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and the War

French. In Turkey it was done by public proclamation. In Arabia false reports of French plans to destroy Islam's holy places and to take the black stone of Mecca to the Louvre were published before the war. When war was declared German pamphlets in all languages covered the world. In Africa and Asia the propaganda took every imaginable form-tracts, maps, pamphlets, newspapers, telegrams, plays, songs, films. Huge sums of money were spent. The effort was chiefly directed toward the Moslem subjects of the entente and of the neutral countries of the East. The literature was delivered through Spain, Turkey, and the Philippines. It reached the whole world. Special efforts were made to win India and Persia. Kaiser Wilhelm was pictured as a Mohammedan striving to free Islam from British power; the appeal was made to all the Moslem world under the dominion of the Allies to adhere to the Jihad, since final success was inevitable through 'the protection of invincible Germany. It is one of the remarkable features of the war that all such propaganda has utterly failed of any real influence and the colonies have proved loyal to Britain and France.

"Are we losing our perspective ?" asks Harold Balme in the Chinese Recorder for March. The war seems to be absorbing all our energies, but Christianity must either be equal to the task of caring for the war zone and for a suffering heathen world at one and the same time or it is capable of caring for neither. China makes great demands upon the Christian world today in three important ways: First, the strong nationalist movement of the Far East, moving in India and Japan, is stirring profoundly in China, which presents a political situation crying aloud for sympathetic co-operation. This national ambition must be tempered by Christian internationalism and the lesson of human brotherhood to make it safe for the world. Secondly, China is eager for education. There is urgent need for intelligent leadership, for Western education must have the spirit of Christ in it if it is really to be of greatest value to future China. Thirdly, there is an urgency in the demand for medical help for China that is only equaled in the war zone. Thousands of sick and wounded in China remain helpless because of the utter lack of any physician or hospital. Is China to be excluded from the sympathy which has stirred our Red Cross to such splendid efforts? Among the insistent claims of a righteous war we should not lose our perspective.

The Menace of Islam

A Holy War That Failed In the Moslem World for April Mr. F. J. Dupre reports an article taken from a Paris journal regarding the German war propaganda in Moslem lands. The effort was made at great expense to stir all Moslems to a Holy War against the British and

An instructive review of the recent literature on Islam is written for the April number of the London Quarterly Review by Frank Ballard, who characterizes his total reaction in the title of his article. "The Menace of Islam." The Moslem world consists of more than two hundred millions of "convinced, uncompromising, devout, religiously aggressive believers, of whom ninety millions are under British rule and seventy-six millions under other Christian governments." The unity of Islam




is a fiction. There are three great divisions. In Africa, Malaysia, and some parts of India about sixty millions belong to the animistic type. In Persia and parts of India are the Shiahs who number ten millions. The orthodox Sunnis make up one hundred and twenty-six millions divided again into the Hanafi school, eighty-six millions; the Maliki school, sixteen millions; the Shafis, twenty-four millions; and about one million Hanbalis. Considering the fact that every Moslem is a missionary it is certain that this host of believers must exert a tremendous influence. Africa is now the great missionary field of Islam. "Indeed it looks as if in a comparatively short time all Africa will be under the sway of Mohammed." What does Islam stand for ? The main articles of Moslem faith rest on four great foundations and five practical pillars. The four foundations are (i) the Koran, which is the eternal word of God; (2) the Traditions; (3) Ijma, or the agreement of the community of teachers; (4) Qias, or analogical reasonings. Out of these come the articles of faith: idols must be given up; God is one and absolute; Mohammed is the chief and final prophet of God; the Koran is infallible and unchangeable; Mohammed's rules of devotion must be accepted; and finally all laws of the Koran are binding for domestic, social, and political relations. The five practical pillars or rules for life comprise the confession, the five daily prayers, the observance of the annual thirty days' fast of Ramadan, alms-giving, and the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. It will be seen from the foregoing that Islam has many elements of good. It has elevated primitive life wherever it has gone. But there are serious defects which may be catalogued as follows: (I) a faulty conception of God; (2) a faulty estimate of human nature-man is allowed no moral freedom; (3) Mohammed's claims cannot be maintained; (4) Islam owed its success to the sword and its spread was full of the

