On missions

Glass_BA/a.O'TO Book. * ^8 5- / i By bequest of Woodbury Lowery y ON MISSIONS. VALUABLE WORKS BY MAX MULLER, M. A. LECTURES ON THE SC...

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^8 5-

/

i

By bequest

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Woodbury Lowery

y

ON MISSIONS.

VALUABLE WORKS BY MAX MULLER,

M.

A.

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WORKS OF ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY,

D. D.

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER.

LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF THE JEWISH CHURCH. Part

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SCRIBNER, ARMSTRONG, & CO. 654 Broadway, New York.

ON" MISSIONS. A LECTURE DELIVERED IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY, ON

DECEMBER

P.

3,

1873.

MAX MULLER,

M.

A.,

PROFESSOR OP COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AT OXFORD.

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY SERMON AETHUR PENEHYN STANLEY,

D.

D..

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER.

NEW YORK: SCRIBNER, ARMSTRONG, 1874.

AND COMPANY.

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J

mi

THE END AND THE MEANS OF

CHRIS-

TIAN MISSIONS. Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a ChrisAnd Paul said, I would to God, that not only thou, but also all tian. that hear me this day, were, both almost and altogether, such as I am, except these bonds. ?

O

5e

'Aypinnag c

yeviotiai.

kv

iroTJiC)

O

irpbg rbv

Uav?iOV Hrj

de ILavXoc elirev

(j,e

av t&

7rei-&etg

XpiaTiavbv

Qeti, not kv bTiiyu nal

ov [ibvov oe, dA/la nal izavrag tovc anovovrag fiov cyfiepov,

yevEcftat roiovrovg, onolog nayo)

Acts

'~Ev bTiiycp

"Ev^aLfi'nv

elfit,

TrapeKTog tCjv Seafiuv tovtcov.



xxyi. 28, 29.

When

I preached

on a like occasion

last

year

some length of the Prospects of Christian Missions/ and I ventured to give seven grounds which the peculiar circumstances of I spoke at

our time afforded for greater confidence in the First, the better knowledge of the future.

Divine nature acquired by the extinction of the once universal belief that all heathens

were everlastingly

lost

;

secondly, the increased

acquaintance with the heathen religions themselves; thirdly, the instruction which Christian missionaries have gained or

may gain

actual experience in foreign parts 1

j

from their

fourthly, the

Prospects of Christian Missions, a sermon preached in

minster Abbey, on December 20, 1872.

Strahan

West-

& Co., London.

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS,

6

recognition of the fact that the main hindrance

from Christendom of fifthly, sins and an the vices acknowledgment of the indirect influences of Christianity through legislation and civilization sixthly, the recognition of the advantage of exto the success of Christian missions arises ;

act,

unvarnished, impartial statements of mis-

sionary labor

seventhly, the testimony borne

;

by missionary experience to the common elements and essential principles of the Christian religion.

On and

these

— the

peculiar grounds for hope

for exertion in this



I refer

observations which I then made, and

to the

which

our generation

I will not

now repeat. make

I propose on this occasion to

a few

remarks on the End and on the Means of Christian Missions remarks which must of necessity be general in their import, but w hich for that ;

7

reason are the more suitable to be offered by one who cannot speak from personal and special

experience.

The the

life

text

is

taken from a striking incident in

of the greatest of apostolic missionaries.

and Agrippa that Paul had poured forth those few burning utterances which to Felix seemed like madness, but which Paul himself declared to be words of Then it was that the truth and soberness.

It

was

in the presence of Felix

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS,



Jewish prince, Agrippa

7

far better instructed

than the heathen Felix, and seeing deeper into



mind than he, yet still unconvinced broke in upon the conversation with the words Paul's

which in the English translation have well nigh passed into a proverb, " Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The sense which they thus give would be in itself perfectly suitable to the halting, fickle character of the Herodian family, and would accurately describe the numerous half-converts throughout the world " Almost," but not quite, u thou persuadest me



But the sense which, by the nearly universal consent of modern

to join the

good cause."

scholars, they really bear

something

still

more

in the

original

is

The only

instructive.

meaning of which the Greek words are capable is an exclamation, half in jest and half in earnest, " It is but a very brief and simple argument that you offer to work so great a change " or, if we may venture to bring out the sense more fully, " So few words, and such a vast conclusion " u So slight a foundation, and so gigantic a superstructure " " So scanty an outfit, and so perilous an enterprise " The speech breathes something of the spirit of Naaman, when he was told to wash in the Jordan "Are not Abana and Pharpar better than all the waters ;

!

!

!



of Israel?"

It is

like the complaint of the

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

8

popular prophets in the time of Hezekiah, whose taste

demanded stronger

flavor than the noble

simplicity of Isaiah, " Line

upon

precept."

upon

precept

line,

It breathes the spirit

of the

Ephesian Christians who, when they heard St. John's repeated maxim of "Little children, love said, " Is this all

one another," ?

tell

us

one

since,

that he has to

It expresses the spirit of

"

who

many an

has stumbled at the threshold of

the genuine Gospel



"

So vague, so simple, so

worth the

you

sacrifice that

universal.

Is this

demand

Give us a demonstrative argument,

?

a vast ceremonial, a complex system, a uniform

Nothing

government.

else will satisfy us."

As Agrippa's objection, so is Paul's answer. It would have indeed borne a good sense had he meant what in our English version he is made to say, " I would that both almost and c

altogether.'

Halfness or wholeness

them

Half a soul

both.

To have come

all.

is

half

never to have started at good,

because

it

leads

Nevertheless, following

Agrippa's remark, bears to

St.

a yet deeper



I

admire

better than none at

way all

;

is

better than

but half

is

only

towards

the whole."

the real

meaning of

Paul's

retort,

significance

God, that whether by

little

— "I

in

fact,

would or by much,

whether by brief arguments or by long arguments, somehow and somewhere, the change

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

9

me

are compar-

The means

were wrought.

to

atively nothing, so long as the plished."

