last year and yields by 14 percent. contrast to these

In

increases

Peppermint

production in Parana

oil

rose

in

the previous sea5 bi

However, the

son, as a result of prolonged dry weather.

si

mint

have escaped damage from the

fields

and

fires

frost

reported in that region.

The drought

expected to cause some reduction in mint

is

If

1

and April 1964 and may

cuttings between October 1963

it

the 9-percent decline

is

July- August

the

amounted

While acreage

down from

expected to be

is

1964

soybean production to 6.0 million bushels.

in

Brazil,

State,

(

1963-64

affect

from 1962

D?ll

placed at 32.7 million

is

year’s

last

Peppermint Crop Smaller

Brazil's

is

cuttings.

to about 2,000 metric tons,

The 1962 crop making Brazil the

/.

average per-acre yields de-

slightly,

world’s leading producer of peppermint mentholized

oils.

.

clined by over 10 percent.

Pakistan Increases

Its

Sugar Output

Indonesian Copra Trade In an attempt to increase

The Indonesian Government, under nomic confrontation

of

policy

its

newly established

the

Pakistan has upped the area planted to sugarcane from

of

about 1,380,000 acres in 1961 to 1,650,000 in 1962. This

state

Malayasia broke off trade with Singapore-Penang on Sep-

This cessation of legal trade with Malayasia

tember 21. is

likely

result

to

in

registered copra

decline in

a

ship-

45 percent of Indonesia’s registered copra shipments in 1961 and about 40 percent in 1962 ( Foreign Agriculture, July

To ably

has resulted in increased sugar output, practically centrifugal sugar of

duced

Singapore-Penang had been an outlet for about

ments.

1963).

1,

Indonesia will prob-

offset the loss of this market,

(and ship-

ping) by the Bloc countries, Japan, and possible Western Europe.

new markets

Until

made

available,

copra

shipments

accumulate

and shipping

the

of registered

that

of

sumed domestically on

level

copra

may

increasingly

con-

low and

remain

will

points

at

are established

likely

is

it

be

or

origin

which

Java,

is

that

chronically

Undeclared copra shipments from Indonesia, however,

The

tion of legal trade.

countries comprising Malayasia

have been the recipients of the greater part of the unregistered

Pakistan; but this

Italian

million

production of true

pounds

in

million in 1962 and

age of 49 million.

31.1

The

lowest production of recent years in

I960.

since

rank as third largest producer. into third

and Yugoslavia continued

World consumption

of

Italian

At

production has

when

1958,

that time

Italy

lost

hemp

its

Hungary and

and fourth places and the in first

not

is

cer-

1963-64.

is

only a small portion of total output.

Meat

recently

announced

agreement had been reached with the United King-

dom on

its

The

1963 import quota for Argentine beef.

which will be

filled

by the end of October, has been

modified to allow shipments of an additional 20,000 tons

first

shipments of 80,000 tons

also said that

made

to the

United Kingdom

in

4 months of 1964.

Meat Packers Win Contract

Irish

Irish

meat a

meat packers have won

to a Belgian retail chain

is

expect-

which already has similar

pean chains, including some

The managing in

a large contract to supply

director of

This

with 350 branches.

major step into the Belgian market for the

dustry,

firm reported that his

1963-64

Belgium

in

Irish

meat

is

in-

outlets with other Euro-

in Britain.

one large

Irish

company has two

Europe surveying new market

meat packing

full-time salesmen

outlets.

ed to total about 35.3 million pounds, or slightly more

than the average for the past 3 years of 34.5 million.

United States imported 311,000 pounds of but most of in Italy

were

it

came from Yugoslavia.

less

than

1

expected to be reduced by as

end of August 1964. Page 14

hemp

in

The

1962,

Carryover stocks

million pounds for several years

but rose to 6.6 million on August 31, 1963. is

much

1

Minister stated that the previous quota of 180,000 tons,

USSR

and second.

fiber in

it

for

forecast at 26.5

is

aver-

downward

Rumania moved

fiber

production

into

The Argentine Minister of Economy

the

46 percent below the 1956-60

15

was 25.3 million pounds been trending

hemp

Down

percent less than the

1963,

are proposed, but

U.K. Sets Import Quota for Argentine

The Minister Fiber Production

to

before the end of December.

shipments of copra from Indonesia.

Hemp

increas-

is

Sugar beets are used in one factory in Mardan, West

of chilled beef will be Italian

rising faster than pro-

tons.

new sugar mills how many will get

that

are expected to increase sharply, as a result of the cessa-

is

as a result, that country

Several tain

short

of copra for crushing.

and

During calendar 1962, they amounted

imports.

its

in

1962-63.

in

duction, however,

ing

all

which 168,000 short tons were pro-

Sugar consumption in Pakistan

169,000

have to depend upon increased takings

West

sugar production,

its

of eco-

This quantity

as two-thirds

by the

More Argentine Meat As

a result of

for Non-Traditional Markets

ample supplies and high world

prices,

Argentina has recently made shipments of meat and

cattle

to several non-traditional markets.

