Messengers of the churches : first series : seven pioneer missionaries

iui^v. Messengers of the Churches /, E. SANDERSON, M,A -o* MISSIONARY SOCIETY -3 OF S- ZU m% - PP! as Of" a uJcrc Fur.ls foi the Mi...

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SUTHERLAND, General Secretary.

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MESSENGERS OF THE

CHURCHES tfirst

Series

SEVEN PIONEER MISSIONARIES With

"The messengers

Porti-aits

and

of the churches

Ilhtstrations.

and the glory

of Christ. 2 Cor.

viii.

BY

REV.

J.

E*f-

SANDERSON,

M.A.

TORONTO

WILLIAM BRIGGS Montreal

:

C.

W. COATES

1900

Halifax

:

S. F.

HUESTIS

Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand nine hundred, by William Briqqs, at the Department of Agriculture.

HEcft

i

f

//

-U

PREFACE.

This

little

volume

is

an

effort to

supply a

lack of readily available information regarding

This some representative early missionaries. want has been specially felt by Sunday Schools, Christian

Endeavor

Societies

and

Epworth

Leagues, and also by general readers and

many

ministers.

The names and

selected represent several

countries, but they are of

Churches

men marked by

such catholicity of spirit as to be claimed by

all

Christians.

We

have started with the

rise of

our present-

day missionary enterprises in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and hope, in future series,

to

trace

the record towards our

own

times.

To

place the book within easy reach of

we have condensed

gleanings from

many

all,

sources

PREFACE.

IV

into the smallest space consistent with a reason-

ably adequate presentation of the

men and

their

work.

We

are persuaded that the

stranger than fiction,"

"

and help

facts will prove to incite a deeper

interest in world-wide evangelization.

We

gratefully

own our

obligations to

many

writers for materials gathered for these pages. J.

Toronto, December,

1900.

E. S.

CONTENTS.

PAGK

Thomas Coke, D.C.L.,

1747-1814

William Carey, D.D.,

1761-1834

9 -

William Case,

-

...

Gideon Ouseley, 1762-1839

Henry Martyn, M.A.,

-

1781-1812

-

-

John Williams, 1796-1839

57

83 103

1780-1855

Robert Morrison, D.D., 1782 1834

35

-

-

-

-

129 155

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

Thomas Coke, U.C.L. Kingston,

St.

Vincent,

8

West

Indies

-

-

-

Bombay

18

33

William Carey, D.D.

34

A Brahman Woman

42

Gideon Ouseley

56

Blarney Castle

72

Henry Martyn, M.A. Arab Chief

82 96

William Case

102

Peter Jones' House at the River Credit

-

-

115

Indian Village at the River Credit

-

-

117

-

Robert Morrison, D.D.

128

Bible Colporteur, China

140

John Williams

The Messenger

154

of Peace

165

THOMAS COKE,

D.C.L.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

i.

THOMAS COKE,

D.C.L.

America, West Indies, Nova Scotia, Ireland,

Wales,

Africa, India.

1747-1814.

EARLY

LIFE.

widespread evangelistic movements of our day owe their origin largely to the

THE

religious

awakenings

of

the latter half of the

eighteenth century. In giving that newly-found Christian life a world-wide extension, no one

appears to have been in advance of Thomas Coke. He was born in Brecon, Wales, October 9th,

In a quiet Christian home he was careHe was dark, rather short, fully nurtured. In the " Old Grammar bright and active. 1747.

School,"

and

"

College of the Church of Christ,"

he was prepared to enter Jesus College, Oxford, in his sixteenth year.

9

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

10

Amid

the beauty and grandeur of that old he found superficial religion and a low city moral tone. Voltaire and Rousseau made dis-

England. Professors and students had weakened under the terrible fusillade of atheistic taunts and sneers. From the dark days of Charles II. it had been the ambition of many to undermine the authority of the Bible and the faith of the people. To withstand this avalanche of iniquity, John Wesley and his Oxford associates had been called of God and sent forth. ciples in

Thomas Coke,

for the first time

the restraints and

caught

and

safeguards

of

away from home, was

submerged amid the The conflict was severe,

well-nigh

waves of scepticism.

but resulted in a firm belief in divine Revelation

and the beginning

of a

new

life.

GRADUATION. In February, 1768, he received his Bachelor's degree and returned to Brecon. His agreeable manners, education, and wealth gave him access

He was elected to his to the highest society. father's place as chief magistrate of the town. Three years of public life deferred, but did not defeat, his purpose of entering Holy Orders. As yet, like Wesley in Georgia, he felt himself a servant

"

not a son.

giveness of sins," he said

;

I

believe in the for-

but his experience did

THOMAS COKE, not warrant the confession. practical divinity,

11

D.C.L.

He

made request

read books of

for a curacy,

and

In June, Roads, and received his Deacon was ordained he 1770, was admitted to In he Master's degree. 1772 in

received

Somersetshire.

and ordination. the solemn words

priest's

orders

Listening

to

:

"Come, Holy Ghost,

Creator, come, Inspire these souls of Thine, Till every heart which Thou hast made Is filled with grace divine

"

he mourned unfitness for his solemn vows.

CONVERSION.

Coke read Witherspoon on " Regeneration," and " Alleine's Alarm." Manuals of prayer gave As John Wesley met Peter place to prayer. met Thomas Maxfield, the first Coke Bohler, Methodist lay preacher, and was soon able to sing

:

"

My God

is

reconciled,

His pardoning voice I hear, He owns me for His child, I can no longer fear."

In his new charge, South Petherton, he began to preach extempore. Souls were converted

among Ijhe people and opposition from the clergy resulted. Appeals to the Bishop were answered with commendations of his zeal.

consternation

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

12

Coke began a more careful examination of " Methodism read " Wesley's Journals and ;

"Fletcher's

Checks";

meet Wesley

;

was

drove twenty miles

to

instructed and captivated by

"

Apostle of Methodism," and would have followed him straightway, had not Wesley the

him to let his light shine where he was. His zeal was rewarded with persecution. He was driven from his parish. But as one door closed another opened, and he counselled

ENTERED METHODISM. Thus wrote Wesley, August 19th, 1777 " I went to Taunton with Dr. Coke, who has bidden adieu to his honorable name and cast in his lot :

with

us."

The Methodists South

curate of

of

London welcomed

Petherton.

the

Thousands were

eager to hear him. In the tields multitudes were drawn by his earnestness and simplicity. Mr. Wesley found him an agreeable and help-

companion. Preaching in an open square, in Ramsbury, he was attacked by a mob, headed

ful

by the

Vicar.

Their uproar failing to silence the

preacher, the Vicar called for the

The crowd was that they use." after,

"

They when

scattered.

fire

engine.

Coke warned them

might need their engine

for better

recalled his words, a couple of weeks Dr. Coke their square lay in ashes.

THOMAS COKE, visited his old

parish, "

13

D.C.L.

and was greeted with

We rang

him out," said thejr, and now we ring him in." The sick and the poor had missed their open-handed benefactor. The people came for miles, in thousands, to see and hear him. In 1782 Coke was sent by Wesley to preside ringing of bells. "

in the Irish Conference. " The Listening to the words of his leader world is my parish," he began to consider :

"

the regions beyond." The Roman Catholic Church, through its orders, its Loyolas and Xaviers, had been reaching out to the ends of the earth.

The Waldenses and Bohemians had

borne their steadfast witness to the most aggressive truths of Revelation. The Moravians had found their way to India, Africa and America.

The English and Nonconformist Churches were slow to undertake missionary efforts. John Wesley had preached to the colonists and the Indians in America. Coke caught his spirit, and, from a flaming evangelist at home, became an inspired missionary abroad. The infant

New York by

Barbara Heck were Philip Embury keeping pace with those at home. The War of Independence had snapt political ties, but failed to sever Methodist In those " Free and Independent relationship. States" Wesley saw that the Church must be societies planted in

and

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

14

Methodists had a right to the sacraments from the hands of their own ministers. He free.

confided these conclusions to Coke, in 1784, and asked him, with Asbury, to undertake the

superintendency of those societies. Conference he was so appointed.

At the next

On

the 18th

September, 1784, with Messrs. Whatcoat and Vasey, he set sail on his FIRST MISSIONARY VOYAGE,

and landed in New York, November 3rd. After preaching in New York and Philadelphia, he undertook a tour of a thousand miles through Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland. Like another Baptist, he traversed the wilderness,

John the calling

sands,

men

to repentance, preaching to thoubaptizing "more in one tour than I

my whole life in an English parish." doors were closed against him, but the

should in

Some fields

and

forests

were open.

Like his Master,

he was ready to break the bread of life wherever hungry multitudes were waiting to be fed.

He met joint

The Coke and Mr.

the Conference in Baltimore.

superintendency of

Dr.

Asbury was unanimously accepted. Sixty-three preachers were present, representing 15,000 members. An educational institution was projected, $5,000 subscribed, of Cokesbury College laid

and the corner-stone June 5th, 1785.

THOMAS COKE,

15

D.C.L.

Coke enjoyed the romantic scenery of World " heavy falls of snow, trees of the woods one vast palace, almost too

Dr.

the

New

ice,

dazzling to behold into emeralds I

;

vegetable forms converted so beautiful a sight

and sapphires

never saw before."

Long journeys on

horse-

back, fording dangerous rivers, threading vast

lodging in log cabins, proved trying and dangerous. Crossing a swollen river, his horse forests,

was swept from under him seizing the branches of a tree, it was dislodged and bore him down ;

with the current till arrested by another tree. Bruised and crushed he escaped, made his way to a house, where a negro dried his wet clothes and a stranger came up with his horse and saddle bags.

SLAVERY, that eyes.

"

sum

of all villanies,"

Wesley,

was daily before

his

Wilberforce and Clarkson were

The American Methodists, traffic. same mind. The Conferwere of the generally, ence of 1780 declared against the system. Dr. Coke entered the lists and championed the cause of the slaves. He was hunted and threatened by armed slave-holders. After another Conferfighting the

ence he sailed for England. Wesley was cheered by

Coke's account of

harmony and success. At home all were by no means agreed as to the wisdom of the system

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

16

government their venerable Founder had authorized for America. Even his brother Charles, "the Sweet Singer of Methodism," could not agree with him on questions of church of church

polity.

Dr.

Coke reported that

ours."

But he found more

"

not 5,000 out of in hearers our adult 100,000 Sunday congregations ever attended any other ministry than controversy. into Scotland,

He

carried

practical work than his burning message

striving to arouse the Church to a perception of Christian obligations to the heathen, everywhere crying: "Prepare ye the

way of the Lord." He contemplated the possibility of a mission to Africa and was in correspondence with India. Not forgetting those distant lands, he laid his plans for NewfoundIn 1786 he visited the and Canada. Channel Islands. He regarded them as the key to France, and ordained M. de Queteville and others, forerunners of many French missionaries. land

He made an and presided at measures were America, which

extensive tour through Ireland the Irish Conference.

At Bristol work in

adopted regarding the

demanded

his departure

on his

SECOND MISSIONARY VOYAGE. missionaries were appointed to Nova Dr. Coke's leadership, and they under Scotia,

Three

THOMAS COKE, embarked sion

September 24th, storms

of

sprang a leak

delayed

17

D.C.L.

1786.

them,

A

succes-

the

vessel

tempestuous weather continued the captain eyed the black coats suspiciously. " We've a Jonah aboard," he said, and, seizing Dr. Coke's papers, cast them overboard, and seemed intent on throwing their owner after them. That night, amid the storm, a hasty " message came from the captain's wife Pray " for us, Doctor The ship was on her beam ;

;

:

!

ends as the

little

company knelt

in prayer.

The

subsided, and

tempest they sang a hymn of But other storms came on and they praise. were driven to

THE WEST

INDIES.

Some years previous

to this unexpected landing, Mr. Gilbert, Speaker of the House of Assembly, He Antigua, bad met Mr. Wesley in England.

went home glad tidings.

and began to publish the Hundreds of poor negroes were

rejoicing

gathered into the fold. After Mr. Gilbert's death, Mr. Baxter, a local preacher, kept up the work for eight years, until

He had built a chapel, the torrid zone, collected congregations in several places, and enrolled 2,000 memthe arrival of Dr. Coke.

the

first in

bers.

up

to

December 25th, Dr. Coke wrote " Going the town of St. John's we met Bro. Baxter :

2

m i

i

Q M Eh CO

O H

o H

l-H

THOMAS COKE, and

his

band going

19

D.C.L.

to divine service.

I

went

to

the chapel, preached, and administered the Sacrament. I had one of the cleanest audiences I all the negro women were dressed in white linen gowns." Twice daily he preached, the chapel not holding the people. A gentleman offered him 500 to remain.

ever saw

"

;

"

God be

500,000 a praised!" replied Dr. Coke, year would be to me a feather when opposed to my usefulness in the Church of Christ." Invitations

came from

St.

etc.

Vincent, St. Eustatius, St. of the brethren and

With two

Christopher, Mr. Baxter, whom he had ordained, he visited St. The planters Vincent, Dominica and Roseau.

generous support. Mr. Hannah was stationed at St. Christopher's. To St. Eustatius, Harry, a slave from America, had brought the

offered

Gospel. built.

Several were converted and a chapel Forbidden by the Governor to preach,

Harry endeavored

to

try praying instead, but

suffered the lash, and, finally, transportation. To Dr. Coke, permission to preach was granted

reluctantly but six classes were formed. The beautiful scenery of the islands, the spirit of the ;

and the prospect of introducing the this a memorable visit. Gospel, On the 10th of February Dr. Coke left for " Charleston, laden with seed-cake, biscuits, and oranges," from his black friends, in such abun-

people,

made

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

20

dance that he was able to minister to his fellowAfter the Conference at Charleston, with a good strong horse," he jour"provided neyed through Georgia, South Carolina and passengers.

hundred miles a week, often through morasses, and in the saddle till mid" I have got into night, yet in good spirits. Virginia, riding a

my old

romantic

way preaching in :

great forests,

with hundreds of horses tied to the trees." A slave-holder, who had followed him with a gun, was converted. A letter from Kentucky asked for help

who

is

" :

but observe, no one must be appointed is war with the

afraid to die, for there

Indians."

With Mr. Asbury, he

visited the college

and

the societies, then sailed for Dublin, where he met Mr. Wesley. They discussed the West Indies and America on their

way

to the English

Conference.

Nearly 3,000 members on the new missions, and 25,000 in the United States, were reported. Dr. Coke spent the year among the Channel Islands and in England, then departed on his

THIRD MISSIONARY VOYAGE,

Lamb and Gamble for West Indies, and Mr. Pearce, for Newfoundland. The passage was delightful. At St. Vincent they sought fresh openings, and crossed the

taking with him Messrs. the

THOMAS COKE,

21

D.C.L.

mountains to the Caribs, a warlike people, even their women carrying knives and cutlasses. Mr. Baxter was left among them. Twenty-five members had been gathered at Roseau, 700 at At St. Christopher, and over 1,000 at Antigua. Eustatius persecution was raging fines, imprisonment or transportation were visited on any who dared to preach yet, even there, the memSt.

;

;

bership had grown

to 258.

A beginning had

been

made

in ten islands, with a population of 260,000, four-fifths of whom were in heathen darkness.

After visiting Jamaica, Dr. Coke sailed for Charleston, arriving February 24th, and immediately took horse for Conference, in Georgia.

On I

"

a most astonishing illumination seemed surrounded with fires. Sometimes the the way,

flames catch the oozing turpentine of the pine trees and blaze to the very top. Travelling was

dangerous, provisions scanty in several places we had to lie on the floor sixteen or eighteen ;

;

miles without seeing a house, deep rivers to ford and many times nothing to eat from seven in the

morning till six in the evening." The Georgian Conference was " a time of peace and love." A college for Georgia was determined on, and 2,000 acres secured. Thence he hastened to the South Carolina Conference. " The country abounded with peach orchards in full bloom. For two days we rode on the ridges

22

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

hills mountains rising on mountains for twenty to forty miles." Next, the Virginia Conference, where an in-

of

:

At the Balti2,000 was reported. more Conference " souls were awakened and

crease of

converted by multitudes. I do most ardently wish that there was such a work in England."

Cokesbury College, Philadelphia, and Trenton, were visited, then Dr. Coke sailed for the English Conference.

He reported seven missions in the West Indies, with 45,000 members four in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, with 800 members, and 43,265 in the United States. Visiting his old home, he ;

erected a beautiful

monument over

the graves of

his parents.

During the year the first Methodist Missionary Committee was appointed. After sixteen months of earnest work the Doctor embarked, October 16th, 1790, on his

FOURTH MISSIONARY VOYAGE, with Messrs. Lyons and Worrell, for the West In five weeks they reached Barbadoes. Indies. After visiting many of the islands, he left for Charleston Conference. The work extended

over 7,000 square miles and embraced seven conferences. Several of these he had attended,

when he saw

in

the papers the death of Mr.

THOMAS COKE,

D.C.L.

23

Wesley, which hastened his departure for EngThe death of the venerable Wesley, and the consequences to the connexion, were everyland.

where the themes of consideration. Dr. Coke earnestly endeavored to do his share for the At the Channel Islands he engeneral good. listed missionaries for France, but met only discouragement. Those were days of judgment" and the " Reign of Terror was at hand. Returning to England, he assisted in the preparation of a memoir of Mr. Wesley. March "The last sheet is now in 14th, 1792, he wrote :

Our volume

not large enough to contain a tenth of the precious anecdotes of Mr.

press.

Wesley." off at once

is

The ;

first edition of ten thousand went and the second was out before July.

In the Conference of that year Dr. Coke was again elected Secretary, and Alexander Mather, President. September 1st he sailed on his

FIFTH MISSIONARY VOYAGE

and reached Newcastle, Delaware, October 30th. Questions of weighty import came before the General Conference.

was unequal

to the

The Constitution of 1784 demands of 1792. Fifteen

days were spent in prayerful consultation. Both Superintendents preached on the last evening. The service continued till midnight, and twelve conversions were reported.

The Discipline was

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

24

a discourse published, and then Dr.

revised,

Coke

sailed for the

West

of the Rev.

Indies, in the pleasant

Wm.

Black, the patriarch company Methodism in Nova Scotia. At St. Eustatius some negro persecution was still rampant

of

;

women had

been publicly flogged for attending a prayer meeting. At St. Vincent the missionary was in

jail.

The law demanded,

for the first

imprisonment for the second, for the third, death punishment corporal Coke resolved to lay the case of St. Vincent before the British Government, and that of St. offence, fine or

;

!

;

Eustatius before the States-General of Holland.

War had

been declared between England and vessel in which he sailed escaped

The

France.

a French privateer only by the timely appearance of Lord Hood and his fleet. In England several questions of church polity were agitating the connexion, especially the right to adminSacrament. Dr. Coke favored liberty

ister the

;

which came

to be generally regarded as reasonHe laid the case able, necessary, and scriptural.

of St. Vincent before the

law was disallowed.

He

Government and the crossed to Holland in

behalf of St. Eustatius, but the Dutch Government would brook no interference with their prerogatives. In 1795 Dr.

among

the

Coke attempted

Foulahs, in

to found a colony Africa, but his hopes

THOMAS COKE, were not sailed,

25

D.C.L.

After a severe illness he

realized.

August 6th, on his SIXTH MISSIONARY VOYAGE.

The expense was great eighty guineas, for himself and a friend and the captain was unbearable. Coke was delighted when again roaming through the forest, "superbly tinted with autumn hues." He met a minister who had

missed his way, lost his horse, travelled sixteen forest, and The two Superinbarely escaped tendents met at the General Conference, May, 1797, and spent much of the year in labor and

days through two hundred miles of starvation.

travel together. Dr. Coke left

for

Scotland

and landed

at

Greenock, March witness of Methodism should be borne 22nd, in earnest desire that the

living

throughout the North. He found Ireland sorely distracted, but moved among the people as an angel of peace, calming, as he could, the violent political

ence

At the English agitation. elected President, and

he was

Confer-

an earn-

est request was sent to the American Conference for his release from official obligations. August 28th, 1797, Dr. Coke departed on his

SEVENTH MISSIONARY VOYAGE. The President,

on

which

he

sailed,

was

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

26

captured by the French and taken to the West Indies. He was set at liberty, but lost most of his baggage.

He

reached Virginia, attended the

Mr. Conference, and was again in the saddle. Asbury was in poor health and could not release Dr. Coke, who, therefore, remained until the next summer, when official duties called him to Ireland.

Notwithstanding

met

the

rebellion,

the

They commended the efforts of their President and still desired his help. He crossed to Bristol for ConIrish preachers

for conference.

ference.

The next year he again upon establishing

visited Ireland, intent

IRISH MISSIONS,

by

itinerant missionaries, speaking to the Irish

people in their

own

Celtic.

this new and promising with laborers as Graham, Ouseley. such agency and others, he again set his face toward the West

initiated

Having

and

sailed

on his

EIGHTH MISSIONARY VOYAGE, visiting the missions in the West Indies, and reaching Baltimore, for General Conference, in

Consent was reluctantly given for his release, and only on condition of his return for

May.

THOMAS COKE, the

27

D.C.L.

next General Conference.