It

the same spirit

is

end

accomas that which is

dictated the noble expression in the Epistle " Some preach Christ of Philippians

to the

:

envy and

strife,

some

also of

good

will.

The

one preach Christ of contention, the other of What then ? notwithstanding, every love.

way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ preached."

And

is

*

then he proceeds to vindicate the end

which makes him indifferent as to the means. Agrippa, in his brief taunt, had said, " Such are the arguments by which you would fain make me a Christian." It is one of the few, one of the only three, occasions on which that glorious

name

New

used in the

is

Testament.

It is

here

charged not with the venerable meaning which

we now

attach to

it,

but with the novel and

degrading associations which

mouth time



of every

say, "is

a

innovating sufficient is

at that

of Tacitus or Josephus, no less than of

Christian,

It

bore in the

Jew and every Roman " Is

Felix or Agrippa. to

it

it

it,"

so the

that you think to

member sect,

king meant

make me

of which the very

condemnation

name

is

Phil.

i.

a

" ?

only by bearing this in mind that 1

a

of that despised, heretical,

13-16

we

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

10

see the force

of

St.

He

answer.

Paul's

does

on the word ; he does not fight even not he does not take it up as for this sacred title a pugnacious champion might take up the glove which his adversary had thrown down he does not say, " I would that thou wast a Christian." In his answer he bears his testimony insist

;

most

to one of the gravest, the

theological truths

— that

it

is

fruitful,

not the

but the thing, not the form but the

which

most

must be

stress

laid

heartstirring

lucid,

all

name

reality,

on

and he gives the

;

illustration

"I

of

of what

would that not only thou, but what is no ambiguous catchword or byword, but what you see before you I would that you all were such as I am such as I am, upheld by the hopes the reality all

those

is.



who hear me were ;



with the affections,

filled



that

sustain

my

charmed existence;" and then, with that exquisite courtesy which characterizes so many traits of

the Apostle's history, glancing at the

chains which



" '

bound him

except these bonds.'

call it Christian or not, is

you and in the

the world."

all

life,

Eoman guard

This,

whether you

what

You

the character, the

knows what all his

"

to the

Christianity

is,

I desire to see

see

it

spirit,

before

you

of one

who

and who wishes that

fellow-creatures should partake of the

happiness that he has gained, repose

on the

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. same

principles that give

then,

is

him

11

strength."

This,

the statement of the greatest of mis-

end which he sought means and the by which he and we

sionaries, both as to the

to attain,

should seek to attain I.

Let us

first

it.

except these bonds."

which

St.

End

take the

a

Such

is

the

:

That

Paul desired to bring

heard him.

all

as I

am,

state

those

to

who

That, according to him, was the

No doubt

description of a Christian.

if

he had

been pressed yet further, he would have said that he meant, "Such as Jesus Christ, my But he was satisfied with taking such Lord." a living, human, imperfect exemplification as he whom Felix and Agrippa saw in their pres" Such as Paul was " where is no amence. biguous definition, no obsolete form. We know what manner of man he was, even better than Felix or Agrippa knew. Look at him with all ;

his characteristic peculiarities

own

;

a

man

passion-

and clinging to the reminiscences of his race and country, yet with a heart open to embrace all mankind a man combining the strongest convictions with an unbounded toleration of differences, and an unbounded confidence in turth a man penetrated with the freedom of the ately devoted to his

faithful friends,

;

Spirit,

but with a profound appreciation of the

value of great existing institutions

whether

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

12

—a

thorough Roman citizen and a thorough Eastern gentleman a career of daring fortitude and endurance, undertaken or religious

civil

;

in the strength of the persuasion that in Jesus

had seen the highest perfection of Divine and human goodness a Master worth living for and worth dying for, whose Spirit was to be the regenerating power of the whole world. This character, this condition it was to which St. Paul desired that his of Nazareth he

Christ



One only

hearers should be brought.

makes

tion he

;

"

reserva-

except these bonds," except

those limitations, those circumscriptions, those vexations, those irritations, which belonged to

the suffering, toil-worn circumstances in which

he was at that moment placed. Such is the aim which, following the example of their most illustrious predecessor, all missionaries create,

To

ought to have before their eyes.

to

preach, to exhibit

those

traits

of

character, those apostolical graces, those Divine

which even the hard Roman magistrate and the superficial Jewish prince recog-

intuitions,

nized in Paul of Tarsus. there

is

Christianity.

Where

these

In proportion as any of

these are attained, in that proportion

human being become and

are,

a Christian.

has a

Wherever

in proportion as these are not, there the

missionary's labor has failed

— there

the seed

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. has been sown to no purpose of Christian

may

be,

13

— there the name

but the reality

is

not.

This preeminence of the object of Christian

— namely,

missions,

the formation

of heroic,

and therefore Christian characters, In these has a wide practical importance.

apostolic,



days

— when

there

is

much temptation

so

to

dwell on the scaffolding, the apparatus, the organization of religion, as though it were religion itself



it is

doubly necessary to bear in mind

what true Eeligion

is,

wherein

superiority of Christianity to

lies

all

the essential

the other forms

of religion on the surface of the earth.

It is

not merely the baptism of thousands of infants,

such as

filled

a large part of the aspirations

even of so great a missionary as Francis Xavier nor the adoption of the name of Christ, ;

as

was done on

rebels of China so

much

by the ferocious

so vast a scale ;

nor the repetition, with ever

accuracy, of the Christian creed, as

was done by the pretended converts from Mohammedanism or Judaism, under the terrible compulsion of the Catholic sovereigns of Spain. Nor is it the assurance, ever so frequently repeated, that tion,

nor it

we

are saved

;

nor

is it

the absolu-

ever so solemnly pronounced by a priest

is it

the shedding of floods of tears

;

nor

is

the adoption of voluntary self-degradation or

solitary seclusion.