One which,

of

Argentina’s

according to

new markets for experts, may

some

cattle

is

eventually

Italy

take

Foreign Agriculture

1

5

50,000

head

per

Brazil

year.

imounts of Argentine beef is

amount

expected to take twice the

importing

large

October, and

Israel

started

early

in

it

imported

last year.

Shipments also went to Spain and France, and negotiations



now

ire

underway for exports of beef to

and mutton

neef

to

Hong Kong and

New

Zealand and Australia are expected

supply most of

to

to each of

Import licenses will be issued individually

it.

the 16

members of

the Japanese meat importers council,

but actual imports will be on a joint basis between these

The Ministry of Agriculture has requested

importers.

that

imports be held to 2.2 million pounds per month.

Red China.

Beef and pork prices have been rising rapidly since

Argentine

Meat

spring, in line with the increasing

Open

Plant To Stay

The Argentine Minister of Labor recently issued a resoordering the La Blanca meat packing plant to reThe plant had been scheduled verse its decision to close.

[iution

November 1. (See Foreign Agriculture, Sept. The Minister also ordered the management of 1963.)

Although beef imports may level,

for red meat.

doubtful that this small volume will result in

is

it

demand

stabilize prices at the present

any substantial price reduction. ably import even

Thus, Japan will prob-

more beef and pork

in 1964.

o close on 30,

he plant and representatives of

1,300 workers to begin

its

U.K. Cheese Imports

The U.K.’s imports

;onciliation talks.

of cheese during the

of 1963, at 162 million pounds, were

Freight Rates Rise

Australia-U.S.

On November :

1,

higher shipping rates will be charged

and refrigerated cargo between Australia,

or all general

Zealand, and ports on the North American Atlantic

Mew

This increase in freight rates

loast.

and handling

operating

is

attributed to rising

costs.

An

100 pounds to $4.15.

meat export market

ralian

at

Meat Board

Australian

new

has estimated that the

Icial

est

pounds

less

cost the

Aus-

$2 million per

year,

rates will

least

of-

Zealand continued

going

is

to

examine

contracts.

all

The major European Denmark shipped more

smaller.

Kingdom



Wool

in this

To reduce

the

number of

Sets

Zealand wool trade and to ease

New

a

ilities,

It

Tench, and Scandinavian

The new pace

is

made up of Dutch,

British,

Minimum Cotton Support minimum

new export

season October

rebates

will

1

.

The

However,

be reduced 7 percent, and this will

lave the effect of a 9-percent increase in

wool freight for

he coming wool season, or just under 0.2 cent per pound.

now being for

ion !

>f

are

needed

1 1

In terms of Brazilian curis

well above the 1962-

U.S. cents a pound)

set in

in a decline of the sup-

port price, in terms of U.S. currency in 1962-63 to about

12.00 U.S. cents a pound by the end of the season.

This season’s crop

is

now

expected to top the 1962-63

production of 2,300,000 bales (500 pounds gross).

The

port quota for the 1962-63 South Brazil crop

735,000

bales, but so far only

Type

5 at

643,000 have been exported.

pound above

Type

and

The pork imports

relieve shortages

will

come from

he United States.

Imports of 4.4 million pounds of pork from the United

beginning

nestic

pork

in

prices,

June failed

to

dampen

the rising do-

and further imports from South Korea

nd the Republic of China will be too small to

materially.

It

is

more pounds of pork before January The beef will be imported on 3, -global ,

21,

1963

affect prices

expected that Japan will import 6.6 mil-

ion

October

is

ex-

Bra-

Santos has recently been from 2 to 3 U.S. the

world market price of 24.6

5.

U.S.

Cotton Linters Exports Up

1,

1964.

basis;

however,

in

August

U.S. exports of cotton linters, mostly chemical qualities, totaled

27,000 running bales

of the

1963-64 season.

in

August

|

,

However,

October of 1962.

re-

These im-

million of beef.

to curb rising prices

domestic red meat.

States

financing or

4,820 cruzeiros

is

import licenses for the purchase of 3.3 mil-

pounds of pork and

iorts

plant-

63 guarantee of 3,194 cruzeiros per arroba (about 15.33

cents for

The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry

Prices

cotton (equivalent to about

rency, this season’s support price

cents per

Importing Beef and Pork

ently issued

lint

11.94 U.S. cents a pound).

zil’s

lapan

the Nether-

support prices for

the 1963-64 South Brazilian cotton crop,

weakness of the cruzeiro resulted

lines.

on wool freight remains unchanged.

pasic rate [special

Zealand’s port fa-

association planned to eliminate unfilled ship

the start of the

at

New

Zealand-European shipping association has

been formed.

ecently

New



less.

per 15 -kilogram arroba of

ships competing for the

million

2

period than a year ago, while Italy and

Switzerland shipped

Brazil

sources

The new price to be guaranteed acquisition of Type 5, the base quality,

Freight Rises



cheese to the United

ed.

iVew Zealand-Continent

as

million pounds, and Canada, 7 million, were also some-

what

Brazil recently established seas,

same

Supplies from Australia, at 19

than in 1962.

n the light of this increase, the Meat Board, which has the

aower to control arrangements for shipment of meat over-

6 months

the

by far the larg-

to be

shipping 96 million pounds

supplier,

lands and

Rates for frozen beef will be increased from about $3.75 ier

New

last year.

first

much

9.000 bales shipped

in



the

first

month

This was 70 percent above the

August 1962.