Ireland

again claimed his attention, especially the Irish misTheir great success encouraged similar sions. The Conference sanctioned the efforts in Wales. proposal,

and sent several volunteers.

years they reported seventeen eleven more in building, ten

twenty

local preachers,

the autumn

After four

chapels, with itinerant and

and eighty societies. Coke made his

In

of 1803 Dr.

NINTH AND LAST MISSIONARY VOYAGE

He had

honor of preaching before Congress. The General Conference opened May 4th, 1804. Mr. Whatcoat had been elected His leaveto supply the absence of Dr. Coke. to America.

the

taking of the Conference and of Bishop Asbury " We pathetic, and proved to be his last.

was

lay no claim," said Asbury, "to the Episcopal state or English churches. the Latin, Greek, of for 700 preachers, ride five or six thouannually, sand miles a year, in all kinds of weather and

Will their bishops arrange

ordain 100 roads, for

Dr.

men

$80 a year

" ?

Coke returned

to

England and, on

his

rounds, collecting for missions, reached Bristol. Inquiring for contributors he was directed to a visitor,

Miss

Penelope

offered the Doctor

Goulding Smith, who which he was to call

100, for

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

28

at her home, in Bradford.

Their acquaintance

ripened into friendship and marriage. Dr. Coke had been described as " handsome, his face his

beamed

his eyes dark, and The animation which

remarkably pleasing,

hair

very

black.

in his face,

Mrs.

was the index of Coke became

disposition." assistant in missionary work.

Dr.

his natural his

active

Coke had found some time

for literary controversial addresses, sermons, papers, " Doctrines and Polity of Methodism," " Life of

work

"

History of the West Indies," and a Commentary. He was much concerned for the Wesley,"

NEGLECTED POOR OF ENGLAND, and advised home missions, such as had proved He made so successful in Ireland and Wales. an earnest appeal for them at the Conference of 1805, where he was, a second time, elected President. Eight missionary districts were and others named, added, which became wonderfully successful.

He had

a missionary sent to Gibraltar for

THE ARMY AND NAVY, where a chapel and school were opened. Other agencies were set in motion for ministering to the thousands of foreign sailors and soldiers, who, in time of war, were pent up in prison

THOMAS COKE,

29

D.C.L.

Dr. Coke's

ships about English harbors. endeavor to send

first

MISSIONARIES TO AFRICA

was defeated by the slave

The abolishing

trade.

by the British Government, made another attempt seem feasible.

of that odious traffic,

in

1807,

Sierra Leone, an extent of 300 square miles on

West coast, purchased by an English company, became a Crown colony for rescued slaves. There a mission was opened in 1808, and extended the

Gambia, the Gold Coast, and Ashanti, on the west; and to the Cape, among Kaffirs, Hottentots, Fingos, Zulus and other tribes.

to the

In January, 1811, Dr. Coke suffered the loss a sudden break-up of his domestic

of his wife life.

He had

labored earnestly for England, Ireland, the Channel Islands, France,

Scotland, Wales, Africa, America,

and the West

Indies, crossing

the Atlantic eighteen times.

THE EVANGELIZATION OF INDIA for years, upon his mind and heart. brilliant Clive's victory at Plassey, 1757, opened

had been,

India to British rule.

To

see this great country,

so fabled for gold and shrines, brought under the sceptre of the Prince of Peace, became his

supreme

desire.

The

East

India

Company

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

30

resisted missionary

efforts

but Ceylon, at the

;

very threshold, was open. The Chief Justice, on a visit to England, had expressed a desire for a Methodist mission. Dr. Coke accepted this favorable omen, and accumulated information for the Committee and Conference. Great hindrances barred the

way

staunch friends advised delay.

;

Coke could brook no delay "I am now dead to Europe and alive for India. God himself has ;

said to me,

'

Go

to Ceylon.'

You

will break

my

you do not let me go." Thus earnestly he pleaded. The Conference adjourned. Next morning Mr. Clough called, and found that he heart

if

had not been in bed night in prayer,"

"

he had

;

commending

continued

all

his cause to the

great Disposer. In the morning session Dr. Coke offered himself and all he had, some 6,000, for the service.

His intensity, his

moved every

osity,

sus found expression in

done

faith, his

gener-

The general consen" The will of the Lord be

heart. :

" !

He was authorized to go, and to take with him seven others: one for Java and five for Ceylon. Dr. Coke prepared a plan for organized action

sionary Society."

met

in

London

"

Wesleyan MisThe missionaries appointed

the foundation of the

for preparation.

Letters of in-

troduction, clothes, books, printing press, etc., were obtained. Their passages were engaged

THOMAS COKE,

31

D.C.L.

and impressive farewell services held, Dr. Coke " We are uttering these almost prophetic words :

under Divine protection. It is of little consequence whether we take our flight to glory from the trackless ocean or the shores of Ceylon." Dr. 30th, 1813 Mr. and Mrs. and Harvard, Coke, Mr. Clough, on the Gabalva; Mr. and Mrs. Ault, Messrs. Lynch, Erskine, Squance, and McKenny on the Lady Melville, with many other passengers, In soldiers, and a fleet of thirty-three vessels. the heavy gales the Fort William, on which

They embarked December

they had intended sailing, was reported missing. Mrs. Ault died February 10th, and the flags of all the ships were at half mast. Preaching was not allowed on the Company's ships, but the

Doctor read from his Commentary, on Sunday Many became interested in meetings evenings. for prayer and conversation. They were off the Cape by the end of March, amid perilous storms. Dr. Coke was at home on the sea,

ministering to others and studying his Portuguese Bible. On the 1st of May, Mrs Harvard

saw

signs of illness in his face.

ing he was worse

The next morn-

but towards evening spoke to his cabin, took some retired cheerfully, Mr. declined medicine, Clough's offer to remain ;

with him, and retired. Next morning his body So sudden a was found lifeless on the floor.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

32

removal of their leader was a severe stroke to the little missionary party. Every token of

was shown by the captain and all aboard. The soldiers were drawn up on deck, and at five o'clock in the afternoon the body was solemnly respect

committed

to

the ocean-grave

fitting burial-

servant of God, whose sympathies and efforts had reached every shore. So, doubtless, felt all the ship's company, place for this dearly-beloved

as they heard the comforting words are the dead who die in the Lord."

On

" :

Blessed

May the Bombay guns welThe comed captain introduced Mr. Harvard to the Governor. The great work was entered upon with faith and courage. No land was more in need of the Gospel, and none has In the great yielded more abundant harvests. missionaries his fellow and Coke Dr. may day the 21st of the

fleet.

be found in close connection with Dr. Carey,

Marshman, Martyn, and many other men and freely gave their lives for the

women who

evangelization of India.

c

WILLIAM CAREY,

D.D.

II.

WILLIAM CAREY,

D.D.

India.

1761-1834.

CAREY

WILLIAM 1761, in shire,

England.

and parish

clerk.

was born August

17th,

Paulerspury, NorthamptonHis father was school-master

William had his

little

room

with birds, eggs, insects, botanical specimens, books of science, history, voyages and filled

"

Pilgrim's

and

Progress."

He

cultivated

flowers

trees.

At the age

of seventeen he

was apprenticed

to

Finding some Greek characters He in a commentary, he sought an instructor. a shoemaker.

read

"

Jeremy Taylor's Sermons

"

and other good

books, attended church services and an evening

prayer-meeting.

His awakening anxiety about "

I was, religion deepened into conviction and I trust, brought to depend on a crucified Saviour ;

pardon and salvation." The preaching of the Rev. Thos. Scott proved very helpful to him. By reading and attending conferences, in the village for

meeting-house, his religious experience deepened. 35

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

36

On

the death of his master, he took over the and married at the age of twenty-one.

business,

He

also

opened

an evening

In the

school.

Association meetings, at Olney, he met Andrew-

who encouraged him

Fuller,

to exercise his gifts

in preaching.

He

united with the Baptist Church at Olney,

in August, 1785, was called to the ministry. In 1787 he was settled in a church in Moulton,

and

with a stipend of 15; to which he made some addition by teaching or working at his trade.

THE EVANGELIZATION OF THE HEATHEN The Protestant began to engage his mind. churches appeared to disregard this responsibility. Propagation societies were acting, but The writings of Jonamainly for colonists. than Edwards and Andrew Fuller touching the "

Advancement

of Christ's

Kingdom," quickenwas taken up Northamptonshire Association, with

ing his perception.

by the

The

subject

special prayer for the spread of the Gospel. Carey brooded over the condition of the world

and the responsibility of Christians. In his school, on his bench, the missionary idea burned in his heart. Being asked at one of the missionary meetings to suggest a subject he asked

:

"

Was

the

command

to the Apostles to

nations' obligatory on

all

'

teach

all

succeeding ministers?"

William carEy,

37

b.r>.

Several thought nothing could be done before another Pentecost, when an effusion of miraculous gifts

would give

effect to the

commission, as but Mr. Fuller took his part and advised him to pursue his inquiries. In 1789 he accepted an invitation to the pastorate of at the first

;

Harvey Lane Church. ment for books and

This was an improveassociation with

men

though not materially in finances. formation of a Missionary Society was culture,

in his thoughts.

of

The still

to preach

uppermost Having at the annual meeting, he took for his text Isaiah " 55 2, 3, making two divisions Expect great " things from God," and Attempt great things :

for God."

:

A

resolution

was adopted

in favor of

a society to send the Gospel to the heathen. A meeting for the purpose was called October 1792, at which plans were submitted and ap13 2s. 6d. was made. proved. A collection of Mr. Carey's "Inquiry into the Obligations of " Christians was ordered to be published, the profits to be

added to the

collection.

Thus

THE MISSIONARY SOCIETY WAS ORGANIZED. The fund was increased to 70 and an appeal made for further aid. Mr. Thomas, a surgeon to the East India Company, was then in England endeavoring to arrange for a mission to It was eventually decided that Carey Bengal.

38

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

and Thomas should be sent together to India. " But remember," said Carey, " that you must hold the ropes."

His congregation consented with regret to his His wife preferred to remain in Engleaving. land. Farewell services were held, Mr. Fuller giving the parting charges. The passage money, 250, was paid and the missionaries went

aboard The Oxford April 3rd, 1793. But the vessel was delayed, and the missionaries, having

no

license

feiting

a

"

from the

100.

They

were

directors,

repaired to

ejected, for-

London, found

Danish East Indiarnan," and engaged their The delay enabled Mr. Carey to see who consented to go, on condition that

passage. his wife,

her sister should go also. The party was increased and the expense to 300 guineas, which

to eight

was provided in time for the sailing of the vessel, June 13th. After a stormy voyage of five months they reached Calcutta. Mr. Carey had improved his time studying Bengalee under Mr. Thomas. His enthusiasm found vent in Wesley's "

O

hymn

:

that the world might taste and see The riches of His grace !

The arms of love that compass me Would all mankind embrace."

His faith was

tested.

"I

am

in a strange

WILLIAM CAREY,

39

D.D.

a large family and nothing to supply their I rejoice, All my friends are but One. wants.

land

;

however, that

He

is all-sufficient."

He heard

of

some jungle land that might be had for the built a hut, clearing; took his family forty miles, " shall have all the and began his work.

We

necessaries of

life,

must substitute

except bread, for which we Wild hogs, deer, and fowl

rice.

can be procured by the gun." Thus hopefully he wrote but a brighter prospect soon opened. An indigo manufacturer, a former friend of Mr. ;

Thomas, required two managers for new factories and gladly engaged Carey and Thomas at 250 a year. This position would allow much time for mission work. Mr. Carey was soon His business called able to preach in Bengalee. him to many places, with frequent opportunities of speaking to the natives. He opened a school and

began a translation of fever he was attack an of the Scriptures. By his little boy, Peter, was and greatly prostrated, taken from him. Business reverses caused his employer to dispense with his services but he had gained valuable experience methods of ;

agriculture,

ways

of the natives, housekeeping,

which would turn to good account. During the six years he had gathered a congregation of etc.

several hundreds.

In

1755 some Danish merchants had pur-

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

40

chased twenty acres of land, fifteen miles from Calcutta and founded a settlement named

SERAMPORE,

which attained great commercial prosperity and Four addiafforded protection to missionaries.

men were

tional

sent out

by the Society

to

Arriving at Calcutta, they proceeded at once to Serampore, presented their

assist Carey.

were welcomed by the Governor, and One of them, Mr. offered a permanent home. Mr. Ward, who had known Carey in England,

letters,

went

The

to see him.

a decision

visit resulted in

make Serampore their headquarters. Thither, on the 10th of January, 1800, Carey removed. They purchased, for 800, a large house, which

to

became the home of the missionaries. They were greatly encouraged and appointed a day of Shortly after their arrival two thanksgiving. of the missionaries, Messrs. Grand and Brunsden, died, and, later, Mr. Fountain, while

busy in his a printing obtained had mission. Carey While a been had Ward Mr. printer. press, and a suitable as selected been yet a student, he had and helper for Carey. Mrs. Marshman's presence comwere found specially acceptable. By Mr.

help

mon

consent she was installed directress of the

home

in

families

which lived

the

missionaries

together,

under

and

one

their

common

WILLIAM CAREY,

became an

management.

She

sionary to the

women

41

D.D.

opened a boarding school for

girls,

grew many similar schools

In 1800 she

out of which

fourteen

many more

around Serampore, with as

mis-

efficient

of India.

and

in

in other

1820, about 500 pupils. places, One of her daughters became the wife of Sir

containing,

in

Henry Havelock. The early experiment

of

the

missionaries

living together developed into a fixed arrangement, embracing particulars of their whole work.

FIRST HINDOO CONVERT

He was arm

led

became followed

KRISHNU

PAL.

a carpenter, and the breaking of his to Mr. Thomas for treatment. He

him a

true

by

His example was Gokool, who

Christian.

another

native

brought his whole family, his wife declaring " had received great joy from the that she These two men partook of a meal with Gospel."

Carey and Thomas, thus renouncing to

the

"

caste,

much

astonishment of the native servants."

Carey and Ward rejoiced together over these " The door of faith first-fruits, and exclaimed is opened to the Gentiles, who shall shut it ? The :

"

broken, who shall mend it ? But great disturbances arose. " Two thousand people gathered, cursed the converts, and dragged

chain of caste

is

them before the Danish magistrate

;

but to no

A BRAHMAN WOMAN.

WILLIAM CAREY,

43

D.D.

Krisknu and Carey's eldest son were and, afterwards, Gokool and the baptized women. Krishnu wrote the communion hymn, purpose.

;

which, in English, begins "

Oh

my

thou,

But, oh,

idol

my

no more

soul, forget

The Friend, who Let every

:

thy misery bore

all

!

be forgot,

soul, forget

FIRST BENGALEE

Him

not."

NEW TESTAMENT.

In 1796 Carey had the translation of the New Testament into Bengalee almost completed. He wrote Mr. Fuller that the probable cost of printConing 10,000 copies would be about 3,000. siderable delay occurred, during which he was working on the Old Testament. In 1801 an

A special edition of 2,000 copies was struck off. which for was called, meeting, for thanksgiving, Mr.

Marshman composed

the

hymn

"Hail, precious Book Divine Illumined by thy rays, We rise from death and sin,

And

:

!

tune a Saviour's praise."

The Governor-General, Lord Wellesley, had founded, at Calcutta,

FORT WILLIAM COLLEGE. In his search for instructors the publication of the New Testament directed his attention to

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

44

Mr. Carey as a suitable person for the Bengalee In this position he received a salary of chair. 000.

He was

afterwards made Professor of

Bengalee, Sanscrit and Mahratta, and his salary increased to 1,500, the whole of which, except

about 40 for the support of himself and family, he devoted to the mission. Beyond his own expectation, and to the satisfaction of all concerned, Mr. Carey succeeded in filling his high

Brown

position.

University,

United

States,

high attainappreciation signified ments by conferring the degree of Doctor of its

of

his

Divinity.

In 1804, at the students' annual disputation, held at the Viceroy's official residence, Dr. Carey was elected Moderator. In this office, before the

most distinguished Europeans and natives, he presented an address to the Viceroy, who said, in "

I am much pleased with Mr. Carey's I esteem truly original and excellent speech. such a testimony, from such a man, a greater

his reply

:

honor than the applause of courts and parliaments." And this is the man, who, but twelve years before, was trying to. make ends meet by teaching school and mending shoes !

The hostile attitude of the East India Company made it unlikely that the work at SeramIn 1806 two pore would escape opposition. The cause was mutinied. native regiments

WILLIAM CAREY,

45

D.D.

found to be purely military, but it served as an excuse for a close watch on missionary operations.

When two

additional missionaries

Efforts arrived, they were detained in Calcutta. were also made to restrict Dr. Carey in A Mohammedan translator, by furhis work.

tively inserting certain objectionable strictures, created irritation, which, for a time, threatened

The

trouble.

service in Calcutta

was ordered

to

be closed and the printing press removed but Carey's straightforward appeal to the Governor ;

Further oppo-

caused the order to be revoked. sition

was kept up by

hostile Anglo-Indians

issuing various misrepresentations. As the time for the renewal of the East India

Company's

drew

charter, 1813,

near, the friends

of missions determined to ask greater liberty for the spread of Christianity. With Mr. Fuller as

their leader, they

Parliament.

A

laid

representations

before

permitting the free entrance of missionaries into India, passed the Commons Bill

on the 13th of July, and was accepted by the Lords. Permission having been secured for the erection of a place of worship in Serampore, a chapel was built in 1809. Though Carey's duties at Fort William College called him constantly

to

Calcutta,

he

took

mission

work

regularly.

In translating, proof-reading, compilation of

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

46

and

grammars ing,

consulting, visitabout sixteen hours

dictionaries,

preaching, he spent "

daily.

The number seeking salvation conroom was filled

tinues to increase. Mr. Carey's

yesterday." Mrs. Carey, after

physical

affliction,

many years of mental and died in 1807. Her condition

had been the cause of husband,

often

ceaseless anxiety to her making the discharge of his

duties all but impossible. He was subsequently married to Miss Charlotte Emelia Rumohr, who had become identified with the missionary work.

TRANSLATIONS.

William Carey's boyish curiosity regarding the characters of the Greek alphabet and the Latin dictionary found wonderful development

amazing linguistic studies and attainWithin two months of landing he was " a chapter a day." Of the translating Genesis, " I and he wrote Hindoostanee, Bengalee understand a little and hope to be master of both

later in his

ments.

:

in time."

the Bible

"The translation of hope we shall be able

In August, 1795 is

on.

I

:

going put Genesis, or more, to the press before Christmas." In that year he was preparing a grammar, and had entered upon the appalling

to

task of compiling a dictionary. By the middle of the following year he had

WILLIAM CAREY,

47

D.D.

about completed the translation of the New " I would not, for the Testament. He wrote :

finest stations in

to the heathen.

England, abandon the mission I

am

in

my

element, beginning

enjoy the pleasure of communicating my heart to these people of so very strange speech." The translation of the Old Testament was to

To Carey, completed and published in 1809. undoubtedly, belongs, chiefty, the honor of introducing the

Scriptures

to

the people of

So early as 1804 he was contemplating

India.

translations into seven languages. later he had almost finished the of

the Sanscrit

grammar and

Two

years

translation

dictionary into

English.

In 1811, he wrote " The necessity which lies upon one of acquiring so many languages, obliges :

me

to study

and write the grammar of each and

to attend closely to their linguistic peculiarities. I have, therefore, already published grammars of

To Sanscrit, Bengalee, and Mahratta. these I have resolved to add grammars of nine

three

:

Two of these are now in press, and I hope have two or three more out by the end of

others.

to

next year."

Paper and books were so subject to destruction by insects that sometimes the first sheets were destroyed before the last were printed, and often books would last but five or six years. The

48

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES. found

missionaries

They

an

effective

preventive.

also imported

A STEAM ENGINE their paper mill, which created almost as as the first steamboat.

for

much excitement

On

the 10th of March, 1812, they suffered a

most calamitous

fire.

Printing

office, type, paper, of the manuscripts, especially Bengal dictionary, were destroyed. The loss was estimated at

10,000 but so great was the sympathy at that the whole amount was made good in ;

home

fifty days.

A

Bible Society was established in Calcutta, from which the Serampore Mission received substantial help in publishing the translations. The seventh report to the committee, after particulars of each translation, adds " Besides these fifteen :

New

in

which the

in

twenty-one of the languages of India, and by far the most extensive, the New Testa-

Testament is completed, there are six other languages in which it is brought more than half through the press. About ten months more, they hope, will finish these. Then these

ment

will be published." Dr. Carey lived to see the

entire Scriptures, or portions of them, translated into forty languages or dialects.

AS A SOCIAL REFORMER.

To prevent the

sacrifice

of children

at the

WILLIAM CAREY, great annual

festival

practice.

report to

Gunga Saugor,

Dr.

the friend, Udney, Lord Wellesley to the inhuman He was instructed to inquire into and the Government on that and other

Carey, through attention

at

49

D.D.

his

called

of

superstitious

rites.

Carey investigated and reported that the sacrificing of children had no warrant in the Hindoo Shasters. The Governor-General issued an edict forbidding the usage.