All these

may

be found in

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

14

other religions in as great, or even greater

That which alone* if anything, stamps Christianity as the supreme religion, is that its essence, its object, is in none of these things, valuable as some of them may be as signs and symptoms of the change which every mission is intended to effect. The change itself, the end itself, Christianity itself, is at once It is to be such as Paul greater and simpler. was it is to produce characters, which in truthforce,

than in Christianity.

;

independence, in mercy, in purity,

fulness, in

may

something of the great Apostle, even as he recalled something of the mind which was in Christ Jesus. It was this in charity,

what he desired

clear vision of fruits

so

of

teaching

his

ready

recall

that

to see as the

made

St.

Paul

things were

admire whatsoever

to

lovely and of good report wherever he found

them.

In Gentile or in Jew, in heathen or

in Christian, he recognized at once the spirits

kindred to his own, and welcomed them accordingly.

He

felt

that he could

raise

them yet

higher; but he was eager to claim them as his brethren

even from the

first.

1

Even

in the

legends which surround his history there has

been preserved something of 1

Acts xiv.

xxv. 11. xv. 33.

16, 17

Rom.

ii.

Phil. iv. 8.

;

xvii. 23, 28

6-15;

xiii.

xix. 37

;

1-7

this

;

xiv. 6.

;

genuine apos-

xxi. 26 1

;

xxii. 28

Cor. ix.

;

20-22;

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

15

was a fine touch in the ancient Latin hymn which described how, when he landed at Puteoli, he turned aside to the hill of Pausilipo to shed a tear over the tomb of Virgil, and thought how much he might have made of that noble soul if he had found him still on earth sympathy.

tolic

It

:

"

Ad

Maronis mausoleum

Ductus, fudit super

eum

Pi a3 rorem lacryrnas



Quantum, dixit, te fecissem Si te vivum invenissem, Poetarum maxime."

It

was

this

affectionate

which made him cling with such interest

friends, to his sons, as

he

converts, to

his

his

them, in Christ

calls

All that he sought,

Jesus. for in

to

all

that he looked

them, was that they should show in their

characters the seal of the spirit that animated

Whether they derived

himself.

this character

from himself or from Apollos or Cephas he cared not to ask. He was their pupil as much as their master. He disclaimed all dominion over their independent faith to

be a helper in their joy. This reproduction of Paul

tion of all that

is



;

he claimed only



this

reproduc-

best in ourselves or better

than ourselves in the minds and hearts of mankind, is the true work of the Christian missionary

;

and, in order to do this, he

must be

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

16

himself that which he wishes to impress upon

them

and holiness, except only the straitening bonds which cramp or confine each separate character, naNo disparager of Christian tion, and church. missions can dispute this no champion of Christian missions need go beyond this. When, in the last century, the Danish missionary, Schwarz, was pursuing his labors at Tanjore, and the Rajah Hyder Ali desired to treat with " Do not the English Government, he said send to me any of your agents, for I trust But neither their words nor their treaties. send to me the missionary of whose character him will I every one I hear so much from receive and trust." That was the electrifying, vivifying effect of the apparition of such an one " a man who had indeed done nothas Paul ing worthy of bonds or of death " a man in whose entire disinterestedness and in whose transparent honor the image and superscription of his Master was written so that no one could mistake it. " In every nation, he that feareth God and worketh righteousness " is the noblest the most precious work of God our Creator endeavor. If any such by misresult of human in humility, goodness, courtesy,



:

;







sionary

efforts, either

convert or teacher, either

have been produced, then the prayers uttered, the labors inspired, the hopes direct or indirect,

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

17

expressed in these and like services have not

One

most striking facts to which our attention has been called as demanding our thankfulness on this day is the solemn testimony borne by the Government of India to the fruits of " the blameless lives and self-denying labors of their six hundred Protestant missionaries." And what are those fruits ? Not merely the adoption of this or that outward form of Christianity by this or that section of the Indian community. It is something which is in appearance less, but in reality far greater than this. It is something less like the question of Agrippa, but far more like the answer of Paul. It is that they have been altogether

" infused

new

in vain.

of the

vigor into the stereotyped

life

of the vast populations placed under English rule

;

" it

is

they are

that

populations to be in every

u

preparing those

way

better

men and

Empire under which a verdict on which w e can

better citizens of the great

they dwell."

That

is

T

rest with the assurance that it

reversed.

— may be

is

not likely to be

Individual conversions

may

relapse

accounted for by special motives

but long-sustained, wide-reaching changes of the whole tenor and bent of a man or of a na-

beyond immovable and, tion are

suspicion. as

" the stereotyped " 2

the

When we

official

see the

document

forms of Indian

life

says, reani-

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

18>

mated with a vigor unknown earlier days, this

races in

is

to the

Oriental

a regeneration as

surprising as that which, to a famous missionary

of the past generation, seemed as impossible as

mummy

the restoration of a

to

life

— namely,

the conversion of a single Brahmin. This, then,

is

the

End

whether to heathens or to

make

better

of Christian missions, to Christians,

men and

better

namely,

citizens



to

whole of society by inspiring it with a higher view of duty, with a stronger sense of raise the

truth

with a more powerful conviction that

;

only by goodness and truth can



God be

ap-

that God is proached or Christ be served goodness and truth, and that Christ is the

Image of God, because He

is

goodness and

If this be the legitimate result of Chris-

truth.

no further arguments are needed to prove that it contains a light which is worth imparting, and which, whenever it is imparted, vindicates its heavenly origin and its heaventianity,

ward tendency. II.

This

Means

?

is

the End; and

They

now what

are the

what we might expect in Anything (so the

are

the view of so great an end.