horrors of lust, cruelty, and greed; (5) the daily routine of devotion is for the most part empty form; (6) woman is degraded; (7) slavery is maintained; (8) the "brotherhood" of Islam is narrow, intolerant, and restricted absolutely to Moslems; (9) Islam is full of superstitions; (io) it permits not only prostitution but drinking and gambling in spite of its law (Christian civilization can hardly afford to throw stones at Islam in this regard, however); (ii) its view of the after-life is grossly materialistic. The best summary of the situation is perhaps that Islam is helpful as a religion to low grades of paganism. It will lift them to some extent. But progress is impossible on Islamic lines. A glance at Arabia, Persia, Turkey, Morocco, and Africa is sufficient proof of this contention. The need for Christian effort is most serious and pressing. In Africa the demand is overwhelming, for when Islam gets control of the native tribes it seems generally impossible to dislodge it. Yet Islam is disintegrating. The doors are opening everywhere. The last word is one of hope in spite of the vast difficulty of getting "the proudest man in the world to take the thing he hates from the hand of the man whom he despises." The Progress

of Islam in Africa

The March number of the new Colonies et Marine has a note on the spread of Islam in Africa. In the Soudan it is propagated by means of the Egyptian army. Each soldier at the end of his term goes back to his village and becomes an eager missionary of Islam. In German East Africa the blacks, recruited to work on the railroads and plantations, marry Moslem women. They then gladly become Moslems and spread the new beliefs in their villages. Perhaps the strongest reason for the success of Islam in the Orient and in Africa lies in the democratic institution of concubinage and marriage. A Moslem will love a son born of a black or slave woman, though he would

THE CHURCH AND THE WORLD find it difficult to give his daughter in marriage to a black Moslem. Often a Sultan or Pasha does not count it a disgrace to admit that he has black blood in his veins. The feeling that it lifts him in the social ladder also makes it very desirable for the


blacks to gain entrance into the Moslem family. Another cause of the progress of Islam is the possibility that it gives to warlike tribes to continue the profession of arms, since Islam has never been averse to spreading her domain by conquest.


of Principles

The Religious Education Association at its fifteenth annual meeting held in New York adopted a declaration of principles. Briefly summarized they are: (i) The world of men can be and ought to be a community of mutual respect, good-will, and brotherhood. (2) Democracy and religion can be and ought to be two aspects of one and the same life. (3) To reveal God aright and to fulfil its function in human life religion must become more moral and more democratic. (4) Education is the indispensable instrument of democracy and religion if it is directed toward intelligence, responsibility, and good-will, as it may be a hindrance if directed toward mere habit of mind and efficiency of hand, fostering prejudices and narrow loyalties, inculcating conformity and sheer obedience to external authority. (5) Children can be educated in social responsibility and good-will as well as in habit, intelligence, and initiative. (6) Education is a community function. It requires the purposeful co-operation of all. (7) The responsibility for such community organization rests in an especial degree upon the churches, since they should be best fitted by tradition and ideals. (8) A conspicuously weak spot in the educational program of most churches and communities has been in the provision for enlisting the service of young men and women in the late teens and early twenties. The war has now shown the way. From many quarters comes evidence of successful community organization. Experimentation and interchange of experience are needed. "The

world-community can come into existence only as lesser communities grow in such fashion as to incorporate themselves into its life." The Training of Boys How to secure proper development for growing boys has long been a serious problem. What should the training be ? Whose is the responsibility ? All present programs are inadequate. The public schools reach only about 3 per cent of the population over fourteen years of age. The Sunday school touches boy life scarcely one hour in the week, and somewhere in the teen age loses 8o per cent of the boys. The Y.M.C.A. is mainly confined to the cities and even there reaches only a fraction of the boys. This has been the setting of the problem which has held a central place in the discussions of the Canadian Y.M.C.A. Boys' Department for fifteen years. Mr. Percival R. Hayward outlines the solution in the April number of Religious Education. The Standard Efficiency Tests provide an all-round development program calculated to secure physical, mental, religious, moral, and social growth for boys. The Y.M.C.A. is intimately co-operating with the churches, and the local Sunday schools and churches form the starting-point of the work. Every worthy phase of educational development is included in the program, and the progress of each boy is recorded on an efficiency chart. The value of these tests for religious education is briefly: (i) They are comprehensive and so avoid the prevalent mistake