THE BURNING OR BURYING OF WIDOWS on the death of their husbands, he also

re-

within a ported on, proving, by statistics, that, four some around miles radius of thirty Calcutta,

hundred such cases occurred annually. But no decisive action was taken for twenty -four years, when Lord Bentnick succeeded in abolishing the It was Carey's great happiness cruel custom. to receive instructions from the Governor-General to translate the proclamation into

for general circulation. Another project of the missionaries

Bengalee

was

A FREE SCHOOL FOR POOR CHILDREN. In May, 1811, Carey wrote

" :

A

year ago we

opened a free school in Calcutta. This year we added a school for girls. There are now about one hundred and forty boys, and thirty 4

girls.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

50

are taught writing, arithmetic, and to read the Bible in English." There were American,

They

European,

Many

of

Hindoo and Mussulman them had peculiar histories.

children.

A

generous captain, touching on the coast of Sumatra, saw three boys in a cage. Learning that they

were being fattened for the knife, he bought them for $150, and took them off in his ship. One of them was in the school. The Government, after a time, made the school an annual Similar efforts were made for 240. grant of children wherever Carey founded missions. poor 1817 the had number By grown to forty-five. Another beneficent work was A LEPER HOSPITAL

and

the poor victims, whose were treatment daily witnessed. The love of botany and ornithology, which made William Carey, when a boy, a diligent colfor the care

woes and

relief of

ill

lector of specimens,

grew stronger

in his

man-

In 1795 he wrote:

hood. "

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF BENGAL

would furnish innumerable novelties for curious inquirers. I am making collections, with minute The descriptions, of whatever I can obtain. are surprisingly numerous. are species frequently coining under my

undescribed

New

birds

WILLIAM CAREY,

51

D.D.

I have notice, entirely unlike European birds. eight or ten sorts of ants. The white ants would

eat through an

devour

all its

oak chest

in

a day or two and

contents."

He gave considerable attention to mineralogy and geology, and was elected a Fellow of the Geological Society. In horticulture and agriculture he delighted and excelled. He wrote home, yearly, for an assortment of flower, garden, and fruit seeds, with supplies of agricultural implements. At the mission he had a large piece of land under such thorough cultivation as to compare favorably with the Company's Botanical Gardens in Calcutta. His garden was his delight. He

taught his gardeners the names of plants and He succeeded in the formation of an

trees.

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, which India owes him a debt of gratitude. hope it will contribute to prepare the inhabitants of that land to beat their swords into for "

T

ploughshares."

Carey depended much on native assistants

;

and, seeing the necessity for a native ministry, projected a

MISSIONARY TRAINING SCHOOL. "

I

conceive that the

large a

body

as possible

work of

of

preparing as

Christian pastors

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

52

and itinerants

is

of

He

immense importance."

issued a prospectus. Lord Hastings, the Govhis ernor-General, gave approval and offered to be the first patron. The Danish Governor

A

offered his assistance.

plot of ten acres

was

secured, buildings were erected, and an appeal sent to Great Britain and America. 15,000

were

contributed

buildings, which

in

Serampore towards the

cost

The King

20,000.

of

Denmark rent sent

presented a large house, yielding in 100 a year. Great Britain and America

4,000.

Nearly

employed, but

Under

fifty

fifty natives were already thousand would be needed.

Dr. Carey, as

President, Professor of

Divinity, and Lecturer on Natural Science, with the co-operation of his brethren, the annual reports have shown the in the evangelization of

work

of the College An Act of

India.

Incorporation was secured, granting the power of conferring degrees. In 1832 he issued his last report. Forty-one years he had labored

with unflagging zeal. In 1831 he thought his work done but, by 1833, Mr. Leechman reported

:

;

Our venerable Dr Carey is in excellent health and takes his turn in all our public exercises." ''

He was

advised to relax his labors

;

but not

till

necessity compelled him, could he desist from his chosen work, revising, even on his couch, proof sheets of his translations.

Through the summer

WILLIAM CAREY,

53

D.D.

he was very weak, but somewhat better in the " I trust autumn, and wrote tranquilly home the great point is settled, and I am ready to depart but the time when, I leave unto God." :

;

He

delighted in his garden, and, when no longer able to be borne to see it, had his head still

gardener summoned

Among many

to his

friends

room

for instructions.

who gave him kind

atten-

tion during his last days were Lady Bentnick, Dr. Wilson, Bishop of Calcutta, and Mr. Duff, the young Scotch missionary, to whom he said :

"

Mr. Duff, j^ou have, been speaking of Dr. Carey. When I am gone, say nothing about Dr Carey

speak about Dr. Carey's Saviour." While yet able to converse, he said sure Christ will save if

I

know anything

that I have

come

all

who come

to

"

I

:

Him

of myself, I think I

;

am and,

know

to him."

On the 9th of June, 1834, in the seventy-third year of his age, he fell asleep in Jesus. In the mission burial-ground his body was laid to rest of esteem and sorrow from

amid expressions representatives

Governments,

of

the

British

and

Danish and

sister societies, missionaries

native Christians.

In his will he bequeathed to

the College his museum, a collection of Bibles and other books in many languages. The

Religious Tract Society, the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Asiatic, the Horticultural,

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

54

Agricultural, and other societies, sent expressions of highest appreciation. The Rev. Robert Hall referred to him as " a

man who, from

the lowest poverty and obscurity, without assistance, rose to the highest honors of literature, became one of the first of Orientalists, the chief of missionaries, and the instrument of diffusing

more

religious

knowledge among

his

contemporaries than has fallen to the lot of any individual since the Reformation."

In closing, we quote Dr. Carey's own words I rejoice that God has given me the great favor to preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable :

" '

riches of Christ.'

I

would not change

my station

for all the society of England, nor for all the wealth of the world. May I but be useful in

laying the foundation of the Church of Christ in India. I desire no greater reward and can receive

no higher honor."

On

his

tomb we would reverently lay the

of all missionary societies and of the messengers of every Church, assured that his

homage

example of faith and patience and triumph has tended mightily to quicken the conscience of Christendom and to rally the hosts of laborers in the Gospel field. "

Having through life sought God only," we can

the honor that cometh from

well believe, " when the Chief Shepherd shall " appear," he shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away."

GIDEON OUSELEY.

III.

GIDEON OUSELEY. Ireland.

1762-1839.

INTRODUCTION.

MALL

the extent and population of Ireland, she has sent her sons to share the lot and influence the destinies of every people.

s

The early of the

as

is

religious, as well as political, history It Isle, is shrouded in obscurity.

Green

would appear that her Patron Saint labored That he was succeeded by many zealously. religious teachers is attested by manuscripts of portions of the Holy

like-minded

many

Scriptures in Celtic, copied with great care. There are also very ancient ecclesiastical remains. John Wesley's Journals contain many pointed " I think there is not such another references. river in

Europe as the Shannon.

It is here ten

or twelve miles over, though scarce thirty from There are many islands in it, its fountain head.

once well inhabited, but now mostly desolate. In almost every one of them is the ruins of a

church in one no less than seven." " I read to-day what is accounted the most The whole story correct history of St. Patrick. 57

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

58 smells

strongly of romance. The Bishop of such power in the beginning of

Rome had no

the fifth century as this account supposes. I never heard before of an Apostle sleeping thirty-

and beginning to preach at three

five years

But

his success staggers

me

most.

No

score.

blood of

the martyrs is here no reproach nor scandal of the Cross no persecution nothing but kings, before him. nobles, warriors bowing down ;

;

;

Thousands are converted, twelve thousand at If these things were so, either one sermon there was no devil then in the world or St. !

Patrick did not preach the Gospel of Christ." " I looked over Mr. Smith's well- written book.

He

plainly shows that, twelve hundred years It ago, Ireland was a flourishing kingdom. seems to have been declining ever since. In

Queen

Elizabeth's time,

it

began to revive, and

increased greatly, both in trade and inhabitants, till the deadly blow which commenced it

October 23rd, 1641 300,000 Protestants, by a moderate computation, were then destroyed in less than a year, and more than twice as many ;

Papists within a few years following the nation has not recovered yet." *

losses

" * Green says, p. 527 Fifty thousand people perished in a few days, and rumor doubled and trebled the number. Tales of horror and outrage, such as maddened our own England when they reached us from Cawnpore, came day after day over the :

Irish Channel."

GIDEON OUSELEY. "

59

least ninety-nine in a hundred of the native Irish remain in the religion of their fore-

At

The

fathers.

Protestants are

transplanted from wonder that those

almost

always

England. Nor is it any who are born Papists gener-

and die such, when Protestants can find no better way to convert them than by penal laws and Acts of Parliament." ally live

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. Gideon Ouseley was born at Dunmore, County Galway, in 1762, of a stock distinguished in military and literary annals. His father intended him for a clergyman. His mother took him faithfully to church and taught him the Scripof

tures.

Under a

private tutor he

was prepared

to enter Trinity College. This, however, being deferred, he had time to study the daily life of He did not the people, and the Irish language.

go to college his father thought land might suit him better than divinity. Gideon had formed an acquaintance with Harriet Wills, and they were married. At the age of twentv-one he was comfortably settled and spared the worry of study. His natural love of sport found free course ;

among new

friends, to

whom

drinking, racing,

even duelling, were pastimes. He was strong, bold, His agile, and not wanting in wit or words. reckless career soon involved his wife's property the

Woodhill

House and lands

and

she

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES

60

all. To young wife

home, Dunmore, he took his weep over vanished possessions and companionships she had never enjoyed. Her husband's fondness for lively associates was soon lost

his old

to

In a scuffle an accidental discharge of shot destroyed the light of one eye. A sufferer, and helpless, he learned to prize the gentle ministrations of his loving wife. She tried to rekindled.

lighten the tedium of enforced idleness

by readhim "Young's Night Thoughts," which riveted his attention. The early scriptural lesing to

sons of

mother

his

Good purposes began would

"

turn over a

floated

through his brainhe must and

to take root

;

new

But

leaf." "

that I would not, that I do and declared himself incurable.

;

"

the evil

so he lamented

HIS CONVERSION.

A

detachment of Irish Guards was sent to Barracks. There were strange carry-

Dunmore

ings on in the large room at the public house the guards were making it a rendezvous. Singing

was heard, and prayer, but no drinking The was the were leader the soldiers quarter-master Methodists Everybody was asked to go, to see and hear what ? A man, in military uniform, preaching and praying without paper or book. Gideon was minded to go, but halted, irresolute, In April, 1791, he went, blind of an eye, but !

!

watching

every movement

Again

he went,

GIDEON OUSELEY. attracted

He began

61

by the words, the

songs, the prayers. to see himself, his sins, and to desire a

change. Thinking the quarter-master a good, true man, he asked him home with him.

Methodist preachers came to help the soldiers. Their words dropped into the heart of young Ouseley the meetings, the preaching, the testimonies, strange as they were, met the yearnings ;

Soon a new song was put into his mouth a song he sang while he lived. After some months his wife rejoiced in the same of his soul.

experience and joined in the song. Ouseley became a zealous Methodist.

Gideon

He was

at, derided, and avoided, even by some professors of religion but his lips were touched with the live coal, and he must tell what the

laughed

;

Lord had done for him. His first attempt to speak to the people was at a funeral, in the Dunmore Churchyard, giving his experience. The priest was excited the curate was indignant, and from the pulpit denounced the Methodists. He was answered by ;

Ouseley, on the spot. The people heard truth as, perhaps, never before.

the

The Rector, with his father, admonished the over-zealous young Methodist. He replied gently, but firmly " We must obey God rather than men." The father sought to enlist the efforts of " When he spent his Harriet, but she answered :

:

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

62

nights in dissipation, there was no reproof now when he has quit his evil ways, you oppose him." That was enough. The father owned " Gideon ;

is

right,

He

and we are wrong."

took to

PREACHING IN THE STREETS, through several counties, telling the people, in their own Irish tongue, the wonderful works of God. His home was made a class-room and a

whom

Mrs. Ouseley For five years he continued these earnest efforts, and was encouraged by seeing much good done, and some "sons in the Gospel," one of whom, Rev. W. resort for

young

disciples, to

became a nursing mother.

Cornwall, was the instrument in the conversion of Gideon's

own

He

father.

visited

"

stations

"

and "wakes," where, suddenly, his ringing words came in strange contrast to revelry and mirth. To one of these " wakes " Ouseley rode up, dismounted, and entering, translated portions of the Latin prayers into Irish, adding, " Listen " till the priest was awed, and the people to that priest's

!

melted then departed, suddenly as he came ;

"

people asking,

Who

answering, "Sure he " do that

is

the

"

and the priest an angel; no man could

is

that

?

!

In his journeys and conversations he was studying the lives and hearts of the people, that he

might be able

to

break to them the bread of

life.

GIDEON OUSELEY.

63

Being married and of middle age he could not His wife noblyregular ministry. " said.: I will go with you, and you can preach from town to town." In 1797 they settled in Sligo and continued enter the

EVANGELISTIC WORK.

Through Connaught, Leinster and Ulster he rode on horseback, entering

all

kinds of gather-

deliver his message of salvation. He did not forget the jails, the debtors, and crim-

ings to

The storm

of 1798 was brewing. Lawbands were fomenting the outbreak. Many of them, imprisoned and under the sentence of death, were ministered unto by Ouseley. inals.

less

The Conference

of 1799, on Dr. Coke's earnest

appeal, adopted a

MISSION TO THE IRISH PEOPLE,

own tongue, and appointed James Charles Graham and Gideon Ouseley. McQuigg, This appointment filled Ouseley with surprise in

their

and gratitude.

On Saturday

evening,

August

On Sunday morn11th, he reached Rivertown. ing the priest took care to warn his flock but ;

no sooner were they out of mass than a gentleman of middle height, powerful frame, his right eye closed, a black velvet cap on his head, and well mounted, rode into their midst, and filled

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

64 their sides.

ears with the sweet speech of their fireFor an hour they listened, despite the

draw them away. Mr. Graham him "one of the best Irish preachers he thought ever heard. Next to no money, but plenty of priest's efforts to

brains; every fibre of his powerful frame quivering with love 'and joy, as he scattered among

the poor people the unsearchable riches."

For

weeks Graham and Ouseley kept in close touch, entering fairs and markets, preaching on horseback, in the Irish of the masses, and cheered by almost daily conversions. The poor, shoeless peasants would be surprised and pleased on six

a gentleman on horseback speak so and so kindly of the love of the Son of freely

hearing

the Virgin.

Coming upon a company of Catholics kneeling and weeping among the graves in the churchyard, he knelt with them and poured forth his fervent prayer. At Boyle the Rector and

mob were joined by the military in attacking the missionary; but he " went on his way testimony and in We do more spreading the truth rejoicing." at one fair or market day than we do in months

gave

his

"

in private places.

were constant. idea of the

I

Awakenings and conversions can give you but a faint

power that attended the Word."

Sligo, Jan.

6th,

1800:

"We

spent the last

GIDEON OUSELEY.

month

65

in Baltyshannon, Enniskillen,

We

vicinities.

and their

preached two market days and

one Sabbath in the streets to vast consrreo-ations, who heard with the greatest attention. The rich and learned seemed astonished. Roman Catholics followed us from place to place.

through

Ballintra,

So and

Pettigo, Fermanagh Enniskillen, where our meetings continued five or six hours."

Mr. Ouseley determined on another effort in " On this occasion, contrary to our expecSligo.

crowd

tations, a

Bro.

Ouseley

deceived

of Catholics stood quietly, while were proved to them that

they

that their priests were blind guides, took their money, but did them no good." They returned to Clones; preached at Maguire's ;

Bridge, Smith borough and Monaghan, the people

"When

asking:

they

will

pressed to every

On

region.

the

you come again?" place

of

Or

note in that

12th of July at Clones they

preached to the Orangemen. At the Conference, in Dublin, the missionaries received

credit

for

a large share of the three

thousand increase.

The next year they were given the Province of Ulster. Their success had encouraged the Conference to appoint six other brethren for evangelistic work. In August

Ouseley and Graham were at Drogheda, at Ardee, in the streets at Kingscourt, among the Cath5

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

66

where the clergyman came out " afraid they to hear, and some Catholics were " and local preachwould not come." Travelling ers, leaders and hearers are flaming with zeal

olics

;

at Shirock,

for the glory of God." James McQuigg issued

THE IRISH and was preparing

two editions

of

BIBLE,

for a third.

At Clones the magistrate was resolved

to pre-

vent street preaching but the people assembled at Mr. Ouseley's door. Ascending a block he ;

began to preach. the Rector.

The

"

Call out

the

"

army

!

captain appeared, the

cried

drums

and the men were drawn up. Immediately some ran for arms. Then, fearing bloodshed, the magistrate tried to pull the preacher from the beat,

block

him

;

but, finding

him not

easily

moved,

left

to finish his sermon.

Meeting a wedding party near a chapel, he began affectionately to speak to the young couple, and alighting from his horse, knelt and prayed for the bride and bridegroom, while The priest looked on in wonder. tears flowed. At Charlemont some of the officers determined to stand their

ground against the "

"

Black-caps,"

Neither parson but found themselves foiled. nor colonel could withstand them at Loughall." " All, except the rich," turned out to hear at

GIDEON OUSELEY.

A Roman

Armagh. never

heard

the

67

Catholic declared she

way

salvation

of

"

had

before."

Ouseley was always looking for the promised " All glory to God He met me here power. in a manner I can hardly describe. So much of !

his love

and power did He

let

down

into

my soul

that nature could hardly sustain itself." At Lowtherstown some of the officers threat-

ened to bayonet the missionaries threats proved idle words.

Cavan were alarmed when nor water, nor save them."

salt,

oil,

;

but their

The Catholics told that

"

at

neither

nor beads could ever

TERRY M'GOWAN'S CONVERSION. Terry lived near Maguire's Bridge. On his way to the cock-pit on market day, carrying a game cock, he came suddenly upon " the Black-caps," on horseback, speaking in Irish. He halted, listened, heard of the great and terrible day, and, forgetting his bird, knelt, and wept and prayed there upon the street, and was converted. Hurrying home, he called for his wife and children to give thanks to God. She, thinking priest, " "

who

him beside

asked,

"

himself, sent for the

What's the matter?"

Never better in my life," answered Terry. " Did you hear the Black-caps ? '

'

68

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES. " "

I did,

" !

So

own "

thank God

I thought. Now, Terry, just mind your business and go to your duty Sunday next."

So

I will, if

your Reverence

do one

will

thing for me."

What is that, Terry " " Come with me to Maguire's Bridge to get the Lord to undo what He did for me this day." " What did the Lord do for you ? " " He said to me, Terry McGowan, your sins, "

?

'

'

which were many, are all forgiven you.' " I give you up as a lost case." Terry became a worker, holding prayer-meetings and carrying the message of mercy to many. In 1802, Mr. Davis, Superintendent of Clones " Circuit, wrote to Dr. Coke that his fears were all

The second year was better than the Numbers were melted down and sought

gone.

first.

mercy; meetings lasted six or seven hours; love in the fields, and seven hundred and

feasts

The mighty power forty-six members added. of God accompanied their word with such demonstrative evidence as I have never known."

On

their

way many

to

another Conference they

what gracious things the Lord had wrought after, as well as during, The increase was over five thoutheir visits. heard from

witnesses

sand, and the missionaries were congratulated.

GIDEON OUSELEY.

Though

69

the nine counties of Ulster seemed a

Graham and Ouseley, they were soon in the South. In the streets of Clonmel, Tipperary, though met by a mob, they, for three days, large field for

fearlessly

" preached the Gospel, and left the town little " hurt." Mr. Graham wrote Dr. Coke By the :

time

we have been seven

times round the island,

we hope the walls will come tumbling down." In Limerick and Kerry they met little oppoIn Tralee, "you would have thought Magistrates and officers availed Yet, under a guard of soldiers, they nothing." sition.

hell let loose.

preached in the court house. At Skibbereen, the way of the Lord seemed prepared. They preached in the markets, and on Sunday the people flocked about them by hundreds. The "

thought to try cavalry preaching also, "riding furiously through the crowd, whip in priest

hand."

Hearing that Mrs. Graham was ill they left Monaghan, preaching at Cork, Kinsale, and other places. They soon returned on a twelve for

weeks' tour.

The next year they labored in Ulster and Of Roman Catholics, Ouseley wrote " I do think, instead of being more embittered, they are still more pleased the more they hear. Munster.

Drawing near a church, before the hour

:

for

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

70

and finding many waiting outside, we had an unexpected congregation, who would scarcely permit us to leave, even when the priest entered and the bell was rung." " Nov. 26th. Left Dublin for Hosanna. On service,

the way, seeing a

number

drinking, I

people about a rode up to them,

of

door, apparently spoke gently and gave them some were pleased and thanked me." "

We

Dec. 7th.

came

A young woman came

tracts.

They

to friend Tackaberry's. looked at me, then at

in,

Mr. Graham, and said to her mother, That man I saw in my dream. I thought he did me good, '

and many were

So it was. That and blessed his word. God night preached, became a Fossey Tackaberry preacher." Riding into Arklow market, they met cursing fishermen and an excited young clergyman but spake the word and some were awakened, one man saying, " There is no use delaying any longer I will begin and serve the Lord." " In Gorey the people gathered in crowds to hear the Black-caps,' tears flowed, and I thought, what a pity we had not time to stay a night or two more. " In Ferns they heard as if they had no blessed.'