Apostle

tells us),

be

it

small or great, short or

ample the manners of a Jew for Jews, the manners of a Gentile for Gentiles, " all things for all men," 1 are worth considering^ long, scanty or

;

1

1

Cor. ix. 20-22.

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

19

"by any of these means he might save/' that elevate, sanctify, purify, any of those to whom he spoke. When we reflect upon the many various efforts to do good in this maniif

is,

fold world

— the multitude of sermons, which

agencies, excitements,

and fruitless as cious and important

futile

to

societies,

some seem as seem pre-

to others they



it is

a true consolation

mind the Apostle's wise and generous maxim, u Whether by little or by much, to bear in

whether in pretense or in truth, whether of strife or of good-will, Christ is preached, and I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice."

It

be by a short, sudden, electric shock, or

it

be by a long course of tendencies. as that

tine

the

;

It

civilizing,

may be by

may may

humanizing

a single text, such

which awoke the conscience of Augus-

or a single interview, like Justin's with

unknown

philosopher

long systematic treatise

;



or

it

may

Butler's

u

be by a

Analogy,"

or Lardner's " Credibilia," or the " Institutes" of Calvin, or the u Suinma Theologiae " of

Aquinas.

It

may

be by the sudden flush of

victory in battle, such as convinced Clovis on the

field

of Tolbiac

;

or

the argument of a

peaceful conference, such as convinced our Ethelbert.

It

may be by

own

teachers steeped in

what was by half the Christian world regarded as deadly heresy,

such as the Arian Bishop

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

20

by whom were converted to the faith those mighty Gothic tribes which formed the first elements of European Christendom, and whose good deeds Augustine regarded, notUlfilas,

withstanding their errors, as the glory of the Christian

name. 1

immersed

in strange

now

It

may

and

be by teachers as

fanciful superstitions,

repudiated by the civilized world, as was

the famous missionaries

Roman to

Pontiff

who

these shores.

sent the

first

Sometimes the

change has been effected by the sight of a single picture, as when Vladimir of Russia was

shown the representation of the Last Judgsometimes by a dream or a sign, ment, known only to those who were affected by it,



such as the vision of the Cross which arrested Constantine on his

way

to

Rome,

or changed

Colonel Gardiner's dissolute youth to a man-

hood of strict and sober piety. Sometimes it has been by the earnest preaching of missionaries, confessedly ill-educated and ill-prepared for the work which they had to accomplish sometimes by the slow infiltration of Christian literature and Christian civilization ;

1

In the well-known passage where, speaking of their modera"

Hoc

Christi nomini, hoc Christiano tempori tribuendum quisquis

non

tion

and humanity

videt, csecus

;

in the capture of

quisquis non laudat, ingratus

reluctatur, ingratus est." Ibid. c. 1,

Rome, he concludes

and Sermon

— De

cv.,

;

Civitate Dei,

De Ev.

S. Luc.

:

quisquis laudanti i.

c.

7.

Compare

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. the grandeur, in old days, of stantinople

;

21

Rome and

Con-

our days, the superiority of

in

European genius, the spread of English commerce, the establishment of just laws,

pure

homes, merciful institutions.

We

do not say that

all

means are

these

equally good or equally efficacious.

St.

Paul,

argument with Agrippa, did not mean to say that " almost and altogether," that u much and little," were the same he did not mean that it was equally good that Christ should be

in his

;

preached in

mean

strife

or in good-will

;

he did not

that a good end justified bad means, or

we may do evil that good may come he not mean to justify the falsehoods which are

that

did

;

profanely called pious frauds, nor the persecu-

which have been set on foot by those who thought to do God service, or the attempt to stimulate artificial excitement by undermining the moral strength and manly independence But what he of the human spirit. God forbid meant, and what we mean with him, is this tions

!

:

In true Christian missions, in the conversion of

human folly,

souls

from dead works, from

sin,

from

from barbarism, from hardness, from selfto goodness and purity, justice and

ishness,

truth, the field

acter in

is

men and

so vast, the diversity of char-

nations

is

so infinite, the en-

terprise so arduous, the aspects of Divine truth

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

22

so various, that for each

it is

on the one hand a duty

one to follow out that particular means

of conversion which seems to him most

effica-

and on the other hand to acquiesce in the converging use of many means which cannot, by cious,

the nature of the case, appear equally efficacious

Such a toleration, such an adoption of the different modes of carrying on what John Bunyan called the Holy War, the Siege of Man's Soul, must indeed be always controlled by the determination to keep the high, paramount, universal end always in view; by the vigilant endeavor to repress the exaggeration, to denounce the follies and the falsehoods which infect even the best attempts of narrow and fallible, though good and faithful, servants of their Lord. But, if once we have this fixed in our minds, it then surely becomes a solace to to every one.

remember that the

soul of

man

thousand different approaches

is

won by

a

— that thus the

instruments which often seem most unworthy

may

yet serve to produce a result far above

themselves

— that

when "we have

night and taken nothing

"

toiled all

by keeping

close to

the shore, or by throwing out our nets always

on one

side,

yet

if

we have courage

" to

launch

out into the deep, and cast out our nets on the other side of the ship,"

we

shall a inclose

a

great multitude of fishes, so that the net shall break."

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

He

is

a traitor to the cause

who

23 exalts the

means above the end, or who seeks an end

alto-

gether different from that to which his allegiance binds him but he is not a traitor, but a ;

faithful soldier,

who makes

the best use of

the means that are placed in his hands.

all

Long

have perished the results will endure, and in forms wholly unlike the insufficiency or the meagreness of the after the imperfect instruments

The preaching of Henry Martyn may have been tinged by a zeal often not according to knowledge but the savor of

first

propelling cause.