Quantities shipped to major destinations during August,

with comparable 1962 figures in parentheses, were: West

Germany 21,000

bales (7,000); Japan 4,000 (0);

Canada

1.000 (1,000); and France 1,000 (0).

Exports in August amounted to 27,000 bales, compared

with 34,000 in July, and 9,000 in August 1962. Page

1

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

U.S.

WASHINGTON,

D.

20250

C.

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

U.S.

OFFICIAL BUSINESS

To change your

address or stop mailing, sheet and send to Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Dept, of Agricultear

this

off

Rm.

ture,

5918, Washington, D.C. 20250.

Hurricane Wreaks Havoc

from page

( Continued

WORLD CROPS AND MARKETS INDEX

Caribbean

in

(other commodity articles listed on page 2)

7j

Cotton

Effect on area's trade

many Caribbean

In

ed by the storms

and

juice,

countries, the products chiefly affect-

—bananas,

to a lesser extent

coconuts,

cocoa,

coffee,

sugar—are important

lime

from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Leeward and Windward Islands, and Martinique and GuadeHowever,

loupe will probably experience a sharp drop.

Brazil Sets

15

U.S. Cotton Linters Exports

accounted

for

only

August

in

$29 million worth of agricultural products the United States took from these countries in 1962, and little effect

U.K. Cheese Imports

and

Fats, Oilseeds, 14

of the

million

$8.5

Up

Dairy and Poultry Products 15

12

products

these

Cotton Support Prices

earners

Customers buying large quantities

of foreign exchange.

Minimum

15

Oils

U.S. Exports of Soybeans, Edible Oils, Meals

Palm Products

13

Indonesia’s Exports of Copra,

13 15 13

South Africa’s Peanut, Sunflowerseed Output

14

Indonesian Copra Trade

total

on

this total

From

expected.

is

and the Dominican Republic, the United

Haiti

been a major buyer of sugar,

States has

coffee, cocoa, sisal,

Fruits,

and molasses, taking about $154.8 million worth from the 1 1

two countries together Haiti

reductions in prospect.

The normal food nearly

self-sufficient.

the area in

are

fruits

exports

agricultural

meat and meat products,

and vegetables.

Of

this,

Potato Crop About

Same

as Last Year’s

11

German Exports

Another Poor Bean Crop Indicated for Europe

to

of

Wheat

Flour to

USSR

U.K. 14

14

Needs for food

15

1964

15

the hurricane’s aftermath.

15

Import Quota for Argentine Meat

Sets

Irish Meat Packers Win Contract in Belgium More Argentine Meat for Non-Traditional Markets Argentine Meat Plant To Stay Open

Australia-U.S.

New

1962, the United States shipped Haiti and the Do-

Meat Products

Livestock and

grains,

products are expected to increase during 1963 and

In

USSR

11

about $1.3 million

was under Food for Peace programs. in

Vegetables, and Nuts

are substantial importers, others

Most U.S.

flour,

Sharply

Crains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds

food products— about $28.8 million worth

1962, including

and

situation in countries of the hurricane

some

area varies widely;

Up

Only the shipments from

in 1962.

be affected by hurricane damage, with sharp

will

Canadian Oilseed Crops

Freight

Rates

Zealand-Continent

Rise

Wool

Freight Rises

Japan Importing Beef and Pork

minican Republic about $18.4 million worth of farm products,

Food

mainly wheat, for

Peace

rice,

lard,

shipments

and soybean

accounted

oil.

Of

this,

Sugar, Fibers, and Tropical Products

Hemp

million.

14

Italian

Hurricane damage may mean that Haiti will require sub-

14

Brazil’s

14

Pakistan

for

$2.7

more food for the next ll/2 years. Cuba accounted for about 7.5 percent of

stantially

sugar

production

sugar trade,

it

in

the

crop

year

1962-63.

Fiber Production

Down

Peppermint Crop Smaller Increases

Its

Sugar Output

the world's

In

world

Tobacco

exported about 28 percent of the total in

11

EEC

Hurricane dam-

Sets

Quotas for Turkish Tobacco Exports Record

11

Venezuela’s Leaf Tobacco Exports

age reports indicate a continued decline in Cuba’s share

11

U.S. Tobacco Exports Larger in August

of world sugar production and trade in the

12

Argentina’s

1962 with

Pag© 16

a

decreasing share in

1963.

coming

year.

Cigarette

Output

Up

at

Slightly

Foreign Agriculture