I

;

;

'

souls "

so very careless.

At Ross we met the people coming from mass. Some were very bitter, but a few soft

GIDEON OUSELEY. words

subdued

clergyman, said

them. ' :

Sir,

A

girl,

71

meeting

her

you have known me

so

and why did you not tell me of my danger?' " On market day, in Kilkenny, the mob rushed upon us, frightened our horses and followed us with stones, ready to murder us. We escaped with some bruises." At Athy, with the protection of some Orangemen, they had a good hearlong,

ing.

On Sunday, Ouseley

rode

down

the street,

singing, and was followed by a crowd, who heard him attentively as he spoke of " Christ

:

the Rock, stone."

Through

the

Foundation, the Chief Corner-

the

Midland

districts

they

had

In the market of Stewartssimilar experiences. town the Catholics wished to make a collection

In Cavan, Ouseley spoke to a man for them. about to be executed, then addressed the crowd in English

and

Irish.

The Rev. Dr. Hales had published an attack on the missionaries, charging them with teaching the doctrine of assurance, or conscious experience of the pardoning love of God and with preach;

ing in the street, on horseback,

thus courting

He was answered through the persecution. Christian Observer. These items of controversy opened the eyes of multitudes, making them anxious to see and hear for themselves. Graham and Ouseley had worked together for

72

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

six years.

At the Conference

divided, four

new men being

of 1805 they

sent.

were

Mr. Ouseley

BLARNEY CASTLE. had his old

friend,

William Hamilton, for his

He would often soothe an league. with a story. On one occasion he

col-

excited crowd

proposed

tell-

73

GIDEON OUSELEY.

ing a story of the blessed Virgin he graphicallydescribed the wedding in Cana, the company, ;

the young couple, the wine, the Virgin's appeal " Whatsoever he saith to her Son, ending with unto you, do it" a good text, for which he had :

skilfully prepared the way. Riding on his way, he heard the "

of girls scutching flax.

There

is

merry voices

work

for us

here," he said, and dismounting, entered the open " " " Save God save you, children door with After answer. their came sundry you kindly," !

:

their work, weaving the " and strikes (fibres), burning the shows," he the told of the great day gathering of the good " The and casting the bad into the furnace. " " Amen " cried the girls, and Lord save us " " and all were on Let us pray the preacher.

questions

about

"

"

!

!

;

their knees in tears as he fervently prayed for their salvation. Rising, he blessed them, mounted

and was gone. some men cutting peat, he rode up and Seeing " " We are What are asked, you doing, boys V\ " don't want sir." turf, Sure, you cutting turf, his horse,

"

"

No, sir, but we shall " and want it Why long nights." " " not cut it when you want it ? Sir, it would be too late then." Thus he had another text for

this

fine

weather

?

in the cold days

a way-side sermon.

A

favorite

name

for Mr. Ouseley,

among

the

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

74

country folk, was of

"

"

The silk Sheedd-no-var," their hearts were so impressed by the

men"

love he felt for them.

In 1807 he published a series of letters to Dr. Bellew, the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ardnaree, the Bishop's methods, and tracing unjust attacks upon Protestants to his

criticising

many

unfair instructions to his priests. In 1809, for the first time, Mr. Ouseley speaks of serious illness, caused by lying in a room with

a damp floor. Seldom is a hint given as to how he fared or where he slept but sometimes he found " the best portion of the house in the loft, ;

between the

rafters,

because the only dry one."

town of no Methodists, a most wicked

Crossing into Tipperary he entered the Borrisokane,

"

which many efforts to preach the Gospel had been baffled," yet even there his preaching was attended with remarkable power. place, in

A London city missionary told of the time he heard Mr. Ouseley " I see him now

first

:

his

gestures, his fire, his pathos, his smiles, his tact, his peculiar shake of the hand, as distinctly as ever I did. I was told to hasten to the corner

of

Church

Street,

He

where Mr. Ouseley was

read the

"

When

to

survey hymn preach. the wondrous cross," first in English, then in The crowd increased the noise ceased Irish. :

I

;

the sermon

was

short, pithy,

on Peter's teaching

;

;

GIDEON OUSELEY.

75

frequent changes from English to Irish, keeping perfect quiet."

John Nelson and William Reilly were his colleagues in 1810. They found their leader to be

man with

a

"A soul inured

to pain,

To hardship,

grief and loss Bold to take up, firm to sustain, ;

The consecrated Cross."

Searching out-of-the-way tracts on the coast, the bogs and the mountains, he came upon a secluded cabin, and, entering, sang a hymn of

thanksgiving. The woman went to the field brought a sheaf of oats, toasted the grain, and ground it for her visitor. "

"

How

often," said one of his fellow-laborers,

this blessed man, when all the had retired, spend hours together wrestfamily in ling mighty prayer for the conversion of

have

I

known

souls."

He read much,

especially the old divines, often

and where he lodged withdrawing for early reading and meditation. In company and conversation, he was ever an evangelist. in the saddle

Sitting

by a

;

lady, he asked "

" :

Is this lady

next

An almost instantaneous you born again ? conversion was the result. Halting to water his horse, he saw a young woman in her father's to

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

76

He went up

doorway.

to

her,

spoke a few

earnest words, and prayed that the blessing of the Lord might descend upon her. Two years

afterwards she told him his words led to her

He

conversion.

helped to build

many

chapels,

and was overjoyed when Mr. Averell, then in England, sent him 400. A Congregationalist, from London, heard him preach in a dark room, and said " This will never do." He sent 250 :

towards a chapel. "

Old Christianity and Papal Noveloriginally a small pamphlet in answer to a boastful champion. It was expanded into Ouseley's

ties,"

was

a volume and several editions

sold.

To

it

and

the Irish Bible, the priests attributed the loss of

many of When

their people.

Coke, at his last Conference in Ireland, 1813, asked for volunteers to go to India, Ouseley offered himself but he could not Dr.

;

be spared. He was sent to England to raise funds for the Irish missions. Leeds, Hull, and other places witnessed the overwhelming powei of his appeals and the wonderful revivals which

Returning, he visited the south of " Have February 22nd. 1819, he wrote not been able to see my dear wife, but once, since November am hurried night and day. In the last ten days no less than 400 have joined the Society, in Wicklow and Carlow besides

resulted.

Ireland.

:

;

;

77

GIDEON OUSELEY. hundreds in other

places,

during the preceding

weeks." "

"

Ouseley eloquent ? asked some one. If eloquence be the art of persuasion, will you " He tell me of another man so eloquent as he ? Is Mr.

"

was highly esteemed and kindly entertained by many rectors and vicars, who bore testimony to Public discussions the good he was doing. were someand Catholics Protestants between times held

;

but often the Catholics

"

flinched,"

" Old had cost Christianity," and other writings, which them so dearly. In 1828 he was asked, by Dr.

dreading exposure as they did Ouseley 's

Bunting, to assist at the missionary anniversary Manchester. The occasion proved a gi-eat

in

In York, Leeds, and Bradford, he found fruits of former labors. He had also the pleasure of meeting Dr. Chalmers. delight to him.

Ouseley seldom reported assaults made upon " For him, but in 1830, at Tuam, he wrote been has blood several years not a drop of :

spilled

;

but

last

night I had a shower of stones,

which made me bleed a little." Some of his teeth were knocked out but, so soon as able, he went on with his discourse. He had occasional " Here I lie, in peace, upon a bed of, afflictions: doubtless, salutary affliction, under the care of my kind wife and my merciful Father, who never slumbers nor sleeps." The letter told of ;

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

78

inflammation leeches,

" :

and a

sixteen cups of blood, thirteen " He also had a serious

blister

!

accident, by the stumbling of his mare, from which he suffered while he lived.

In 1832, at three score and ten, he gratefully recorded the recovery of his brother, General Sir

Ralph Ouseley, and expressed deep anxiety

He wrote Rev. T. spiritual welfare. at 11.30 at all the blessed "after night, Lessey, labors of the day." and having to preach next for

his

The Rev. Robinson Scott morning at 6.30. wrote of him " He greeted me with fatherly affection and spoke to me words of wisdom I then deeply felt. I was much struck with his zeal, aptitude, and power in parlor preaching Is your soul happy in Jesus ? Are you sure :

'

'

'

you love Him ? Among all the eminent men raised up by God in Irish Methodism, I doubt if any other was so successful in winning souls for '

Christ, as

Mr.

Ouseley."

Similar

testimonies

were often heard in Ireland, the United States, Canada, and other places. Aided by the Missionary Committee, he established a

SCRIPTURE READERS' SOCIETY,

employing ten men, to which he gave 50 a year, He reached home in November, but was not able to preach until New Year's and not again ;

GIDEON OUSELEY.

79

Good Friday. He was then seventy-six. he wrote letters and a pamphlet. In May he went to Queen's County, for a week, "in a coach," as he had lost his horse, and was nothing worse, not even fatigued." He attended the Conference, until Still

'"

In August he preached nineand thought his teen times, in eight days " friends might be at ease about his health."

in 1837, in Cork.

;

Instead of the saddle he took to a gig preach" ing three or four times a day, pretty well tired, "

From Belfast he and slept well, thank God " went into Down, Antrim, and was the guest of Lord Roden, Tollymore Park." In May he was in Enniskillen, preaching a !

dozen times a week. Violent

attacks of

were

illness

frequent, but usually soon over

God and took

;

becoming thanked

so he

courage.

In October he had been preaching fifteen times a week. A kick from a horse compelled him to " rest until his leg should be better or nearly so."

Hundreds were giving in their names. In Dublin he was attacked by robbers, the I

first

time in

am now

my

life

;

but they got

quite recovered, thank

God

little,

"

" !

Closing his seventy-seventh year, he wrote ' '

'

Through waves and clouds and storms

He

gently clears

my way

;

Wait thou His time, so shall Soon end in joyous day.'

for

and

this night

:

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

80

God be thanked

!

Amen.

Joyful news

come.

"There, there,

And be

at

The end

shall

soon

" !

His

feet,

parted in spirit

we

shall

no more.

suddenly meet, "

He found it necessary to consult a surgeon, who told him an operation would be necessary. "

must put myself under his care for about weeks after I return from the country." " Having preached four times and met the class on the first day of my seventy-eighth year, Thank God Thank I was not even fatigued. Amen and amen." God, O my soul So

I

three

!

!

In April he returned to Dublin, preaching five times on the way, and took the names of "

I write your name before many, saying to each God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the dead at his appearing." To Mrs. Ouseley he wrote " On Tuesday night a dense crowd attended in Mountmellick and on- Wednesday night, April 10th, 1839, the like, and in the morning a few. About twenty gave in their names. Our meeting lasted from seven to ten o'clock. May the Lord continue to bless this This was his last ingatherfresh revival also." Taking the canal boat ing and his last sermon. he was soon in Dublin, saw the surgeon, and :

:

;

"

thinks that

all will

for fifty-six years

be well."

had shared

To

his wife,

his lot, he

who

wrote

:

GIDEON OUSELEY. "

My work

was the

me

forsook

Lord's,

my

in

his

who never

left

nor

and dangers. Glory, Amen." This was the

labors

glory, glory be to Him last sentence he wrote.

The next day

81

!

symptoms became alarming. was near. His

Mrs. Ouseley saw that the end sufferings

were intense, but he said

O what

' '

are

all

my

:

sufferings here,

Lord, thou count me meet With that enraptured host to appear, If,

;

And worship

On

at

the 13th of

feet

Thy

May

" !

he took leave of his

relations, dictated messages to many friends, and " " testified to all, God is love Being asked !

what now he thought preached

all his life, "

Gospel he had he replied " Oh, it is light and asked for the reading of the

:

and life and peace " of John 14. I have no fear !

"

said,

Spirit "

was

A

the Spirit of

is

my

not, for

God

of

sustains

death,"

me.

he

God's

support," then closed his eyes and God took him."

service of unusual solemnity

was held

in the

old Methodist chapel, Whitefriars' Street; and to the grave, in Mount Jerome, was committed the

body

of one of Erin's noblest sons,

"

in sure and

certain hope of a blessed resurrection."

HENRY MARTYN,

M.A.

IV.

HENRY MARTYN. India and Persia.

1781-1812. other early toilers in the great

many

LIKE missionary

field, Henry Martyn seems never to have gained the place, in popular attention, to which his devoted life and tragic death entitle him. Many have heard of a brave young life, early

in the century, nobly consecrated for the others,

and breathed out

"

friendless

good of " and alone

in the wastes of Persia. his heroic

life,

But the brief story of and the record of the noble work

he was enabled to accomplish in so short a space, have not been so widely told among the churches as their thrilling interest

demands.

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE.

At Gwenap pit, John Wesley addressed thousands of Cornish miners; and John Martyn, father of Henry, may have been them, among probably as mine agent or captain. Through the father, the voice of the great evangelist may have reached the son.

83

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

84

Henry was born February 18th, 1781. He was of delicate constitution, shy and retiring. At the age of seven he entered one of the best schools in Cornwall, under Dr. Cardew, who said " His proficiency in the classics exceeds of him :

that of most of his school-fellows. loving, cheerful temper."

He

is

of a

When

he was induced to become

only fourteen, a candidate for a

scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He did not succeed, however, and for his failure he was afterwards thankful. " Had I entered

the

University

at

that time,

the

profligate

acquaintances I should have had there would have introduced me to scenes of debauchery in

which

must, in

I

all

probability, have

sunk

for-

Two

ever."

Cardew.

years more he remained under Dr. In October, 1797, he entered

ST.

JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

At the end class place.

of the first term he gained a firstUp to that time he had not become

truly a Christian. To the example and influence She did of a sister, he was specially indebted. not cease to urge upon him the claims of Christ,

the importance of a decision, and the happiness " I left my in store for those who serve Him. I father and sister, and him I saw no more. promised my sister that I would read the Bible

;

but at college

Newton engaged

all

my thoughts."

HENRY MARTYN.

85

His mother had died early. The sad news of father's death drove him to his neglected

his

He

Bible for comfort.

"

prayed.

Dodridge's

knelt

down and

Rise and

sincerely " led

Progress

him to deep heart-searching. At the next examination his name stood on the

first

His devotion to study diverted his mind too much from religion. He wrote his roll.

sister, owning his belief of all she had told him but the struggle of the flesh against the Spirit was going on. His eagerness in study seemed ;

to excuse the lack

of a

humble and

contrite

spirit.

GRADUATION.

He came

out Senior Wrangler, the highest

honor he could

attain, and many were his conHis own record was " I attained my highest wishes, but was surprised to find I had grasped a shadow." The happy greetings of sisters and friends failed to calm his troubled

gratulations.

spirit.

:

In his old home he received and prized

his sister's affectionate counsels.

Returning to Cambridge he sought solitude and spiritual communion. " Not till then had I ever experienced any real pleasure in religion." The ministry of the Rev. Charles Simeon was very helpful to him.

service "

He of

resolved to devote himself to the

God.

Writing his

Blessed be God, I have

now

sister

he said

:

experienced that

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

86

the power of God and the wisdom of heart can conceive the excellency of

Christ

is

God

No

!

the Gospel unless renewed by Divine grace."

HIS LIFE ' '

I

WORK

CHOSEN.

would the precious time redeem,

And

longer live for this alone,

To spend, and

to be spent, for them have not yet my Saviour known Fully on these my mission prove,

Who

And

only breathe to breathe

Thy

;

love."

Charles Wesley.

The attention of Henry Martyn was drawn to mission work by a sermon Rev. Chas. Simeon spoke of Dr. Carey,

He

also of

Brainerd, at his

specially in which in India.

own

thought age, seeking the wandering Indians in American forests, and felt a strong bond of sympathy

between these devoted men and himself. resolved to consecrate his

among

the heathen, should

wrote his

sister,

life

to mission

God

so permit.

He work

He

whose advice he was conhis convictions and purposes.

to

stantly indebted, of With conscious unfitness, he offered himself to

the Church Missionary Society.

during which "

reading

his

Butler's

A year elapsed,

was strengthened by Analogy," and his zeal kept faith

burning by letters of missionaries. In 1803 he was ordained deacon, and became curate to the Rev. Chas. Simeon, in

Church, Cambridge.

A

financial

Holy Trinity loss

overtook

HENRY MARTYN.

87

his family which might render his sister dependent on him and affect his proposed missionarycareer. He hastened to London for consultation.

not clear. The East India ComThe Company, was hostile to missions. pany a would however, chaplain to the troops accept and civil servants. The offer was made him,

His

way was

and, believing that thus his way might be opened He wrote to the work he sought, he accepted. " It is the beginning of a critical year to me, :

yet I feel little apprehension. I see no business in life but the work of Christ, neither do I desire

any employment

to all eternity but

His

service."

By

the marriage of his sister he was relieved, " I never had so clear a conviction

and wrote of

my

:

call as at present, so far as respects

Never did

the

much

of inward impression. the excellency and glory and sweetness of the work, nor have so favorable testimony of my own conscience, nor perceive so plainly the smile of God." On the 2nd of April he preached his In London farewell sermon in Trinity church. he began studying Hindustani, and heard the evangelical preachers, Mr. Cecil and Mr. Newton.* I see so

* But the Methodists themselves were the least result of the Methodist revival. Its action upon the Church broke the " " movement, lethargy of the clergy, and the Evangelical which found representatives like Newton and Cecil within the pale of the Establishment, made the fox-hunting parson and the absentee rector at last impossible." Green's History, p. 710.

MESSENGERS OP THE CHURCHES.

88

When

he saw the East Indiaman on which he was

to sail tears."

"The sudden sight affected me almost to As the Union moved off, he waved his

farewell to

many

friends on shore, sent thanks

to others for tokens given him, and asked their The vessel made a brief stay at Falprayers.

mouth, which permitted him to make a final on Miss Lydia Grenfell, who would probably have sailed with him had not her mother refused

call

A

to sanction her going to India. hasty fareand they parted. The conflict had been

well,

severe.

"

But now

"

again," he wrote, through am more at peace. I may

the mercy of God, I henceforth have no one thing upon earth for which I would wish to stay another hour,

except to serve the Lord, my Saviour, in the work of the ministry." And she " Thou, God, that knowest, canst alone give comfort may we each pursue, in different paths, and meet at !

around our Father's throne." his glass he scanned the coasts of Cornwall until overcome with memories of the past, and the impression that he was leaving the home last

With

and friends

of his childhood forever.

On

the

vessel he found relief in active efforts for those

After great peril from storms and reefs, the loss of two ships of their fleet and many of the crew, they reached St. Salvador. Marty n made some visits ashore, conversing with Cathoaboard.

89

HENRY MARTYN. lies

and Mohammedans.

hospitable strangers, he

"Let the

Saying good-bye to

left,

singing

:

Indian, let the negro,

Let the rude barbarian see That Divine and glorious conquest Once obtained on Calvary ;

Let the Gospel Loud resound from pole to pole."

The Dutch

soldiers

aboard were for the war with the and while the vessel remained

at the Cape;

Martyn had a chance to initiate his military chaplaincy by ministering to the wounded. The long voyage of nine months was over at last. The ship sailed into the Madras Roads, and

young missionary stood on the shores of For this beginning he had been preparIndia.

the

ing by fasting and prayer, especially during Good Friday reading the prophecies and He gazed upon the vast field before promises.

The missionaries faith and hope. before him, Carey, Ward and others, gave him a hearty welcome. Martyn found a comfortable home with Rev. David Brown, him with there

In that great city were attainments his educational highly prized " and he was desired to remain. But," said he,

fifteen miles

from Calcutta.

"

to be prevented going to the heathen would almost break my heart." Taking a walk he saw

the

smoke

of a funeral pyre

and made an earnest

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

90 effort

to

The

rescue the widow, but in vain.

cruel customs of idolatry, daily before his eyes, intensified his desire to give the Gospel to the

benighted people.

He

suffered a severe attack "

of fever, but, rallying, he wrote: In the cloudy climate of England I was always oppressed but here I feel as light as air and go rejoicing all ;

the

In

day."

Dinapoor, far

October

he

up the Ganges.

was

ordered

He embarked

to in

budgero, taking with him a Moonshee, as assistant in the study of Sanscrit. Leaving the boat and taking his gun for a stroll, he heard

a

He was soon the noise of cymbals and drums. in the midst of idol worshippers and reasoning with the Brahmin. His time on the route was taken up in learning the language of the natives about him, translating, distributing tracts and beginning the Persian. Indications of antipathy towards Englishmen gave him intimations of possible

Heb.

11.

He

trouble. "

What

found strength reading

a wretched

life shall I lead, if

do not exert myself from morning till night where I seem to be the only light." Feeling keenly the need of companionship, he wrote the I

only one who could supply the lack, proposing that she join him in India. He sought relief in more complete devotion to the work before him "

forced to believe that I should live, in every

sense, a stranger

and pilgrim on

this earth."

91

HENRY MARTYN.