;

his holy

and self-denying

life

a sweet-smelling incense

through the whole

frame-work of Indian society. said himself, " if I should

converted,

has passed like "

Even," so he

never see a native

God may design by my patience and

continuance in the work to encourage future missionaries."

The more profoundly we the

are impressed with

degradation of the heathen nations, with

the corruption of the Christian churches, the

more thankful should we be for any attempts, however slight and however various, to quicken the sluggish mass, and enlighten the blackness of the night, provided

only that the mass

is

permanently quickened, and the darkness is in any measure dispelled. " I have lived too long," said Lord Macaulay on his return from India to

24

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

England, " I have lived too long in a country

where people worship cows, to think much of the differences which part Christians from Christians." And, in fact, as the official report to which I have referred testifies in strong terms, the presence of the great evils which Indian missionaries have to confront, has often produced in them a noble and truly Christian indifference to the trivial divergences between themselves. "Even a one-eyed man," says the proverb, " is a king amongst the blind." Even the shepherd's sling

may

the Goliath of Gath.

of a rustic preacher

perchance smite

down

The rough sledge-hammer

may

strike

home, where

the most polished scholar would plead in vain.

The calm judgment of the wise and good,

or

the silent example, or the understanding sympathy, or the wide survey of the whole field of

the religions

of mankind,

may awaken

con-

which all the declamations of all the churches would fail to arouse. The misery of the war on the coast of Africa,

victions

the terrible prospect of the Indian famine, furnish the very opening which

They may be

we most

the very touchstones

may

desire.

by which

these suffering heathens will test the practical efficiency of a

Christian

government and a

Christian nation, of Christian missionaries and Christian people, and, having so tested

judge.

it,

will

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

When himself

he

the

first

among

25

Napoleon suddenly found

the quicksands of the

Red

ordered his generals to ride out in so

opposite directions, and the

on firm ground

to call

first

on the

who

Sea,

many

arrived follow.

rest to

what we may ask of all the various all the various in schemes and agencies quiries after truth now at work in all the dif ferent branches and classes of Christendom "Ride out amongst those quicksands Ride out in the most opposite directions, and let him that first finds solid ground call out to us It may perchance be the very ground in the midst of this quaking morass where we shall be able to stand firm and move the world." There is one special variety of means which I would venture to name in conclusion. Ever since the close of the Apostolic age there have been two separate agencies in the Christian Church by which the work of conversion has been carried on. The chief, the recognized, the ordinary agency has been that of the clergy. Every pastor, every presbyter, every bishop in the Church of the Roman Empire, and again in the beginning of Christian Europe was, in the This

is





!

!

strict sense

of the word, a missionary

;

and

al-

though their functions have in these latter days been for the most part best fulfilled by following their stationary, fixed, pastoral charges, yet

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

26

from their ranks in

it is still

all

the different

churches that the noble army of missionaries

and martyrs in foreign lands has been, and is, and must be recruited. Most unwise and unworthy would be any word which should underrate the importance of this mighty element in the work of renewing the face of the earth. But there has always been recognized, more or less distinctly, the agency of Christian laymen in this same work of evangelization. Not only in that more general sense in which I have already indicated the effect of the laws, and literature, and influence of Christian Europe

— not

only in that unquestionable sense in

which the best of all missionaries is a highminded governor, or an upright magistrate, or a devout and pure-minded soldier, who is always " trusting in God and doing his duty ;

not only in these senses do

we

look for the co-

operation of laymen, but also in the more direct

forms of instruction, of intelligent and far-seeing

though carried on mainly by the clergy, must, if they are to be good for anything, concern all mankind alike. interest

labors, which,

in

In the early centuries of Christianity the aid of

laymen was this great

freely invoked and freely given in

cause.

Such was Origen, the most

learned and the most gifted of the Fathers,

who

preached as a layman in the presence of pres-

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. byters and bishops. evangelizers

27

Such was one of the

of India, Pantsenus

first

was

such

;

the hermit Telemachus, whose earnest protest,

Rome

aided by his heroic death, extinguished at the horrors of the gladiatorial games

such was wilds of mighty preacher in the Antony, the the Thebaid and the streets of Alexandria such, in later days, was Francis of Assisi, when first he began his career as the most famous preacher of the Middle Ages such, just before the Reformation, was our own Sir Thomas ;

;

More. 1

In these instances, as in

many

others,

the influence, the learning, the zeal of laymen

w as T

directly imported into the

work of

tianizing the nations of Europe.

Chris-

It is for this

reason that we, in our age also, so far as the law and order of our churches permit, have frequently received the assistance of laymen

who, by the weight of their character or their knowledge, can render a fresh testimony, or

throw a fresh light on subjects where we, the clergy, should perhaps be heard less willingly. As their voices have been raised on this sacred subject of missions in 1

" Sir

coln's

Thomas More

after

many

a

he was called

humbe to the

parish

Bar

in Lin-

Inn did, for a considerable time, read a public lecture

out of

St.

Augustine De

Civitate Dei, in the

Church

of

St.

Law-

rence in the Old Jewry, to which the learneder sort of the City of

London did

resort."

ed. 1721, pp. 182, 183.

— Wood's

Athence Oxonienses,

fol.

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

28 church

;

on other sacred topics, such as and history, their words have often

as also

Christian art

been heard within the consecrated walls of this so and other great abbeys and cathedrals, the privilege of listening this shall have we evening in the nave of this church to a scholar renowned throughout the world, whose knowledge of all heathen religions in connection with



the experience of Christian missions probably

exceeds that of any other single person in



in the hope that a more systematic Europe form may thus be given to our knowledge, and a more concentrated direction to our zeal. I conclude by once more applying the Apostle's words to the Means and the End of Christian missions. We would to God that whether by little or by much, whether by sudden stroke or by elaborate reasoning, whether in a brief moment or by long process of years, whether

by the

by the learning of impartial laymen, whether by illiterate simplicity or by wide philosophy not only fervor of active clergy, or



those

who hear me, but

all

on

whom

the ser-

and near, have any influence, may become, at least in some degree, such as was Paul the Apostle, such as have been the wisest and best of Christian missionaries, except only those bonds which belong to time and place, not to the Eternal Spirit and the vices of this day, far

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS.