Reaching Dinapoor, he was much discouraged His different. finding the language so avail not would Hindustani of knowledge on

To where the natives spoke only Beharee. meet the exigency he redoubled his efforts. "I fag as hard as ever I did for degrees at Cambridge." He had frequent discussions with his Moonshee, as they translated. In his sphere, as chaplain, he

found such indifference as aroused his spirit. The arrival of 12,000 Mahratta troops seemed an opening for the work he had at heart but ;

natives was so opposition to preaching to the undertook the He his to bar as way. strong in the hope opening and management of schools that the children, at least, would break off the Five such schools he shackles of idolatry.

own

Special meetfor those desiring ings were held in the evening instruction, and on Sunday afternoons for the

maintained at his

wives of

He

soldiers.

expense.

prepared a translation of

the parables, with simple notes. Around the pagoda, in which he dwelt, and under the verandahs, he gathered the poor by

hundreds, and ministered to their wants, both and temporal and spiritual. Martyn's kindness

sympathy won the confidence

of

many

natives.

In their alleviation and defence he ran great hazards, saying

" :

I

thought

it

duty

I

owed

to

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

92

God, to the oppressed natives, and to my country; I felt authorized to risk my life."

and

In the conversion of an officer and in seeing the soldiers begin to read their Bibles, he was encouraged. His Mohammedan teacher parried his pleas for Christianity by referring to the lives of its professors, as

he saw them

tion only once a week, prayer or general carelessness."

" :

devo-

no prayer, and

A learned Brahmin copied the Ten Commandments, as Martyn had translated them into " Sanscrit, saying, he intended to keep them." That he might be able to preach freely to the people, Martyn was diligently studying their languages also Arabic and Persian, into which he was translating the New Testament. "The ;

precious

work

Word

now my only study in the translation. Though in a manner

of

is

buried to the world, neither seeing nor seen by Europeans, the time flows on with great rapidity. It

seems as

if life

would be gone before anything

He was

then but twenty-seven. Mirza, a gifted Hindustani scholar, gave him much help in translating, and in the study of is

done."

their sacred books.

Sabat, an Arab, caused

An

him

of apostate great disappointment. the Company, in his new-found zeal for the official

False Prophet, took a prominent part in awakening prejudice against the schools and translations.

HENRY MARTYN. Martyn received the sad news

93 of the death of

with the comforting assurance of her good hope. His own delicate con" stitution caused him increasing anxiety. Lying his elder sister, but

in pain I turned thoughts to God and, oh, his be to grace and love, I felt no fear praise

my

;

!

but

prayed earnestly that I might have a

I

relief, to set

my

little

house in order."

With improving health came an order

to

remove to Cawnpore, a journey of 400 miles, in He was thoroughly exhausted. violent heat. So soon as able, he began talking to the people and preaching in the square. His health again gave way. The death of his younger sister added to his trouble. He was cheered by the friendship and sympathy of Mrs. Sherwood, who wrote interesting reminiscences of the young "He was dressed in white and missionary. looked very pale his hair, a light brown, was from his forehead a remarkably fine one. ;

raised

His features were not regular, but the expression

was

so luminous, so intellectual, so affectionate,

beaming with Divine charit}^ the out-beaming of his soul would absorb the attention of so

every observer."

who

He opened

his gardens to the

flocked in hundreds and there listened

poor, to the glad tidings. These were his first attempts to preach in the native language. "

No dreams

could surpass the realities

a

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

94

congregation clothed with abominable rags, or nearly without clothes, or plastered with mud, or

with long matted locks streaming down to their and frightful heels, every countenance foul with

evil passions."

was

pel scholar.

To a

preached

To by

these "poor" the Gos-

the

meek

Cambridge

pundit, Sheik Salah, sitting with other

young Mussulmans for amusement before the missionary, the word came as an arrow. He was afterwards ordained by Bishop Heber and known as Abdul Messeh. Through his ministry over forty Hindus were converted. Thus was Henry Martyn permitted to sow and others to Under the severe stress of daily toil his reap. feeble

strength

gave

out.

Hereditary lung was anxious

He telling upon him. to complete his translation of the

trouble

was

New

Testa-

into Persian, and determined on leaving Cawnpore for Persia.

ment

He had been

building a place of worship, and before leaving had the pleasure of preaching in He thought he saw the dawning of a brighter it.

day

;

sank in That same evening, he gave

but, returning to his bungalow, he

utter exhaustion.

a parting address to the Fakeers, then resigned Prostrated his field to the Lord of the harvest. in weakness, yet jubilant in spirit, he

singing

:

was often

HENRY MARTYN. " E'er since, by

faith, I

95

saw the stream

Thy flowing wounds supply, Redeeming love has been my theme,

And "Then

shall

be

till

I die.

in a nobler, sweeter song, sing Thy power to save

I'll

;

When

this

poor lisping, stammering tongue

Lies silent in the grave."

He

took the boat for Calcutta, where his

friends were grieved to see the great change four years of toil and illness had wrought upon him.

One

of

them wrote

" :

He

is

going to Arabia, in

some great plans too grand and much beyond his

pursuit of health, with

in his

mind and exhausted frame."

feeble

On January

7th, 1811,

he

left

India, with-

out companion or attendant, aboard a vessel " I now for Bombay, and wrote in his journal pass from India to Arabia, not knowing the :

'

things that shall befall me there,' but assured that an ever faithful God and Saviour will be

with me.

May He

me

prosper

in

the thing

go and bring me back to my dein India. I am, perhaps, leaving work lightful it to see it no more; but the will of God be done.

whereunto

I

At Bombay he times are in thy hand.' was kindly cared for by Sir John Malcolm, who

'

'

My

gave him a

letter of introduction to Sir

Gore

96

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

Ouseley, British Resident in Persia. the tomb of Francis Xavier, at Goa.

ARAB

He

visited

CHIEF.

For a time he had the company of an Arabic who spoke Persian. April 14th, 1811, he landed at Muscat, in Arabia. To an African scholar

HENRY MARTYN.

97

boy he gave a copy of the Gospels, in He conversed Arabic, which he began to read. their priest. Arminians and of a with company red native costume the In Persia he adopted and bright stockings and boots, blue trousers He let his beard grow and learned chintz coat. slave

:

After paying to sit cross-legged on the carpet. his respects to the Governor of Bushire, he

journeyed with a party to Shiraz, moving in almost perfect silence through the night. Next morning, the thermometer at 126, he was in a great fever, but relieved again by the cool night. They had, in succession, hot days, scorpions, mountains, robbers, cold winds, and finally a crystal stream, with the spring temperature of England, where they pitched their tents and

enjoyed a rest. In Shiraz, the centre of the false religion of Persia, he discussed with some learned Mollahs the tenets of the False Prophet, and was pleased to find them willing to read with him the first

chapter of

St.

John.

One

much misapprehension

is

"

of

them

said

" :

removed, when

How

people

come to an explanation With a Persian of high rank he found a home and a helper in translating. Some of the great and learned called on him, thinking him likely to embrace their religion, and asked all !

98

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

manner

of questions.

His assistant was

inquisitive and not unwilling

From

the Professor of

specially-

to learn.

Law

he received per-

mission to discuss religious questions publicly. Martyn's knowledge of the Koran and his its errors soon awakened hostility and threatenings. The Mollahs were incensed by

exposure of his

presentation of

"

Christ the Crucified

"

in

Prophet, and doubly so opposition because he was so well able to defend his to

their

Had

it not been for his English and his official relations they doubtnationality The Governor less would have shed his blood. issued a proclamation in his defence. His attacks upon Mohammedanism were answered in a " A Learned and Weighty Apology for pamphlet the Religion of the False Prophet," to which Martyn speedily replied in the same language. Having thus spent ten weeks, he started on a wearisome journey of eight weeks to Tabriz, wishing to obtain from Sir Gore Ouseley an

position.

:

introduction to the Shah, that he might present his

New

Testament.

The journey proved most

Storms, heat, lack of food and distressing. shelter were too much for Martyn's feeble

He strength and brought on a raging fever. Gore Sir entertained was hospitably Ouseley, by him the presentathe Shah. They were

and was compelled to leave tion of his translations to

to

HENRY MARTYN.

99

and subsequently printed at St. Petersburgh, of followers sent forth, witnesses to the deluded the great apostacy.

they were asked by some Persians the "

Man

of

God

" ?

how they knew

Travellers have told "

He came

if

here," they said,

"in the midst of us, sat down amid our wise men, and made such remarks upon our Koran as cannot be answered. We want to know about his religion

and the book that he

Mohammed Rahem

"

told of

among us."

left

a beardless youth,

" That enfeebled by disease," visiting their city. me a book. He visit sealed my conversion. gave

It has

of its

it

been

the study most delightful occupation

constant companion

my

has formed

my

;

;

contents have consoled me."

visit, and in a time of great the precious leaven was dropped into the vast measure, to be leavened. He was thank-

In that short

affliction,

ful that

he had been permitted to provide for

another people the

Word

of Life in their

own

language, believing "The Persians will proba" and bly take the lead in the march to Zion " My word shall not trusting the promise ;

:

return unto

me

void, but shall accomplish that

whereunto I sent it." So soon as he felt able, he

set out for Constan-

tinople, a long journey of 1,300 miles, in the His Persian saddle, hoping to reach England.

companion knew

little

of the

language, their

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

100

horses were of the poorest and the heat intense. A stable or wash-house was the best place he

could find

for

He

rest.

beguiled the weary

hours repeating the 23rd Psalm or conjugating an Arabic verb. In the distance he descried the peaks of Arai'at and reached Ech Meazin the "Three Churches" some hospitable Arminians,

and monks, able to speak English, French, and Italian.

He resumed

his journey,

armed, like his

fel-

low-travellers, with a sword, because of robbers. At Kars he heard the alarming report that the

plague was raging in Constantinople.

am

I passing into imminent Thy will be done living,

me!"

That was written

remember

dying,

1812.

1st,

fever, his strength failed fast.

Thus Lord,

danger.

Oct.

"

In

His merciless

Tartar companion hurried him on, until Martyn " was compelled to say he neither could nor

would go

further."

A

stable

was

his only rest-

ing place.

In helpless weakness he was taken the next day to Tokat, where on the 16th of October, alone, no earthly friend or loved one near, his spirit

A

returned to the Great Giver. little

before he had written

" :

No

horses

being ready, I in the orchard

had an unexpected repose. I sat and thought, with sweet comfort

and peace,

my God

of

in

solitude

my Com-

HENRY MARTYN. panion,

my

101

Oh, when

Friend and Comforter.

shall time give place to eternity

" !

His remains were subsequently discovered and reinterred at Bagdad, the British Resident inscribing over them vant, called by the :

"

A pious and faithful serLord Himself as he was

returning to his Fatherland/' An obelisk of native stone was erected by the " One East India Company, bearing his name who was known in the East as a man of God." :

It is still to be seen

on an eminence, overlooking

the Persian town.

The tidings of his death reached England when Parliament was considering the renewal of the East India

Company's

opening India to

in

charter,

unrestricted

and aided missionary

operations. "

He being dead

yet speaketh."

In the few

brief years allotted him Henry Martyn bravely did his part in preparing the way of the Lord

;

and who may tell how many stars, from those he sought with tears and for whom he gave up his life, shall adorn his crown.

WILLIAM CASE.

V.

WILLIAM CASE. Canada.

1780-1855.

INTRODUCTION. 1790 the population of Lower Canada was

IN about

130,000, and of Upper Canada 20,000At that time there seems to have been only

about half a dozen Protestant ministers in the country, located at Quebec, Montreal, Lan-

and Niagara Methodist among them. Occasional had been held by services, however, of the 44th Regiment, in Quebec by caster, Kingston, Bath,

;

and not a Methodist Mr. Tuffy, the Hecks,

by Lyons and McCarty, in Bay of Quinte country, and by Col. Neal at Niagara. During the summer of 1790 the Rev. Mr.

in

Augusta

;

Losee crossed the Augusta and on the a tour of

St.

Lawrence, preached in

way up to Bay of Quinte, on He took a favorable investigation.

report of the country to the New York Conference and was sent back the next year. Other ministers

followed

:

Dunham, Coleman, Wool-

sey, Keeler, Coate, Wooster, Jewell

103

and

others.

MESSENGERS OP THE CHURCHES.

104

There were nine ministers and 1,700 members Church in Canada, by 1805,

in the Methodist

when

the subject of this sketch joined

their

number.

BIRTH AND EARLY LIFE. William Case, " the father of Indian Missions in Canada," was born August 27th, 1780, in SwanIn the schools of New England sea, Mass. he received a fair education and became a This early training fitted him for the teacher. important

clerical

awakened a

duties

life-long

Removing with

his

of

later

interest

father to

years

and

in

education.

the

interior of

New

York, he had his share in the activities of frontier life, not without exposure to the prevailing wildness of the times.

At the age of twenty-three he was converted, made an exhorter and local preacher. In 1805 he was received by the New York Conference and sent to the Bay of Quinte District, which embraced all the missions from Montreal to St. His superintendent was Henry Ryan, a Claire. athletic tall, young Irishman. Ryan and Case in time, the two Presiding Elders over became, the whole Canadian work. Samuel Coate, popular and instrumental in the conversion of hundreds, was the Presiding Elder. Another of the small but heroic band of

WILLIAM CASE.

105

pioneers was Nathan Bangs, who in 1799 left the Eastern States, with his surveying instruments, for Canada. On an ox-sled he passed the

present site of Buffalo, then three log huts in the solitude of heard the great Niagara ;

:

Canadian forests read Milton, Bunyan, and other good books listened to Coleman and Sawyer, and found peace through believing. In 1801 he became Mr. Sawyer's assistant, and afterwards a ;

prince in the Methodist Israel.

Thomas Madden, with his father, had moved He Canada and settled in Ernestown.

into

entered the ministry in 1802, and in 1824 succeeded Henry Ryan as Presiding Elder.

With these and some half dozen more men of nerve and dauntless spirit Bishop, Case Pearse, Pickett, Keeler, Perry and Ruter cast in his lot. He was young, tall, amiable, an excellent singer, welcomed b}^ old and young. After an earnest sermon he would often sing a tireless

hymn, pass through the company, shaking hands and entreating all to give their hearts to God. With his superintendent, Ryan, he traversed ten townships.

THE FIRST CAMP-MEETING

Canada was held in 1805, near Adolphustown, by Ryan and Case, assisted by Pickett, Keeler, Announcements were Madden, and Bangs. in

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

106

widely given and much preparation made. As the time drew near, great processions, in wag'gons, boats, and on foot, were wending their " to this modern Feast of Tabernacles."

way

The came parts singing, praying, preaching by the way, and awakening On September 27th, the high expectations. voice of prayer and praise was heard in the forest sanctuary. Preaching and exhortation itinerants

followed

from

in

distant

quick

succession,

the

audiences

growing from hundreds to thousands, and inclosing with their tents the spacious area, seated and prepared for worship. From the sunrise prayer-meetings to the solemn midnight, closing with fellowship and prayer, the sweet melody of song, the ringing appeals of the preachers, the earnest prayers of the people, the mournful cries

and the joyful shouts of the newborn resounded through the camp. Sunday was a high day. The encampment full the singing, praying, preaching earnest and appropriate of penitents

;

;

deep solemnity controlling

all

the host

;

conver-

seemed impossible, gathering branching into minor clusters for prayer, thanksgiving and praise. Through several days and nights the services The waters were troubled and the continued. scores, so that closing

sions

by

the

central

healed were many. " The time was at hand, at

last,

for the con-

WILLIAM CASE.

107

night was the most awfully impressive and yet delightful scene my eyes ever beheld. The stars studded the elusion of the meeting.

The

last

firmament and the glory of God filled the camp. The forest seemed vocal with the echoes of hymns and the voice of prayer. Every moment

was precious

parents praying for children, children for parents, neighbors for neighbors all anxious for each other's salvation. I will :

not attempt to describe the parting scene; it was indescribable the preachers, the people, the strangers, the friendships, the partings

as they

wept, prayed, sang, shouted, then marched away, songs of victory rolling along the highways."

Thus, but more fully, wrote Nathan Bangs. William Case was receiving his baptism of fire, a preparation for his next year's work by the

St.

Lawrence, among the descendants of Paul

and Barbara Heck, and adjacent regions. Mrs. Heck had died, but her son, Samuel, was on the old homestead,

near the

"

Blue Church."

He

John Van Camp, Peter Brouse, Michael Carman, John Bailey and other "men of found

also

renown."

Case, by his humility, earnestness, walk with God, commended himself to all, and his labors were greatly owned of God. At the Conference of 1807, near Albany, he was ordained deacon and, much to his grief, appointed to the Catskill mountains. But his

and

close

;

108

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

sorrow was turned into joy. He regained his health and witnessed great revivals. He was admitted to

elder's

orders,

volunteered for Canada.

On

Ancaster Circuit.

and the next year

He was

appointed to

his arrival at Black Rock,

he found the embargo prohibited the transport of property across the line. Some one said " I :

wouldn't wonder

if

the missionary should jump by the bridle and

into the boat, take his horse

the embargo." "I did so; swam the Niagara River and landed in Canada." His circuit included the townships of Ancaster, Beverly, Flamboro', Nelson, Trafalgar, and perhaps York. After a year of great success, he reported 800 members. He became deeply bands of the " Six interested in the Indians " Nations meeting them continually along the lake or at the mouth of the Credit, and began

swim round

efforts for their welfare.

The next year he was sent westward as far as He wrote Bishop Asbury " I set out from Ancaster, June 22nd, not without many fears that I had neither grace nor gifts for so I waded through deep important a charge. waters and mires on my way to the river Thames, more than two hundred miles, and one hundred yet from Detroit, preaching in different Detroit.

:

places and thinking of an unsuccessful missionary returning in disgrace. But the Lord greatly

WILLIAM CASE. blessed this

'

my

soul,

and showed me

109 in a

dream that

wilderness should blossom as a

rose.'

I

Sintook courage and was kindly received. ners wept under the Word in many settlements I reached Maiden, fifty miles below Detroit. This part of the country is perhaps the most The dissipated and wicked of any in America. till

amusements are racing, dancing, gambling, and The Sabbath is the choice day for drinking. One rough fellow visiting, hunting, and fishing. and threatened to the a to meeting brought rope me with true hang me but some received Under my sermons there Christian affection. was much weeping. While they mourned I reWhat shall I do to be saved ? was joiced. ;

'

'

heard almost through the settlement. enemies ceased their opposition and many

Our mem-

bers were enrolled. "

At Detroit the Governor ordered the Council On the House to be opened for meetings. Thames a gradual revival has been kindled, exWe have about tending over thirty miles. seventy-eight members and forty praying famWhen I came there was not one that I ilies.

knew

of.

received left "

;

My expenses, about my salary, $80, for

also

$30, I

have

the year.

I

$10 on the circuit for the next preacher. I must earnestly request that men of stability

and faithfulness be sent into

this

new work,

for

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

1L0

To engage in such but what good have we attained without sacrifice ? God will more than repay. My life has been many times exposed and worn down with toil but, glory some

will seek to destroy

a mission

may

it.

be a sacrifice

;

;

to God, I never felt such support, either in body If it be judged proper, I am willing or in soul. to

remain another year."

In 1867, Dr. Carroll bore testimony to the " The converts conpermanency of the work. tinued their

the steadfast friends of Methodism to

dying day.

fied the

By

the results Mr. Case justi-

Bishop's judgment in the choice of a *

pioneer."

The next year Case, though but thirty years was placed in charge of the Cayuga

of age,

District,

N.Y.

Owino- to

hostilities

between

the

States and Canada, he did not return to until 1815,

over the

<;

when he was made Upper Canada

United

Canada

Presiding Elder

District,"

extending

from Kingston to Detroit. The war had made havoc of the churches,

The one half the members being scattered. next year Elder Case was in charge of the from Kingston to Montreal. by the St. Lawrence, the Ottawa country, and down the river. through Eastern

district,

He found many *

friends

"Case and His Contemporaries,"

HI

WILLIAM CASE.

On

one of his long rides through the woods, cut feeling weary and dejected, he dismounted, a twig, made a whistle, and quickened his pace, his

horse as well

as himself

revived by the

Long journeys and scarcity of books did not harmonize with his love of reading, but by early hours and borrowing he sought to music.

meet these disadvantages. At Point Fortune, " on the Ottawa, Mr. Donnelly lent him Har" of his sojourn among the mon's Narrative the Norththe Indians of West, which he read on horseback, and thought of our own Indians. In 1818, we read of Elder Case in York, "

"

was much appreciated. At the first Canadian Conference, 1820, he was chosen Secretary. For the ensuing four years he was in charge of the Upper Canada District. During this term where his

mild manner

he originated those

INDIAN MISSIONS,

which became

his chief care for

many

years.

" I was impressed Reid wrote with the high and affectionate regard in which he was held by all classes." Preaching to some Indians, he told them of Christ dying for guilty men. They shook their

Dr.

Fitch

:

heads disapprovingly. So he told them of Pochahontas offering to die for Mr. Smith and

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

112

man

own father had condemned were They quick to catch the lesson and approve the plan of salvation. At the Genessee Conference, 1822, Elder Case

saving the to

her

death.

was

elected Secretary.

In 1823 he wrote it

" :

To the

friends of Zion

work

will be a matter of joy to hear that the

of religion

the Indians on

is

progressing among the Grand River. At our quarterly meeting It is of them told of their conversion. many

most affecting

to hear these children of the for-

est giving glory to

God and

to see others

weep-

On the 24th of September ing over their sins. we arrived at the hour of their morning devotions.

They assembled,

sang, listened attentively,

and an Indian closed with prayer. The use of ardent spirits seems to be entirely laid aside, regularly as their meals. education and a school

meetings attended

They

are

house

is

The

desirous

of

commenced."

first session of

the

"

Canada Conference

opened August 25th, 1824, in Hallowell. Case reported $144.08 missionary money.

was again over the Bay Quinte

District,

"

Mr.

He con-

stantly travelling, laying corner-stones, opening churches, holding missionary meetings, and look-

ing up recruits.

Grand River

;

He

visited

the

Indians at

examined the Sunday and day

WILLIAM CASE. schools

113

was entertained by the Chief and

;

delighted with the wonderful change. The missionary meeting at the Conference of

Mohawk

1825 was addressed by a

whom I

said

"

Chief,

of

Never before did

Bishop Hedding hear so perfect an orator." The Indian schools were making a good be-

ginning school;

:

:

twenty-live children in the Mohawk one hundred in the Muncey

fifteen

December

;

twenty

Mississaugas, River.

Wyandotts,

Elder Case

1st,

wrote

Grand

at " :

Upon

several villages the Spirit is being poured out. Last Sabbath, at quarterly meeting, twenty-two

found peace.

A

work

fine

April 26th, his notices

June

25th,

Cornwall

;

at Kingston."

were "Camp meetings, June 30th, Matilda :

;

7th, at the Seigniory,

quarterly meeting, July New accessions Ottawa.

among

the Indians

;

Lower Muncey Indians The Mississaugas commencing

conversion of a chief.

want a

school.

their settlement at the Credit."

He wrote Richard Jones of Dr. Hitchcock, horse.

saddle

Bro. K.

and

you

" :

By

the kindness

will be furnished

with a

Smith, Augusta, will provide

bridle.

Now,

my young

brother,

great and good work with the dependence of a child, with the courage and perseverance of a man, with the faith, pruenter

into

8

this

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

114

dence and piety of a Christian. God will be your support and crown your labors with encouraging success." At Ottawa Mr. Case had a pleasant interview with Mr. Pope, one of the British missionaries. His prudence and courtesy helped to smooth the differences between the Canadian and British elements of Methodism. At the Canada Conference of 1826, Bishop Hedding presided and Elder Case was Secretary.

About seventy Chippewas pitched their tents near the Conference. The Bishop and Secretary preached to them. A prayer meeting followed, the Indians joining heartily. The Chief trembled, then fell to the ground others also fell, but ;

A score or more told what the Lord had done for them. Elder Case had the Bay District, and visited the missions on Niagara District. In Januarv he was at York, taking some Indian boys to Port Credit. He

soon arose, praising God.

had the Indians taught to make willow baskets, straw hives, tion

to

etc.

The next

year, 1827, in addi-

being Presiding Elder, Mr. Case was

appointed

SUPERINTENDENT OF INDIAN MISSIONS and

schools.

Grape

Island

He had

another at Rice Lake.

and and was planning for " They have been wait-

in charge the Credit

missions,

115

WILLIAM CASE. inof all

we concluded

the season for a school, and

and meetings." have a hundred things

to build a house for school

October 15th, 1827 " I to say, which you would be glad to hear, about :.

PETER JONES' HOUSE AT THE RIVER CREDIT, WHERE EGERTON RYERSON RESIDED, 1826-7. the good

work among the

asked them "

'

"

'

"

'

Indians.

How many

have become sober men

All give

drink.'

up

How many

'

'

Do you want

'

?

'

pray ? " All but one he pray much about it in his heart.' "

The Bishop

:

'

schools

?

know nothing

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

116 "

We

our children, when we go to and our women to make and they baskets and brooms to get flour in the catch fish till we come back spring.' '

will leave

hunt, to learn to read,

;

"

The school was to be opened in December. At Grape Island we have a house for school and meetings, with a room for the teacher, and a house for the missionary. The Indians have ten houses, built by subscription and their own labor. They number 150, and one hundred are members of society. About $200 will complete The the houses, and I have become responsible. whole expense of the Rice Lake School also rests on me, and that of the female school at the This Credit also part of that at Lake Simcoe. hesitate. may be a venture, but we cannot ;

"A

field

of

many

thousands

is

now opened

They must be calling for our instructions. provided with missions and teachers. The avails and

of our societies the past year are $1,000, a sum inadequate to the expense of three missionaries, six

schools,

stationery,

translations, etc.

The

Rice Lake School will be the eighth, and the " In female school at the Credit the ninth."

January, at Saugeen, they showed the work of two weeks: 172 axe handles. 6 scoop shovels, 57 ladles, 4 trays, 44 broom handles, and 415 brooms, a splendid exhibition of native industry. On SunIt was followed by a prayer-meeting.

2 I

I

> 1 t-

1

> Q > H H

i

i


K O W K i

i

3

3 I

I

118

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

day we had love- feast, preaching, and the Lord's Supper administered to about ninety natives." In the spring Elder Case took Peter Jacobs with him to the United States, seeking aid for

He engaged teachers Mr. Benham, Miss Barnes, and Miss Hubbard. Their the missions.

arrival at

:

Grape Island was the signal for great

rejoicing, addresses, display of native work, etc. In June Mr. Case was at the Credit, amid the

farm work, arranging for books, and outfits for west and north, then at a camp-meeting on Yonge Street, where he had the assistance of Peter Jones, Peter Jacobs, Egerton Ryerson, and others.

After a time of great power and blessing the missionaries followed the Indians to their homes,

on the shores and islands of Lake Simcoe. At one meeting about three hundred were A difficulty present, and many desired baptism. arose about those who had more than one wife. This was a trying ordeal. One, a chief, had three wives. When asked if he were willing to do as the Christian religion required, he said " I have now embraced Christianity and am willing to do anything you tell me. I took these women when I was blind, and did not know it was wrong. So I will keep the first and part with the other two, with this request, that I have the privilege of supporting their children." :

119

WILLIAM CASE.

When

women were asked if they were willanswered with tears " Yes, because ing, they they loved Jesus, and would not break His laws the

:

any more." "About 130 were baptized. The presence of the Lord was in our midst and His power rested In the evening

on the people.

them "

in classes

red.

A

leaders.

we

separated a novel incident occuryoung Indian told us he wished to

Before

marry a

we arranged

and appointed fourteen

certain

young woman.

As Methodist

ministers had not then the legal right to marry,

The told him he must apply to his Chief. Chief agreed and asked us to assist him in the

we

ceremony. When all were in expectation of seeing an Indian wedding, up jumped another Chief and said he had asked for that young lady long ago for his son, and thought he had the first claim.

who

said

her about

They then asked the young woman, neither of them had ever spoken to it

;

and as she wished

to

go to school,

she would not marry either of them.

Thus

were we all disappointed." In August, Elder Case was at the Credit, where he buried the young wife of one of his Joseph helpers and licensed two exhorters Sawyer and John Jones. He visited Mr. Joseph Gardner, Centre Road, and at the official meet:

ing took a pledge of

all

the

members that they

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

120

would give no intoxicating liquor at their bees and raisings. He did the same at all his quarterly meetings.

In September he had a camp-meeting at Snake Island. At the Conference of 1828, Elder Case was elected President, and made Superintendent of the Indian missions.

all

He

resided at Grape

Island, where, with Peter Jones, he set the Indians to work digging potatoes, ploughing, etc.,

whole island became busy as a At Rice Lake he enlisted James

until the

bee hive.

Evans, afterwards the pioneer missionary in the great North-West. With Mr. Jones he visited the United States,

arranged for printing hymn books, etc. He had with him some Indian boys, and was given a grand welcome at Baltimore and other places.

One afternoon he addressed

2,000 ladies,

who

were eager to shake hands with the Indians. In Philadelphia Presbyterians and Quakers opened their churches and contributed liberally. In Boston and New York also they told the story of their Canadian work. They took part in

the anniversary of the parent

Society,

after

which

Elder

Case

Missionary and Miss

Hubbard were married by Dr. Bangs. They crossed to Kingston and home Island.

to

Grape

Elder Case presided at the next Con-

WILLIAM CASE. ference, attended ing,

and

visited

May

1st,

mersed

in

the

Presqu'Isle

121

Camp-Meet-

Muncey.

1830, he wrote: "I find myself imcare and much correspondence ;

encouraged by the stability and perseverance of native converts, by the sixteen schools and 400

them reading the New TestaThrough the labors of John Sunday some of the natives on the north shore of Lake Huron were converted the Oneidas and Onandagas have made great progress." In 1830 Mr. Case was appointed Superintenchildren, 100 of

ment.

;

M. E. Church, in Canada. In he February, despatched Peter Jones to England on behalf of the missions, advising him to consult dent of

the

to visit Egerton Ryerson, then in England Ireland and Scotland, but not France, where ;

they seem

"

prepared for nothing but tumult, " Five tribes the Grape

revolution and war."

:

Sah-kung and Credit, have embraced Christianity and the work is going on well at Bay of Quinte, Grand River, Muncey and Mackinaw. When the Scriptures shall be translated and read by the 400 children to their parents and friends when ten, even Island, Rice Lake, Simcoe,

;

;

twenty, native missionaries shall be preaching the Divine word among our 30,000 natives, '

the wilderness and the solitary place shall be I desire that you and Mr.

glad for them.'

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

122

Ryerson obtain authority from the Bible Society more of the Bible, in both Iroquois and Chippeway so extensive is the Chippeway for us to print

that the

work

will extend

through Hudson Bay.

Mrs. Case continues quite ill. she recovers soon, if ever."

It is

doubtful

if

She died shortly after. Very encouraging words came from Sault Ste. Marie, with probable openings for the NorthWest.

In February, 1832, Mr. Case wrote about the erection of a mill at

had a grant of

Grand River, for which they "To-day has been a

100.

gracious season prayer-meeting at six o'clock Sunday School at nine preaching at eleven :

;

;

;

Miss Barnes' address to the children and sisters

two class at four and, while I write, they are in prayer meeting. " February 8th, the Indians from Grape Island at

;

;

are in Council, at the Credit, to petition for a title to their lands (2) a township and a ;

:

(1)

saw

mill."

In the Conference of 1832 the question of union with the British Conference was favorably considered and the Rev. Egerton Ryerson appointed a delegate. Elder Case continued his oversight of the missions, translations,

June he was

etc.

In

Saugeen baptized several, administered the Lord's Supper to twenty-three, and married four couples. " All walked down at

WILLIAM CASE.

123

camp with the newly married, to teach the husbands to pay attention to their wives." During the summer he took a tour to Notaman, to the

Saugeen "

Bay,

Sturgeon Bay,

etc.,

180 miles,

using the paddle most of the way." The Articles of Union with the British Con-

ference were adopted in October, 1833. Elder Case was appointed " General Missionary of the Indian tribes," and made his home at the Credit.

In

May he sent off four missionaries to Sault Ste. Marie and Grape Island. In mid-winter he had a series of appointments from Rice Lake to Brockville. A letter from Rev. James Evans told

of

the ingathering of a whole people at and the opening of other missions. In

St. Claire

May he accompanied the Rev. Mr. Lord to the General Conference, United States. In 1836, a year of great political excitement, Conference met in Belleville. The Rev. William Lord, of the English Conference, pre-

the

Elder Case was elected Secretary. AlderHe began thenceforth, became his home. an industrial school, the girls learning spinOf the ning, knitting and general house work.

sided. ville,

" some were homesick. I would with me and make hay ? they go They brightened up and followed me to the meadow. Raking up a few bunches I asked them to carry them all to make one large bunch.

children

asked

if

gathered

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

124

This amused them and they were soon in a merry glee. Another time we put up swings in the shed, where they played between school

We

hours.

children

are all

so well

on

much fitted

gratified in finding the Miss out for school.

the baskets, exclaimed Everything suitable to their wants, from a wellmade dress to thimble and pins "

Smith,

opening

:

'

'

!

At the dissolution of the Union, in 1840, Elder Case was found with the British brethren. The missions were practically in their hands, and he preferred remaining in his position. The restoration of the Union, in 1847, caused great rejoicing, into which none entered more heartily

He was Chairman of the Cobourg and remained at Alderville Mission. Twenty years ago this people were without

than Mr. Case. District "

house, field or cattle roving bands, drinking, a terror to the white settlements. murdering ;

Now

they have a block of 3,600 acres, forty

dwelling houses,

barns, saw-mills, oxen, cows,

pigs, horses, farm implements, purchased with their annuities the renounced paganism Sabbath observed; religious worship attended widows and aged provided for savage warriors become ministers, teachers and interpreters." ;

;

;

;

By the Conference of 1852, the venerable Case had seen forty-seven years of service, and presented a request, not for superannuation, but

125

WILLIAM CASE.

He

was, therefore, released from and desired to visit through the charge work as his health and circumstances might He had married Miss Barnes and she permit. often went with him to the scenes of his earlyfor

relief.

local

labors.

From Bangs, since

"

Thames Country March 16th, 1855

the

he wrote to Dr.

"

What changes associates Early ministry The membership grown from hundreds :

we began our

gone. to thousands. barns,

"

now

!

Then we preached beautiful

and

in houses

churches in towns and

cities."

Eastward

also he journeyed,

from

Belleville

to Ottawa, in quest of familiar names and places, not forgetting his missions and workers. To

Allan Salt and Henry Steinhaur, translating the Scriptures and looking up the lost sheep in the far

North-West and many

others, carrying

his work, he sent frequent words of cheer. At the Conference of 1855 in London,

on

were

many eminent men Rev. Enoch Wood, President; Dr. Beecham, from England Dr. Richey, from the Eastern provinces; several American visitors; " and last, but not least, the Apostolic Case, with:

;

out

title

or

a century."

office,

the toil-worn veteran of half

Just fifty years

before he

had

crossed the St. Lawrence to Kingston in a ferry, horse and saddle-bags his sole possession

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

126

" With I

my

pastoral crook,

went over

And,

lo

!

I

this brook,

am

spread into bands.'

At the request Case,

"

of the previous Conference Mr. seventy-five years of age, tall, unbent,

ample locks of snowy whitepreached a jubilee sermon, a review commemorating the loving kindness of his heavenly his step elastic, his ness,"

His text was Psalms 103 17, "But the Lord is from everlasting to evermercy them that fear him, and his rightlasting upon eousness unto children's children." The sermon Father.

:

of the

was a fitting closing to his lengthened ministry. The evening of his life was bright and blessed. Writing Dr. Green of his trip down the lake on " How little we Maple Leaf, he said thought of such accommodations when we rode in mud, knee deep, from York to Cobourg in the

:

three or four days, and not a village by the way. Now ten or twelve villages, and Cobourg

with eight

common

schools, three ladies' schools,

and the

college, with youth from all parts of the Province. My feelings were intense while

addressing them." About the 1st of October, mounting his horse, in front of his own door, and reaching over to adjust the stirrup, he lost his balance, fell over and fractured his thigh bone. After some days

he sank rapidly, October, 1855.

and died

on the

19th

of

WILLIAM CASE.

He was

127

The Rev. John

buried in Alnwick.

Carroll preached the funeral sermon, many other ministers taking part in the service, sadly bidding adieu to a tried and trusted leader. Many

and appreciative

old friends wrote sympathetic

references

:

"

One

most charming and attractive preachers of his day, devoted to his work, ready to enter the most forbidding fields, and endeared to his associates." Dr.

Luckey

Dr.

Reed

:

" :

of the

That humble,

zealous,

faithful

Who

knew him

did not

minister of Jesus

!

that

him ? " From the Conference obituary we quote " He was never robust in body, but his habits were

love

:

always temperate. In presence he was dignified and prepossessing. His mind was vigorous, searching and tenacious, enriched by much reading and observation, with knowledge adapted to his diversified positions."

While living he seemed to say

Him

" :

I

must work

me," and when was doubtless better able than most to dying "I have finished the work Thou say: gavest me the works of

that sent

to do."

We

Note. gratefully acknowledge our indebtedness to Dr. " Carroll's excellent volumes, Case and his Contemporaries," for the principal facts in this sketch. J. E. S.

ROBERT MORRISON,

D.D.

VI.

ROBERT MORRISON,

D.D.

China.

1782-1834.

TOLERATION AND PERSECUTION IN CHINA.

was probably first introby the Nestorians in was started Persecution the seventh century. the Buddhists, at the close of that century by and renewed in the next by the Confucianists.

CHRISTIANITY duced into China

In the year 845, the Emperor, issued an

edict

commanding

Wee

three

Tsung, thousand

Nestorian priests to cease the observance of their

They were there in considerable numbers and influence when the Roman Catholics entered, in the end of the thirteenth century but afterwards dwindled, and were finally religious rites.

;

absorbed by the Roman Church. In 1362 the entrance of Christian missionaries

The Roman Catholics renewed their efforts in 1555, and from that date, until 1844, they experienced alternate toleration and was forbidden.

persecution.

By

treaties 9

made with Great 129

Britain, France

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

130

and the United States in 1842-4, protection was granted missionaries from these countries, with the privilege of residing at all open ports and travelling in every province. On the 13th of June, 1891, a supplementary " The edict was issued, parts of which read :

propagation of Christianity by foreigners is proLet the Govvided for by treaty. .

.

.

ernors-General issue, without delay, orders to the civil and military officers to cause the arrest of the leaders of riots

ment, as a

warning

and

inflict capital

punish-

to others."

In 1895, missionaries were authorized to go

where they pleased, buy land, and establish themselves permanently in the interior. By the warrant of solemn treaties, absolute and complete toleration is granted throughout The trouble is that very few of the empire. the

officials

know anything

about the

treaties.

and commands were imperial would result. toleration observed, perfect These historical facts show that the missionary occupation of China is not responsible for the recent outbreaks. They are the outcome of If

the

edicts

unrelenting hostility to foreigners. BIRTH, CONVERSION, EDUCATION.

in

Robert Morrison was born January 5th, 1782, His father moved to Morpeth, England.

ROBERT MORRISON,

131

D.D.

Newcastle, where he and his wife were members Robert received a

of the Presbyterian Church.

and good training in the ScripAt the age of sixteen he was converted

fair education tures.

and united with the church of his parents. He was careful in the choice of companions took time for prayer, reading the Bible and good In 1801, while yet working with his books. father, he felt drawn towards the ministry and began studying Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. In 1802 he suffered the loss of his devoted mother. ;

Not seeing his way open into the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, he applied to the Hoxton Congregational Institute, and was admitted in January, 1803. In May, 1804, he offered himself to the London Missionary Society for He was accepted, directed to the foreign work.

Gosport Missionary Academy, and welcomed by the venerable Dr. Bogne. In due time he was " considered available for work, and wrote I the Lord will a door of useful mishope open :

sionary labor in some part of the world, and give me souls for my hire." It was settled that

he should

PROCEED TO CHINA, or some adjacent island, where he might learn the language and become able to translate the Scriptures.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

132

In 1805 he went to London and spent two years in the study of medicine and the Chinese language.

A

manuscript had been

British

discovered in the

Museum, containing the greater part

of

New

Testament translated into Chinese. Mr. Morrison began the copying of this manuDuring the summer he visited his script. and friends. family the

Much

delay was caused by the difficulty of securing a passage for a missionary to China. It was finally arranged that he should sail to

New York

and thence to Canton. " January 2nd, 1807, he wrote Except thy presence go with me, carry me not up hence.' I hope to lean always and only on the arm of God." With some other missionaries he was ordained, '

:

January 8th, in a deeply impressive service. He wrote his father, brothers and sisters " To:

embark for New York. I am hope in good health and not depressed. I sorrow to leave you all but I do hope and pray that we

morrow

to

I

;

shall,

in

lasting.

a

little

I

am

circumstances

time, be brought to glory evermuch as

instructed to act very

may

arise,

and

to

provide for

myself, either in whole or in part, if I possibly My object was at first, and I trust still is,

can.

the glory of

O

God

for faith in

in the salvation of poor sinners.

God!"

ROBERT MORRISON,

With

133

D.D.

missionaries for other parts he

went

aboard, January 31st, and

SAILED FOR

NEW YORK,

From the Secretary of arriving April 20th. State, Mr. Morrison obtained a letter to the

He was taken American Consul at Canton. ill and was cared for. By the kindly suddenly bed where he slept stood a crib, with a little When she awoke in the morning and child. a saw stranger, where she expected to see her " Man, do parents, she was alarmed, and asked :

"

you pray is

my

?

best

dropped

"O

yes, friend."

off to sleep.

gentleman said expect to

" :

God dear, every day She was comforted and As he was about to sail, a

my

So, Mr. Morrison,

make an impression on

you

really

the idolatry of

"

" No but I expect the great Chinese Empire ? God will." He bade farewell to his new friends ;

about the middle of "

May and

sailed

for the

Flowery Kingdom," ARRIVING AT CANTON

September 8th, 1807. He presented his letters, The but found great difficulties in his way. Chinese were prohibited, under penalty of death, teaching their language but Sir George Staunton, President of the East India Select ;

Committee, very kindly secured him rooms in

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

134

the English

wrote

" :

By

Factory, and a teacher. the Lord's good hand I

served in health

So he

am

pre-

am

giving close application to the Chinese language, with some opportunities of saying a few words about Jesus in private ;

He invited a few English and American gentlemen to his rooms for worship, but did not find them eager to come. He rented an old French factory, with more conversation.