29

We

Everlasting Gospel of Jesus Christ.

can-

not wish, a better wish or pray a better prayer

God on this day than that amongst the miswho teach, amongst the heathens who hear, there should be raised up men who should to

sionaries

exhibit that type Christian

which w as T

life

and of seen by Felix and

of Christian

truth

Agrippa in Paul of Tarsus. May the Giver of all good gifts give to us some portion of his cheerful and manly faith, of his fearless energy, of his horror of narrowness and superstition, of his love for God and for mankind, of his absolute faith in the triumph of his Redeemer's May God our Father waken in us the cause.

may

the

whole earth become more and more one under one Good Shepherd, Jesus Christ Son may the Holy Spirit

fold

sense that

we

are

all

his

children

;

"

And

Our

souls inspire,

lighten with celestial fire."

;

his

LECTURE ON MISSIONS, DELIVERED IN THE

NAVE OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY, ON THE

Evening of December

3,

1873,

BY

PROFESSOR

MAX

MULLER.

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

The number of religions which have attained stability and permanence in the history Number of of the world is very small. If we leave religions. out of consideration those vague and varying forms of faith and worship which w e find among uncivilized and unsettled races, among races r

who have nor even hymns

ignorant of reading and writing, neither a literature, nor laws,

and prayers handed down by from father to son, from mother

we

oral teaching to

daughter,

number of the real historical mankind amounts to no more than

see that the

religions of

The

eight.

Semitic races

have produced three

:

Mohammedan ; the Indo-European races, an equal num-

the Jewish, the Christian, the

Aryan, or

ber

:

Add

the Brahman, the Buddhist, and the Parsi. to

these

the

two

religious

systems of

China, that of Confucius and Lao-tse, and

you

have before you what may be called the eight languages or utterances of the faith of mankind from the beginning of the world to distinct

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

34

the present day

;

you have before you

outlines the religious

map

in

broad

of the whole world.

All these religions, however, have a history, comparative

more deeply

a history

interesting than

e "

l^ons?

the history of language, of literature, of

art,

or politics.

able

;

Religions are not unchange-

on the contrary, they are always growing and if they cease to grow and

and changing

;

cease to change, they cease to live.

Some

of

these religions stand by themselves, totally in-

dependent of all the rest; others are closely united, or have influenced each other during various stages of their growth and decay. They must therefore be studied together, if we wish to understand their real character,

and their resuscitaThus, Mohammedanism would be unin-

their growth, their decay, tions.

telligible

without

without Judaism

:

Christianity

;

Christianity

and there are similar bonds

that hold together the great religions of India



the faith of the Brahman, the and Persia After a careful study Buddhist, and the Parsi. of the origin and growth of these religions, and after a critical examination of the sacred books

on which all of them has become possible

profess to be founded,

it

them all to a same manner as

to subject

scientific classification, in the

languages, apparently unconnected and mutually unintelligible,

have been

scientifically ar-

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. ranged and

classified

those points which in

common,

;

and by a comparison of

some of them share

or

all

by a determination of

as well as

those which are peculiar to each, a

has been called cerns us

all,

for religion

— the

into

35

new

science

a science which con-

life,

and in which

must sooner or

who

all

truly care

later take their part

Science of Religion.

Among

various

the

classifications

1

which

of „. have been applied to the religions o Missionary the world, there is one that interests S^XSiy Rellglons us more immediately to-night, I mean .

-I

i-

-

the division into Non-Missionary and Missionary This

religions.

is

by no means, as might be on an unim-

supposed, a classification based

portant or merely

accidental

on the contrary,

rests

characteristic

on what is the very heart-blood in every system of human faith. Among the six religions of the Aryan and it

Semitic world, there

posed to

are

three

that are

Missionary enterprise

all

Brahmanism, and Zoroastrianism



op-

Judaism,,

and three that have a Missionary character from their very beginning Buddhism, Mohammedanism, and ;



Christianity.

The Jews,

particularly in ancient times, never

thought of spreading

their

religion.

Judaism.

Their religion w as to them a treasure, a privir

lege, a blessing,

something to distinguish them,

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

36

as the chosen people of God, from all the rest

A Jew

must be of the seed of Abraham and when in later times, owing chiefly to political circumstances, the Jews had to admit strangers to some of the privileges of their theocracy, they looked upon them, not as souls that had been gained, saved, born again of the world. :

into a

new brotherhood, but

as Proselytes

have come

to

(Trpoo-^Woi)

them

A

men who

until the

twenty-fourth

2

very similar feeling prevented the Brah-

Brahmanlsm

(t^n?),

as aliens, not to be trusted,

as their saying was,

generation.

as strangers

which means



'

mans from ever attempting to proselytize those who did not by birth belong

to the spiritual

aristocracy of their

country.

Their wish was rather to keep the light to themselves, to repel intruders as to

far

;

they went so

who happened

punish those

to

be

near enough to hear even the sound of their prayers, or to witness their sacrifices. 3

The

Parsi, too, does not

^

re ligi° n

wish for converts to

proud of his faith, as of his blood and though he believes in the final victory of truth and light, though he says to every man, Be bright as the sun, pure as the moon,' he himself does very little to drive away spiritual darkness from the face

zoroastri-

s

\

he

is

anism

"

;

'

of the earth, by letting the light that

him

shine before the world.

is

within

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. But now religions, at

and differ

look at the other cluster of

let us

Buddhism, Mohammedanism,

-

— they mean

Missionary

However they may Rell s lons from each other in some of their most

Christianity.

essential doctrines, th

have

37

!

common

they share in

s

have faith in themselves, they all and vigor, they want to convince, they

all

life

From

to conquer.

the very earliest

dawn

of their existence these three religions were

missionary

:

their very founders, or their first

apostles, recognized the

new duty

of spreading

the truth, of refuting error, of bringing the

whole world

to

acknowledge the paramount,

if

not the divine, authority of their doctrines.

what gives to them all a common expression, and lifts them high above the level of That

is

the other religions of the world.

Let us begin with Buddhism. deed, very

little

of

its

We

know,

origin and ear-

nest growth, for the earliest beginnings of religions

withdraw

themselves

in-

Buddhism,

all

by necessity But we have

from the eye of the historian. something like contemporary evidence of the Great Council, held at Pataliputra, 246 b. c, in which the sacred canon of the Buddhist scripand at the end of which missionaries were chosen and sent forth to preach the new doctrine, not only in India, but far be-

tures

was

yond the

settled,

frontiers of that vast country.

4

We

38

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

possess inscriptions containing the edicts of the

king who was to Buddhism what Constantine was to Christianity, who broke with the tradi-

Brahmans, and

tions of the old religion of the

recognized the doctrines of

We

religion of India.

Buddha

as the state

possess the description

of that Buddhist Council, which was to India

what the Council of Nicsea, 570 years later, was to Europe and we can still read there 5 the simple story, how the chief Elder who had presided over the Council, an old man, too weak to travel by land, and carried from his ;

hermitage to the Council in a boat

— how that

man, when the Council was over, began to reflect on the future, and found that the time had come to establish the religion of Buddha

He

in foreign countries.

some of the most eminent

therefore dispatched priests to

Cashmere,

Cabul, and farther west, to the colonies founded

by the Greeks Caucasus, and

in Bactria, to Alexandria

other

cities.

He

sent

on the others

northward to Nepaul, and to the inhabited por-

Himalayan mountains. Another mission proceeded to the Dekhan, to the peotions of the

ple of Mysore, to

the

Mahrattas, perhaps

to

Goa; nay, even Birma and Ceylon are mentioned as

among

the earliest missionary stations

of Buddhist priests. of their

We

still

possess accounts

manner of preaching.

When

threat-

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

39

ened by infuriated crowds, one of those Buddhist missionaries said calmly, "Even if the gods were united with men, they would not frighten Hie away." And when he had brought the people to listen, he dismissed

prayer, u

Do

them with the simple

not hereafter give

way

to pride

and anger care for the happiness of all living beings, and abstain from violence. Extend your good- will to all mankind let there be peace among the dwellers on earth.'" ;

;

No

doubt,

accounts

the

of the

successes

achieved by those early missionaries are exaggerated, and their fights with snakes and drag-

ons and evil

remind us sometimes of the legendary accounts of the achievements of such

men

spirits

as St. Patrick in Ireland, or St. Boniface in

Germany.

But the

were sent out to convert the w orld seems beyond the reach of doubt 6 and this fact represents to fact that missionaries r



us at that time a

new

thought, new, not only

in the history of India, but in the history of

The recognition of a duty truth to every man, woman, and

the whole world. to preach the child,

was an idea opposed to the deepest inBrahmanism and when, at the end

stincts of

;

of the chapter on the the simple

would demur, stake

?

"

we

first

w ords of the r

if

missions,

we read

old chronicler, u

the salvation of the world

feel at

once that we move in a

Who is

at

new

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

40 world,

we

dawn of a new day, the openhorizons we feel, for the first

see the

ing of vaster



time in the history of the world, the beating of the great heart of humanity.

The Koran breathes a different spirit it does no * i nv ite, it rather compels the world Mohammedamsm. ^ come jn Yet there are passages, particularly in the earlier portions, which show ;

Mohammed,

had realized the idea of humanity, and of a religion of humanity nay, that at first he wished to unite his own religion with that of the Jews and Christians, comprehending all under the common name of that

too,

;

Islam meant originally humility or de-

Islam.

votion; and

who humbled themselves

and were

fore God,

were

all

called Moslim.

hammed,

"

is

with real revernece,

filled

"

The

men

dispute with you, say,

Ask

those

heathen

:

Islam," says

the true worship of God.

who have

'

am

I

Mo-

When

a Moslim.'

sacred books, and ask the

Are you Moslim

'

be-

?

'

If they

are,

they are on the right path but if they turn away, then you have no other task but to de;

liver

the

Islam."

As

to

christianity.

it

message, to

our

own

the

religion, its

very soul

is

mis-

sionary, progressive, world-embracing

would cease

sionary

preach to them

6



if it

to exist if

it

ceased to be mis-

disregarded the parting words

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. Founder

"

Go ye

of

its

all

nations, baptizing

:

therefore and teach

them

the

in

Father, and of the Son, and of the

teaching them to observe

commanded;

and,

lo,

all

am

I

41

name

of the

Holy Ghost

things I have

with you alway,

even unto the end of the world." missionary character, peculiar to

It is this

these three religions, Buddhism,

Mohammedan-

and Christianity, which binds them together, and lifts them to a higher sphere. Their differences, no doubt, are great on some points they are opposed to each other like day and night. But they could not be what they are, they could not have achieved what they have achieved, unless the spirit of truth and the spirit of love had been alive in the hearts of their founders, their first messengers, and ism,

;

missionaries.

The

spirit

of truth

religion,

and where

manifest

itself,

persuade,

it

it

is

the life-spring of

exists

it

must must

The

it must plead, it must convince and convert.

all

spirit

Mis-

sionary work, however, in the usual sense of

the word, spirit

;

is

for the

only

same

one manifestation of that spirit

which

fills

the heart

of the missionary with daring abroad, gives courage also to the preacher at home, bearing witness to the truth that religions

is

within him.