Mr. Roberts, Chief of the English Dr. Sir George Staunton, and Pearson, Factory, So difficult, others continued to befriend him. conveniences.

however, did he find his position, that his anxieFor ties and close study affected his health. in he a few Macao rest and change months spent

and returned much improved. But all Englishmen were required to leave Canton, and he found a home with Dr. Morton, at Macao. Opposition to his residing there soon became but intense, and he was preparing to leave ;

on the 20th of February, 1809, the day of his marriage to Miss Morton, he received a request from the East India Company, to become their official translator, on a salary of 500. This relieved him from the necessity of removing, and secured him choice of residence at

Macao or Canton.

He made good

progress

in the language, compiled a Chinese vocabulary, was at work on an Anglo-Chinese grammar and

ROBERT MORRISON, dictionary,

the

New

and preparing

loO

D.D.

for the translation of

Interruptions were freHis teacher and helpers were unreliable

Testament.

quent. the roof of his house raised,

and he had

;

in

fell

;

the rent was

to leave.

He

could neither teach nor preach publicly but to his teachers and servants he endeavored

;

make known

to

the

way

In the

of salvation.

end of 1810 he wrote of his wife's illness, their " I was in Canton occupations and privations. until March carrying on a discussion with the Chinese Government respecting the alleged murder of a Chinaman. Everybody was astonished that in two years I was able to write the language and converse with the Mandarin.

To

three of the

Company's servants

I

have been

Chinese tutor, and to others have had frequent conferences with the Mandarins, and much ;

translating for the

Company.

My tutor

allowed

me

25 too much for the printing to be charged of 1,000 copies of the Acts of the Apostles.

A

want

of truth

is

a prevailing feature of Chinese

character."

Mr. Morrison had also published 1,000 copies " Redemption," the Gospel of St.

of a tract on

Luke and a Catechism.

Then an

edict

was

issued, prohibiting the teaching of Christianity.

When

the Chinese

grammar was

sent to India to be printed.

ready,

it

was

After three years'

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

136

was printed by the East India Company, Serampore press, in 1815. Sir George Staunton was withdrawn and Mr. Morrison's official duties becoming more onerous his salary was doubled. His Anglo-Chinese involved much labor and very extenDictionary delay

it

at the

sive acquaintance with classical literature.

The London Missionary Society became greatly interested in his translations, voted 500 towards printing the Bible, and appointed Mr. Milne as

a fellow-laborer.

But almost immediately Mr.

Morrison had to write

" :

By an

edict

it is

made

capital crime to print Christian books in I must Chinese. go forward, however, trusting in God." He had printed St. Luke and most of

a

His tract on the " Way of Salvahad been the means of reforming a notori-

the Epistles. tion

"

ously wicked police orderly. Some of the boys attending the services in his rooms and some of

were manifesting increasing interest. idols and desired baptism. Catholic Bishop uttered an anathema against any one having intercourse with Mr. Morrison or reading his books. He received word of the death of his father and two his helpers

One brought his The Roman

Joyful relief came in the arrival of Mr. Milne and his wife, July 4th, 1813. "A

brothers.

more welcome or admirable fellow-laborer never entered the mission

field."

When

asked by the

ROBERT MORRISON, Committee, at Aberdeen,

if

137

D.D.

he would be willing

go out as servant to a missionary, he replied " am willing to be I Yes, most certainly. in I am the work. To be a anything, so that to

:

hewer

of

wood

an honor for

or drawer of water

me when

is too great Lord's house is

the

Mr. Morrison sought permission for but opposition Milne to live with him

building."

Mr.

;

developed and he was obliged to leave, in eighteen The death of Mr. Roberts, days, for Canton. Chief of the English Factory, was a sad blow to The Chinese Government deMr. Morrison. nounced all who had aided in the translations but the New Testament and thousands of tracts were finding their way among the people. Mr. Milne was to circulate them throughout the ;

He

Malay Archipelago. edition of the

New

soon required another

Testament.

Malacca was fixed upon as his centre, affording easy access to the islands inhabited by Chinese. The authorities were friendly and the place suitable for

Mr.

school,

native agents, books, etc. an outline of Old

Morrison prepared

Testament history and some hymns. tinued his labors on the

He

con-

ANGLO-CHINESE DICTIONARY,

and was both relieved and encouraged by the

Company undertaking

to print

it.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

138

The book

Genesis was printed in 1815. years of patient waiting, the missionary's heart was cheered by the conversion of one of his early teachers Tsac-ako.

After

"

May

of

seven

he be the

one of millions

a great harvest,

first-fruits of

who

shall

come and be saved."

He

proved faithful until his death, in 1819. In 1815 the East India Company became

alarmed on account of Mr. Morrison continuing his translations in the face of prohibitory edicts, in their

and gave him notice of discontinuance service.

This led to extensive correspondence, and an embassy from England, with Lord Amherst, as Ambassador Extraordinary. Mr. Morrison's services were required at Pekin, as Secretary and Translator to the Embassy. During his absence

Mrs. Morrison

made a

visit

to

England.

On

August 13th, 1816, Lord Amherst, Sir George Staunton, the attendant officials, and Mr. Morrison were tendered a grand banquet in Tientsin,

by the Imperial Commissioners,

On

in the

name

of

20th

they arrived at and spent eight days on questions Tung-Chow of ceremony. They reached Pekin on the 29th,

the

Emperor.

the

just at the hour appointed for presentation to But having travelled all night, the Emperor. the Embassy requested a postponement until the

next day.

The messengers reported Lord Am-

ROBERT MORRISON, herst

"

so

Emperor well, this,

ill

139

D.D.

that he could not stir a step."

The

who found him

quite

sent a physician,

When the Emperor heard only weary. he thought he had been imposed on. A

meeting of his Cabinet was called no one dared explain the mistake, and an order was special

;

issued for the immediate departure of the amThe order was obeyed and the jourbassador. miles, there and back, was fruitless. the Emperor learned the facts he dismissed those who had allowed him to be de-

ney of 50,000

When

but Mr. Morrison had gained useful knowledge of the languages and customs of the ceived "

;

Celestials."

In Canton the spirit of intolerance was ramThe type cutters, cutting blocks for the

pant.

and the blocks for the In the midst of Testament destroyed. these discouragements word reached Mr. Morrison that the Bible Society had made a grant of 1,000 to have blocks cut for the New Testament and the Psalms. A similar sum had been left by a merchant who died in China. Mr. Milne had collected books and paper, engaged a teacher and workmen, and sailed for dictionary, were arrested,

New

Land was to be purchased, buildings erected and a school opened, preparatory to a college for the training of native missionaries. Malacca.

A

printing press was to be set up, translations

140

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

printed, Chinese and English periodicals issued, and a place of worship built.

He secured

a small building for the school and

mmii

BIBLE COLPORTEUR, CHINA.

The next year. and press types, and ran

had fourteen scholars the year he obtained a off several

site,

small books.

first

Mr. Morrison's

work

ROBERT MORRISON,

D.D.

141

Canton was persistently retarded by prohibitions, arrests, and seizures. But engaging Portuguese workmen, he published "Morning and Evening Prayer," translations from Chinese classics, and a Chinese primer. in

Word was

young Chinaman

received of a

New

York, who had been converted through reading the New Testament. Mr. Morrison also received letters from many persons in Europe and America, manifesting

from Macao, then

in

By the University deep interest in his work. of Divinity was the of Doctor Glasgow degree him. of intense labor, Ten years conferred on of

amid unceasing discouragements, brought appreciative recognition from sympathizing friends. In Malacca the corner-stone of

THE ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE was the

laid by Col. Farquhar in the presence of Governor, the Judge, and other eminent

persons. Dr. Morrison contributed

100 a year for

five

1,000,

years.

gave 4,000 Spanish dollars

;

and promised

One gentleman another a hundred

guineas the London Missionary Society, 500 and European residents in Canton, 500. As ;

many time,

;

as sixty pupils were attending, after a of them becoming true Christians.

many

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

142

By November,

1819,

THE WHOLE BIBLE had been translated "a foundation for other and more perfect translations in after years. I have studied fidelity, perspicuity and simplicity, words to rare and classical preferring common and avoiding technical terms used in pagan have Moses, David, philosophy and religion. To the Prophets, Jesus Christ, and the Apostles the inhabitants declaring in their own words to of this land the wonderful works of God, indiones,

speedy introduction of a hapthat Finally, brethren, pray for us, of the Lord may have free course and

cates, I hope, the

pier era.

the

Word

be glorified."

No wonder

that congratulations poured in his faithful upon the successful translator and of The University assistant. Glasgow conferred

the degree of Doctor of Divinity upon Mr. Milne. The London Missionary Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society sent grateful acknow-

The the latter adding 1,000. American Bible Society and the American Board of Foreign Missions sent congratulations.

ledgments,

A DISPENSARY

was opened by Dr. Morrison

to

meet the neces-

sities of the poor, the lame, the blind, the leprous. He purchased a Chinese medical library of eight

ROBERT MORRISON,

D.D.

143

hundred volumes, a supply of medicines, and engaged a physician and apothecary. He also devoted one or two hours daily to the thousands of poor and afflicted applicants.

On the 23rd of August, 1820, Mrs. Morrison and her two children returned, much improved in health. Only for a few weeks, however, could the husband and father enjoy the happiness of home and family. Official duties called him to Canton until the following spring. When he returned his expectations were cut short by Mrs. Morrison's sudden illness on the 8th of June, and her death on the 10th. The Committee of the English Factory purchased a piece of ground for about 1,000, as a of Mrs. and there the remains Morrison cemetery, were reverently interred. No wonder that by this sudden bereavement was almost paralyzed. But though health and spirits drooped, he courageously resumed his official duties and missionary labors. Dr. Morrison

His

skill, tact,

and accurate knowledge of the

Chinese language and people, made his services invaluable to the Company and to British interests.

As diplomatist

or interpreter he was, occasions, the essential medium

important communication.

His Christian

candor

on of

stood

often in bold contrast to Chinese cunning and duplicity.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

144

Dr. Milne, amid incessant labors of school and missions, was called to drink deeply of the cup of affliction, losing in quick succession, two children, and, in 1819, his beloved wife. that sow in tears shall reap in joy." his

tized

native

tutor,

Leang Afa, the

teaching,

bapfirst

In editing, trans-

ordained Chinese evangelist. lating,

"They

He

negotiating,

and evangelistic

work, Dr. Milne's strength was overtaxed and threatened collapse.

He

sought rest in a voyage

;

but returned ex-

hausted, and died at his post June 22nd, 1822. The sudden vacancy demanded Dr. Morrison's presence in Malacca, and threw upon his

shoulders a weighty load of responsibility. Tribulation, in another form, followed quickly.

A

great fire in Canton burned every building over a mile and a half. The loss to the Com-

pany was estimated losses at millions more.

at

1,000,000; Chinese Dr. Morrison's personal

was heavy, including a hundred pounds' worth of paper. In January, 1823, he visited Singapore, an

loss

English settlement in the Malayan Archipelago. He was welcomed by the governor and assisted

founding an educational institution. At Malacca " the college and native students gave me great satisfaction. They sang the one in

hundredth Psalm to Luther's tune.

For the

ROBERT MORRISON,

145

D.D.

good use made of my books and funds, without Mandarin interference, how thankful should I be Dr. Milne's work has been taken up by Rev. David Collie." !

THE PUBLICATION OF THE ANGLO-CHINESE DICTIONARY

was the great event of 1823. Upon this work Dr. Morrison had been engaged sixteen years, and had gathered about ten thousand Chinese volumes. It was issued by the Company in six Not only 12,000. large volumes, at a cost of was it a Dictionary, but an Encyclopedia as well, with biographies, histories, customs, ceremonies and all Chinese affairs. It contained about thousand words. forty Dr. Morrison

was preparing

VISIT TO

for a

ENGLAND,

sailed in December, taking with him Chinese servant and Chinese library. He

and

his mission

work

in charge of

his left

Leang Afa, whom

he ordained. In England he was received with

many dem-

He had onstrations of grateful appreciation. the honor of being presented to the King, and of laying before his Majesty his translation of the Scriptures. By the Select Committee he

was introduced 10

to the

Court of Directors.

The

146

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

Court allowed him half pay while on furlough and gave a public dinner in his honor. Foregoing many invitations in London, he hastened to his own county, and received an enthusiastic reception at Newcastle.

poured in

him,

upon

beyond

his

Invitations

power

of

acceptance.

He

attended the principal

London, and was

"

May meetings in many honors."

honored with

Through England, Scotland,

Ireland,

and France

he strove to deepen Christian interest in foreign In Scotland he visited the evangelization.

orphan children of his departed friend and felLord Kingsborough low-laborer, Dr. Milne. made him a gift of 1,500 and three hundred volumes for the Anglo- Chinese College. The Bible Society voted an additional 1,000, and other sums were given to aid his work. He had intended his Chinese library for one of the great institutions, in the hope of a professorship of Eastern languages being established, and finally presented it to University College, LonIt had don, to be free of charge to all students.

him over 2,000. At the solicitation

cost

of missionary societies he

projected

A LANGUAGE INSTITUTION to afford intending missionaries preparation for

ROBERT MORRISON,

D.D.

147

work in foreign fields. The institution was launched, and he opened the Chinese department with a three months' course of lectures.

He was gave

induced to remain another year, and

instruction

to

many young men and

women.

Much

of his time

was taken up

filling public

engagements, writing and publishing. His furlough affording him little rest, he accepted invitations from Sir George Staunton, Leigh Park, Hampshire, and a few other gentlemen, for a brief respite.

He was made

a Director of the

London Missionary

Society, and elected a Fellow Sir Walter Scott, Dr. of the Royal Society. Adam Clarke and other men of letters showed their appreciation of his work. He had married Miss Eliza

Armstrong, of in and 1826, prepared to leave early Liverpool, for China. He had hoped to take his boys with him and train them for his work, but the Company would not consent. With his wife he set sail on the 1st of May, and after a voyage of nearly five months,

LANDED AT SINGAPORE. The condition

of things there, and the shameby his agents, were very

ful misuse of funds

disappointing. Having enlisted Rev. Robert Burn and other helpers, he proceeded to Macao.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

148

There he found his house dilapidated, and his books destroyed by white ants. Having settled

He was Afa pleased Leang faithfully He had written and fulfilling his duties. printed notes on Hebrews, and an essay in favor his

family, he

much

hastened to Canton.

to

find

From

of the Christian religion.

the gentlemen

at the factory Dr. Morrison received a hearty welcome and a contribution of 500 towards the college at Malacca.

He engaged the Rev. W.

H. Medhurst for a tour

through the Indian Archipelago to distribute To meet the the Scriptures and other books.

demand

was kept running. Dr. Morrison Canton During began a Chinese commentary and conducted both private and public worship. A second time by fire he lost valuable books and manuscripts. In March he was with his family in Macao. He had the pleasure of greeting two missionaries from America, Revs. D. Abeel and E. C. Bridgman. The success o the college at Malacca and the the press at Malacca his six

months

in

efficiency of the press in reaching the natives

were very encouraging. Supplies of printed matter were sent to Corea, Cochin China, Siam, and into the interior by merchants and travellers. The Japanese showed their appreciation of his great Dictionary by translating

it

into

their

ROBERT MORRISON,

149

D.D.

The missionary's efforts were often language. in aid or defence of persons unjustly accused or condemned. After the death of his steadfast friend, Sir Fraser, some officers of the Company so

W.

greatly embarrassed Dr. Morrison that he determined on resigning but a sudden change in ;

In the beginning of 1830 he baptized another Chinaman, who from leading an idle life became a zealous assistant the executive relieved him.

Afa in circulating books. The American missionaries found the translations and books wonderfully helpful while their of

;

labors gave cheering assurance that the work would be vigorously and permanently sustained.

Dr.

Morrison's eldest son, John Robert, was as translator to China merchants.

sent out

Eventually, he succeeded his father in the

Com-

pany's service.

Some

base attempts

to

undermine Dr. MorCompany were

rison in the confidence of the

repelled

by Mr.

J.

F.

Davis,

who

said

" :

I

agree with Sir George Staunton in considering him as, confessedly, the first Chinese scholar in

Europe." In 183L Leang Afa baptized several converts. The annual grant to the college at Macao having been withdrawn by the English Governor, the Select Committee promptly replaced

it,

say-

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

150 "

ing

:

We

believe

it

to be

eminently calculated

knowledge through the most remote possessions of Great Britain, and to assist in removing those prejudices which have so long fettered the public mind in this

to diffuse the light of

country."

Another missionary, the Rev. E. Stevens, from America by the Morrison. " " Domestic Instruction and " Scripture Lessons" were the next issues from the press. The conversion and baptism of the Mandarin arrived

teacher at the college encouraged the missionaries.

In 1832 Dr. Morrison wrote:

Canton a

"

There

is

now in

state of society totally different

from

Chinese scholars, missionary students, English presses, Chinese Scriptures, the public worship of God, have all grown up since then." The charter of the East India Company was 1807.

soon to expire and Dr. Morrison's position likely For twenty years, under its to be affected. protection, and largely by its assistance, he been able to pursue his work.

The sion

;

had

Select Committee had suggested a penbut no answer was received. He must,

depend on the Missionary Society or seek some other source of income. therefore,

Mrs.

Morrison's

a voyage home.

state of health demanded The Roman Catholics were

ROBERT MORRISON,

151

D.D.

awakening opposition to the translations. The Select Committee requested that they be suspended. Dr. Morrison was perplexed, but went on with the circulation of publications alreadyHis health became seriously affected, issued. but he hoped that after the departure of his They family, with rest, he would be better.

He returned to December 10th, 1833. The East India Company's administration was transferred to the Government. Difficulties arose between the Chinese and EngLord Napier was appointed lish governments. Members of the East Ambassador to China. sailed

Canton.

India

Council

advised that

retained as translator to missionaries

made

;

Dr. Morrison

but the

known

this unlikely.

be

hostility

Lord Napier

arrived at Macao July 14th and made Dr. Morrison an immediate offer of becoming his secre-

tary and

Pray

1,300. interpreter, with a salary of for me, that I may be faithful to

blessed

Saviour in the new place I have to

"

my

occupy." On the 25th he accompanied Lord Napier to Canton. Quitting the frigrate, he was all night in

an open boat and was utterly spent. On the was overcome and con-

25th, in the hot sun, he fined to his couch.

The next day he attended the Council. On Sunday he conducted a Chinese service. His

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

152 official

duties the following day were very burHe spent a wretched night. Wed-

densome.

nesday a surgeon was sent for. A raging fever had set in. Friday, other doctors were called but in vain. At ten o'clock that evening he

;

closed his eyes in the sleep of death. He was buried by the side of his first wife, at

tomb is a lengthy inscription, manifold services, and ending indicating " Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord." Macao.

Upon

his

his

:

The sad news

of Dr.

Morrison's death

was

learned with deep sorrow throughout the Christian world. Religious societies of all lands expressed their sense of great loss in his death, and their appreciation of his character and labors.

Commemorative

services were held.

friends in China raised a fund of

Personal 2,000 and

" established a Morrison Educational Society." Many other testimonies were borne to the

strong hold he had gained on the hearts of men, felt in the sudden death of so

and the grief

devoted a servant of the Lord Jesus as Robert Morrison.

In view of his great works

the Anglo- Chinese Dictionary, and especially his Chinese Bible we may say for him what he would not have

ennius

"

"

I

"

Exegi monwmentum aere perhave completed a memorial more

said for himself:

lasting than brass."

JOHN WILLIAMS.

VII.

JOHN WILLIAMS. " THE MARTYR OF ERROMANGA."

South Pacific Islands.

1796-1839.

INTRODUCTORY. Captain Cook we are indebted for opento the world the beauty and wealth of

TO ing

the Southern hemisphere. He had a share in the capture of Quebec, in 1759, and in the re-capture of Newfoundland, in

In 1769, as lieutenant on the Endeavor, he sailed into the South Pacific on a voyage of 1762.

scientific

investigation.

round

He

reached

Tahiti,

New

Zealand, landed in Australia, and took possession in the name of Great Britain. sailed

In 1772, as Captain of the Resolution, he was commissioned for other explorations, and spent two years among the coral reefs and gorgeously " clad islands of Polynesia until then a terra "

incognita to Europe. His reports stirred the pulse and whetted the appetite of the British people for further discovery.

He was

given command of the Discov155

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

156 ever,

in

1778,

with instructions to penetrate

At Behring's Straits his was blocked with ice, and he returued by the Sandwich Islands. At Hawaii the intrepid explorer was clubbed to death, February 14th, Northern

latitudes.

course

His marvellous discoveries revealed not for only possibilities for trade, but vast fields flame the and fanned evangelistic enterprise, which Wesley, Coke, Carey and others were 1779.

kindling.

EARLY BEGINNINGS.

Sunday evening, in 1814, a young man was standing by a lamp-post in City Road, London, awaiting some young friends who were to go with him to the Highbury Gardens. As he stood there the wife of his employer was passing and kindly asked if he would accompany

On

a

of eighteen

her to the Tabernacle.

He

consented and went.

Thus was John Williams reminded of his mother, who, in earlier years, had taken him faithfully to the house of God. Away from home, and more new associates, worldly than wise, among he was tempted to leave the highway of duty, stile and, like Bunyan's Pilgrim, step over the " In his own words into softer paths. My :

course, though not outwardly immoral, was very wicked. I was regardless of the holy Sabbath, a lover of pleasure more than a lover of God."

That night, listening to an earnest appeal

JOHN WILLIAMS. from,

"

his soul

What " ?

shall a

man

he heard the

his feet into the

way

give in exchange for

call of

of

157

life.

God and turned

He

Sabbath School and the Church.

entered the

In 1815, at a

missionary meeting in the Tabernacle, young Williams heard of the conversion of Pomare,

King aries.

I

;

of Tahiti,

He was

and an urgent

call for

almost ready to say

" :

mission-

Here

am

send me."

As an apprentice in an iron-monger's shop, he was learning habits of business, and, in the workshops, giving such practical proofs of his mechanical genius as made his presence a necesbut when he told his master of his call to sity different work, he generously consented to ;

release him.

In July, 1816, he offered himself to the Lon-

don Missionary Society for the foreign field, and was accepted. A few months were spent in earnest preparation, and on the 3rd of September, with eight others, he was solemnly set

He was proposed apart for missionary work. for South Africa with Robert Moffatt but ;

Southern On the 25th of October, he was marPacific. ried to Mary Chauner, a member of the Tabernacle Church, glowing with missionary fervor, and even praying " that she might be sent to the

finally his destination

heathen to

tell

them

was

fixed for the

of the love of Christ."

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

158

On

the 17th of November, 1816, they

EMBARKED FOR SYDNEY, on the Harriet.

At Rio de Janeiro they were

joined by Mr. and Mrs. Threlkeld. For nearly six months the ship

home, and John Williams made study. Tahiti,

was

their

a special

it

At Sydney they re-shipped, sighted November 16th, and landed the next day

The

on Eimeo. islands,

the

volcanic

rich

and varied foliage of the

dangerous

cliffs,

coral

reefs,

and especially the

new

the lofty races of

men, excited their admiration and inflamed their zeal.

Williams soon found that one of their first requisites would be a vessel, and he undertook the completion of one that had been begun some King Pomare named her The years before.

She plied between the islands and South Wales, opening a market for native

Haiveis.

New

productions, as well as directly assisting in the work of the missionaries. Thus speedily was

Williams'

skilful

handicraft

and

his

minute

study of the Harriet turned to good account. Not only was he instructing the natives in useful arts, but by familiar contact he was learning their ways and their speech, so that within a year he was able to preach to them. A request was brought by some

159

JOHN WILLIAMS. *

CHIEFS OF THE SOCIETY ISLANDS for

teachers.

Tahiti, in his

They had assisted Pomare, of wars and gone home with a favor-

able impression of the new religion. vessel with some missionaries aboard

A

drifted to their islands,

had and a few lessons from

these visitors had begotten a desire for more. King Tamatoa favored the application and acThe companied his chiefs on their mission. Messrs. Ellis proposal was readily accepted. and Orsmond were sent to Huahine, the most easterly of the group, where they set up their The island press and began printing books. soon became an important station. Messrs. Williams and Threlkeld

ACCOMPANIED THE KING TO RAIATEA, the principal island of the group. They found the people prepared for their coming. The king

himself had been their fore-runner.

From

the

Christian king, Pomare, he had received such impressions of the new religion as made him an

anxious inquirer.

The people brought presents of pigs, yams, cocoanuts and bananas. Raiatea, the residence and the chief seat of idolatry, with and fertile plains, was mountains towering transformed into a mighty centre of Christianity. Williams' heart overflowed with love, and he of the king, its

160

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

in winning disciples for Jesus. He found families and communities living apart in jealous isolation, with little communication, except by dangerous mountain passes, and sought to draw them into closer and more

was not long

He

friendly association.

and furnished

it

built a house, finished

with taste and

skill

the work-

manship of his own hands. The king and others followed his example, and with such alacrity that in one year a thousand natives were living in houses along the In morals they had been most debased. shore. Lying, theft, polygamy, infanticide were their constant practices.

Hatred, revenge, thirst for

The seemed common to the tribes. adventurous herald of the Cross taught them to abandon these vices, to give up their idols, and

war

to worship the true God.

He showed them how

to build boats, and which were very scarce. Many were learning to read, and several hundred A Miscopies of the gospels were distributed. The was formed. king and sionary Society their with the of set preparing, example queen own hands, arrowroot and other products as 500 were raised the first year, contributions. " To cause the word of God to as they said,

almost without

nails,

grow." Williams was ambitious to teach them habits

JOHN WILLIAMS.

161

of industry, and enlisted their aid in building a It was 190 by 44 feet, and place of worship.

was opened

May, 1820, with a congregation of code of laws was enacted and the brother made a judge to see to their due king's observance. The cultivation of the sugar cane was taught and a mill erected. Though the kindness, skill and devotion of the energetic missionary had won the admiration and confiin

A new

2,400.

dence of the people generally, certain

"

sons of

"

were plotting his destruction. By the men rowing him to his Sunday service he was to be drowned but the boat had been painted, was not dry and he did not go. Failing in this Belial

;

they attempted to stab him, but did not succeed. The ringleaders were condemned to die, but at Williams' intercession they were spared. In May, 1820, seventy persons were baptized and united in a church.

The next year 300 children marched in proan examination, and enjoyed

cession, passed

a

"

feast,

Gospel

Had it not been for the we would have been destroyed." An saying

:

aged chief lamented the destruction of his children and exclaimed " Oh that I had known the :

Gospel was coming in store for us

that these blessings were

!"

The missionary contributions at the anniverAbout 500 1,800. sary, in May, amounted to 11

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

162

more were baptized. Mr. Williams was informed of the death of his mother and wrote a sympathetic

letter

to

his

father,

which

led to his

conversion.

and his own, they took a trip to Sydney. He engaged a ship for trade with the islands, and returned bringing a general cargo and a contribution of domestic

Owing

to his wife's illness

New South Wales, Raiatea on A deputathe 6th of June. reaching tion from England visited the missions and

animals from the Governor of

returned highly pleased. Though the health of both Mr. and Mrs. Williams was

"

I cannot contain poor, he wrote narrow within the limits of a single reef." myself With six native teachers he visited those he had

left

at

changes

still

:

Aitutaki, and

was delighted with the

idolatry and

cannibalism abandoned,

chapel and houses built and whitewashed with lime made from coral rock. They then sailed IN

QUEST OF RARATONGA,

and leaving some teachwere Many days spent in the tedious search. On arriving they were well received by the king, and promised protection; but were so treated on the first night that Williams declined visiting several islands ers.

One of them, however, leaving any teachers. Papeiha, volunteered to remain, and did so.

163

JOHN WILLIAMS.

Some preparation had been made b}' a heathen

woman

bringing reports of the Gospel from

The king, Makea, was so influenced by these tidings that he named one of his boys Jehovah and another Jesus Christ.

Tahiti.

After five weeks Mr. Williams was

home again

on another cruise among In Rurutu he administered the

in Raiatea, but soon out

missions.

his

Supper to sixteen persons. On New Year's Day he held a meeting for rededication. Lord's

A

vessel with ardent spirits visited the

island

but found no purchasers. On account of the death of his wife, Mr. Threlkeld was obliged to return to England with his small children.

Nine hundred had been baptized in Raiatea. The settlement was changed to a better location. In April, 1827, the adventurous Evangelist made a

SECOND VISIT TO RARATONGA, taking his wife and also Mr. and Mrs. Pitman, who had been sent out to labor there.

Though a very

beautiful island,

it is

not fer-

and for months the missionaries had nothing to eat but a scanty supply of herbs. They found the people practising many cruel and barbarous customs, which they endeavored to abol-

tile

ish.

;

A

long procession laid their idols at the The next Sabbath a

feet of the missionaries.

congregation of 4,000 assembled.

164

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

The chapel was much too small and they determined to build a larger one, and did so a veritable Polynesian cathedral, though its pillars were trunks of trees, and its sides of wattles. It

accommodated

3,000,

and was

built in seven

weeks.

The

tireless herald of the

Cross

felt

impelled

to visit

THE SAMOAN GROUP. Mrs. Williams dreaded his exposure and long absence on a voyage of thousands of miles, but

courageously bade him go. For this purpose he built a ship of some seventy tons burden, which he named the Messenger of Peace. Having tools suitable for ship-building, and especially no means of working iron, his task was a

few

For the making

difficult one.

of a bellows, three

out of four goats on the island were killed and When made, the bellows their skins prepared.

were destroyed by rats but other means were It was an amazedevised and the vessel built. On ment and an education to the natives. ;

the trial passenger.

trip

the King of

They

Raratonga was a 170 miles,

sailed to Aitutaki,

and returned with a cargo of cocoanuts, pigs and cats so much needed. In Februarv, 1828, Mr. and Mrs. Buzzacott arrived with a valuable The sad news came of the supply of iron.

3

a

j

s

MESSENGERS OP THE CHURCHES.

166

death of the teacher at Raiatea and the

loss of

two mission boats with seventy -six persons at Leaving Mr. Buzzacott with Mr. Pitman, Mr. Williams made a trip to Tahiti and Rurutu.

thence to Raiatea, arriving April 26th, 1828. He then placed the Messenger of Peace at the disposal of Messrs. Pritchard and visit to the Marquesan Islands.

Simpson for a

During their absence Mr. Williams was kept busy at Raiatea. Many came from the other islands

as

many

as ten boats in the harbor to-

The next year he again visited Rurutu, where he met the chief of Tubai, who had been waiting there two years to secure a teacher. Returning to Raiatea, Mr. Williams had the pleasure of seeing two American ships and H.M.S. Seringapatam, whose officers evinced

gether.

great interest in the missions. In Raratonga a storm demolished many houses and partially

unroofed the chapel. The resolute builder summoned all hands to repair damages. He had his in seeing idolatry renounced throughout the island, and some seven thousand persons in one year accepting Christianity. But his heart

reward

was

set

on wider conquests.

The long-delayed

project of entering

THE SAMOAN ISLANDS " was again to the front. Their cry, Come over " had been ringing in his ears. and help us !

JOHN WILLIAMS.

167

The blessing of God had so signally attended work in Raratonga that it could be safely entrusted to his fellow-laborers. The Messenger of Peace had just returned after a cruise of the

twelve months, and the set time seemed to have come.

On new

the 24th of May, 1830, he sailed on his expedition to visit the largest and most

populous group of the

Pacific.

He

touched at

Magaia, where his teachers had been so shamefully treated, and was greeted by some five hundred converts. There was still much violent opposition, which Mr. Williams' example of kindness and good-will did much to allay. He hoped to have taken one of the teachers, but he could not be spared. At Atiu he found the

teachers

making good headway.

In Aitutaki

each family had given a pig to help the MisA 103. sionary Society, realizing a total of

came aboard at Savage Island, but as both he and his companions seemed utterly untamable, no teacher was left with them. chief

They made a quick run of 350 miles to Tonga, where they found the Wesleyan missionaries having great success, and were induced to remain a fortnight. There Mr. Williams had the good fortune to meet Fauca, a Christian chief from Samoa, and took him aboard. After seven days sailing through violent storms, they sighted

168

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

the peaks of Savaii, the largest of the or Navigator's group.

coming had been made

Samoan

Preparation for their through a dying chief

prophesying of a great White Chief, by whom would be overthrown. Another sign was the death of Tamafainga, the supposed possessor of all power and the their religion

impersonation of the evil spirit. When Fauca heard, while yet aboard ship, of the death of this monster, he shouted, " The devil is dead !

Our work and when

done

"

He had

been murdered, the Messenger of Peace arrived the is

king, Malietoa,

!

was making war upon the mur-

He was called home to receive the misWilsionaries, who were introduced by Fauca. derers.

liams had a narrow escape from death while the king was examining a gun. Great kindness

was shown and protection promised to the The soil of Samoa is very fertile, and

teachers.

since the entrance of the missionaries large crops maize, cotton, nutmegs, coffee, sugar cane,

of

arrow-root, tapioca, barley and rice have been raised.

They have canoes of ingenious workmanship, and spacious houses, thatched with sugar cane. Before leaving Samoa, Mr. Williams received visit from Matatau, chief of Manono, reHe took him questing a teacher for his island.

a

home on

the Messenger of Peace, accompanied by

JOHN WILLIAMS. Malietoa. "

You know

Of

this

Williams

Mr.

visit

169 said

:

not what you can effect until you

and if you make your trials trusting in God mountains of difficulty will vanish." They en-

try,

deavored to steer for Savage Islands, but contrary winds prevented, and they made for Raratonga. The wonderful

"

ger of Peace, called

White Man

"

and

by the natives

God," were becoming

"

his

Messen-

The Ship

known throughout

of

the

Polynesian world, and their coming hailed with Verses were writdelight by tens of thousands. ten in their honor, such as

:

" Let us talk of Viriainu, Let cocoanuts grow for him in peace for months, When strong the East wind blows, our hearts forget him not

;

Let us greatly love the Christian land of the great White Chief."

His own testimony was " Christianity has triumphed, not by human authority, but by its own moral power, by the light which it spread :

abroad, and by the benevolent spirit which it for kindness is the key to the disseminated ;

human

heart."

Mrs. Williams' illness seemed to render neces-

sary a visit to England but she improved, and he endeavored to complete his Raratonga New Testament. War was threatening for the pos;

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

170

The

session of Raiatea.

old king

Tamatoa was "

dying, and said to the missionary: Nothing has ever separated us; now death is doing what nothing else has done. But who shall separate

us from the love of

Christ

"

?

Through Mr.

Williams' efforts the war was averted;

On

the 21st of September, 1831, he

LEFT RAIATEA FOR RARATONGA.

With Mr. Buzzacott he

visited several islands of

the Hervey group, and was well received. Again he was rescued from a watery grave. Rara-

tonga was visited with another great storm, The levelling nearly one thousand houses.

Messenger of Peace was borne on the crest of the waves several miles inland, and it was some months before she could be brought back. Mrs.

Williams had a narrow escape, and lost her When the vessel was infant in the wreck. repaired it was sent in quest vi provisions, and returned with supplies of food, also some horses

and horned captain.

cattle,

In

purchased from an American

October,

1832,

the

sea-faring

evangelist

SAILED AGAIN FOR SAMOA,

and took with him Makea, King of Raratonga. In five days they made a run of eight hundred miles to Manua, the most westerly island. They were yet two hundred miles distant from the

JOHN WILLIAMS.

171

came aboard, sayWord;" and others, from their Christian home

teachers, but several visitors

"We

ing:

are sons of the

who had

drifted

Raivavae

and

The

chiefs

teachers.

built a chapel.

and

others

were

anxious

for

In Upolu,

KING MALIETOA'S SETTLEMENT, a congregation of seven hundred assembled the wildest company he had ever seen, and the women more savage than the men." The king-

"

said

" :

For

given to the

my

part,

word

my

whole soul shall be and I will use my

of Jehovah,

utmost endeavor that

it

may

encircle the land."

In the evening about one thousand came to the service.

Mr. Williams helped the teachers to build a

At Amoa two young chiefs had built a chapel, and their people were at least nominally Christian. One woman had visited the teachers, taken home the good news, and persuaded about vessel.

hundred others to give up their idols. Seventy of them came to make a presentation

one

to the

"

White Chief."

Leaving Samoa Mr. Williams took Malietoa to Chief Manono and brought about a reconciliation. One island had a record of 197 wars a sample of South Sea vengeance. They touched at other islands and found the leaven spreading. visit

172

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

The leakage of the vessel caused much labor and alarm. At Vauvau they found Wesleyan missionaries, and went ashore with King Makea, " who is always ready to land where a missionary resides." On Sabbath two or three thousand assembled 200 were meeting in class and 800 ;

after only four months' years before, the king had threatened with death any of his people who should

candidates for baptism labor.

Two

become

Christians.

They were

six

days reach-

-the vessel still leaking.

ing Tonga In 1796 a party of ten missionaries had landed at Tonga three were murdered and the others ;

rescued by a passing ship. The King of Tonga sent

Makea an invitation and made him a great feast. On Sunday about 600 assembled. The leaking of the vessel was found to be due to an auger hole, to visit him,

left open.

Strangely enough the carpenter

left

open, and on putting to sea they suffered the loss of their provisions and were delayed two

it still

weeks. rites of

Mr.

Williams witnessed the curious

a wedding ceremony

;

visited the sacred

carefully kept and also the home of the

burying-place of the chiefs

shaded by gigantic trees Chief, whose six wives were painting a piece of native cloth, fifteen or twenty yards long by ten

The missionaries had a printing press, and during the year had run off nearly 30,000 small

wide.

JOHN WILLIAMS. books. fifteen

Mr. these

In January Raratonga was reached, after

weeks' absence.

Williams had spent eighteen years on His fellow-missionaries and

missions.

native teachers

many

173

islands

;

were successfully working in " there is not an island

so that

of importance within 2,000 miles of Tahiti to which the glad tidings of salvation have not

been conveyed."

He

prepared for

A VISIT TO ENGLAND, and

sailed with his family, October 14th, 1833, He was greeted by enarriving in June, 1834.

The recital of his wonand the triumphs of the experiences awakened interest in missions. He deep Gospel " in South the published Missionary Enterprises ContribuSeas," and 38,000 copies were sold. tions to the amount of 4,000 were received, of which 2,600 were spent in the purchase and equipment of the Camden, the balance towards

thusiastic audiences.

derful

a Polynesian college. On the 4th of April, 1838, a farewell meeting was held in the Tabernacle, and addresses of

deep interest delivered, especially by the veteran missionary himself. On the 11th, several hundreds saw the missionary company Mr. and Mrs. Williams, their eldest son and his wife, with sixteen new missionaries and their wives

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

174

aboard the Camden, and commended them in earnest prayer and

deepest sympathy to the tender and watchful care of Him who neither

slumbers nor

In September they arrived sleeps. and Sydney reshipped for Samoa, and to Fasetootai, in the island of Upolu, where Mr. and Mrs. Williams made their home. One of the new men, the Rev. J. Bamden, was drowned

at

after

shortly

landing. Raratonga, distributed

FIVE THOUSAND

Mr.

Williams

visited

NEW TESTAMENTS,

and began preparations for the college. He visited other missions and for the seventh time was saved from drowning. On the 3rd of November he went aboard the Camden for his perilous

NEW

TRIP TO THE

HEBRIDES.

He owned

to forebodings of danger, and Mrs. Williams besought him not to land on ErroBy the 12th they had covered 600 manga.

and

miles

wrote

" :

reached

We

Rovuma.

live in a

Mr.

dying world.

Williams

The grand

concern should be to live in a constant state of I am all anxiety, but desire prupreparation. dence and faithfulness in the attempt to impart

the Gospel to these benighted people, and leave The approaching week is the event with God.

JOHN WILLIAMS.

175

to me the most important of my life." They touched at Fatuna, and on to Tauna. On the " This is a memorable day a day 18th he wrote :

;

which will be transmitted to posterity, " But the and the results of this day will be broken sentence was left unfinished. On the 19th the Camden was off Erromanga, and Mr. Williams thought of passing on to Annotam but on the 20th they were wafted to the south of the island, where a spacious bay and peaceful shore seemed inviting. Natives were clustered .

;

among the rocks, apparently pleased with the new arrival. The boat was lowered and Captain Morgan took Messrs. Williams, Harris and Cunningham ashore. A chief brought them water

;

others cocoanuts, and the children were playing on the beach. Mr. Williams distributed a few presents; then he and Mr. Harris walked a short distance inland. Immediately a yell of

the savages was heard, and they were seen in pursuit of Mr. Harris, whom they struck down

with clubs and spears. Mr. Williams started for when he heard the war-shell blown, but was overtaken and ruthlessly clubbed to

the beach

The

and Mr. Cunningham, were driven off with stones and arrows and rowed to the Camden with the sad news of the double tragedy. They death.

Captain

hastening to the rescue,

set sail for

Sydney, arriving November 30th.

MESSENGERS OF THE CHURCHES.

176

The Governor of New South Wales despatched war vessel, the Favorite, to recover the remains, but only a few doubtful bones were obtained. She arrived at Samoa March 24th, and the ter-

a

rible tidings

were broken to Mrs. Williams. No the sadness that ended the long

may know

one

suspense, nor the darkness of that desolate mission home. Deep sympathy was manifested by the

thousands and tens of thousands

won

The work In "

who had been

through the devoted missionary. converts resolved to carry on the blessed

to Christ

in

1842

which their heroic leader had Mrs.

fallen.

Williams returned to England.

and for you," said she Father, forgive them, they know not what they do." In the sorrow of that grief-stricken Heathens, I

weep

;

"

widow over the tragic death of a loving husband and heroic evangelist, at the early age of fortythree, the inhabitants of

many

isles of

the sea

and Christians of every land join in tenderest sympathy. The man, who ignorantly struck down Polynesia's noblest apostle, lived to welcome others who took up his work and surrendered to them the very club with which he had blindly made " The Martyr of of the devoted missionary, ;

Erromanga."

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