The

which can boast of missionaries who

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

42

home

of their childhood, and parted and friends never to meet again in this life who went into the wilderness, willing to spend a life of toil among strangers, ready, if need be, to lay down their

left

the old



with parents



as witnesses to

life

the truth, as martyrs for

— the same

the glory of

God

also in those

honest and intrepid inquirers who,

religions are rich

same spirit of truth, were leave behind them the cherished creed

at the bidding of the

ready to

of their childhood, to separate from the friends

they loved best, to stand alone among that shrug their shoulders, and ask "

men

What

is

"

and to bear in silence a martyrdom more galling often than death itself. There are men who say that, if they held the whole

truth

?

truth in their hand, they would not open one

Such men know

finger.

little

of the working

of the spirit of truth, of the true missionary spirit.

As long

and anxiety cence

may

as there

in the

is

doubt and darkness

soul of an inquirer, reti-

be his natural attitude.

But when

once doubt has yielded to certainty, darkness to light, anxiety to joy, the rays of truth will

and to would be

burst forth

our

lips,

;

close

our hand or to shut

as impossible

as

for

the

petals of a flower to shut themselves against

the

summons

What

is

of the sun of spring.

there in this short

life

that should

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. seal our lips

What

?

are not to speak here

work

sionary

at

should

and

home

we wait

noiv ?

as

will

for. if

There

much

there are thousands waiting to

man

43

we

mis-

is

abroad;

as

listen,

if

one

but speak the truth, and nothing but

the truth

;

there are thousands

starving, be-

cause they cannot find that food which

con-

is

venient for them.

And even chained

if

down by

spirit of love

the spirit of truth might be fear or prudence, the

would never

recognize the kind, not as a

yield.

The spiritof love

Once

common brotherhood name or a theory, but

'

of manas a real

bond, as a bond more binding, more lasting

than the bonds of family, caste, and race, and the questions,

Why

Why

should I open

speak to again.

my

Is

it

should I open

my

heart

?

my

Why

hand

?

should I

brother ? will never be asked not far better to speak than to

walk through life silent, unknown, unknowing ? Has any one of us ever spoken to his friend, and opened to him his inmost soul, and been answered with harshness or repelled with scorn ? Has any one of us, be he priest or layman, ever listened to the honest questionings of a truth-loving soul, without feeling his

own

soul filled with love

?

aye, without feeling

humbled by the very honesty of a confession

?

brother's

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

44 If

we would but

confess, friend to friend, if

we would be but

honest,

man

man, we

to

should not want confessors or confessionals.

and difficulties are self-made, if they can be removed by wiser and better men, why not give to our brother the opportunity of helping us ? But if our difficulties are not self-made, if they are not due either to ignorance or presumption, is it not even then If our doubts

better for us to

know

the same burden, the

manity,

may

haply we

if

we are all carrying common burden of hu-

that

find,

that for the

heavy laden there is but one who can give them rest. There may be times when silence is gold, and speech silver but there are times also when silence is death, and speech is life the :



very

life

How we

of Pentecost.

can

man

be afraid of

be afraid of those

Are the young

man

whom we

love

afraid of the old

ing delights the older

?

How

?

can

?

But noth-

man more than

to

see

by the young, and that they them the truth. Are the old afraid of the young ? But nothing sustains the young more than to know that they do not stand alone in their troubles, and

that he

is

trusted

believe he will

that in

many

tell

trials

helpless as the child.

of the soul the father

is

as

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. Are women not wiser

men ?

afraid of

45

But men are

in the things appertaining to

than women, and real love of God

more than ours. Are men afraid of women

is

God

theirs far

But though women may hide their troubles more carefully, their heart aches as much as ours, when they whisper to themselves,

my

thou

"

Lord,

?

I

believe, help

unbelief."

Are the laity afraid of the clergy? But where is the clergyman who would not respect honest doubt more than unquestioning faith ? Are the clergy afraid of the laity ? But surely voice

we know of honesty

in this place that the

and

humility

clear

draws more

hearts than the harsh accents of dogmatic as-

surance or ecclesiastic exclusiveness.

A

missionary must

know no



fear

;

his heart

must overflow with love love of man, love of truth, love of God and in this, the highest and truest sense of the word, every Christian ;

is,

or ought to be, a missionary.

And now, let us look again at the religions in which the missionary spirit has been at The fate of non-missionwork, and compare them with those m wy religions. which any attempt to convince others by argument, to save souls, to bear witness to the truth, .

is

treated with pity or scorn.

alive, the latter

are dying or dead.

The former are

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

46

The

— the

religion of Zoroaster,

religion of

Cyrus, of Darius and Xerxes,

zoroastri-

amsm

but

"

for the battles

of

— which,

Marathon and

of Salamis, might have become the religion of

the civilized world,

100,000 souls

is

— that

now

is,

by only

professed

by about a ten-thou-

sandth part of the inhabitants of the world.

two centuries their number has steadily decreased from four to one hundred thousand, and another century will probably exhaust what is still left of the worshippers of the Wise Spirit, Ahuramazda. The Jews are about thirty times the number Judaism. of the Parsis, and they therefore represent a more appreciable portion of mankind.

During the

Though

last

it is

not likely that they will ever

crease in number, yet such

in-

their physical

is

vigor and their intellectual tenacity, such also their pride of race

that

and their

faith in

we can hardly imagine

Jehovah,

that their patri-

archal religion and their ancient customs will

soon vanish from the face of the earth.

But though the religions of the Parsis and Jews might justly seem to have paid Brahmanthe

penalty of

their

anti-missionary

how, it will be said, can the same be maintained with regard to the religion of the

spirit,

Brahmans

?

That religion

at least 110,000,000 of

is still

human

professed

by

souls, and, to

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. judge from the

number

falls

last census,

much

47

even that enormous

short of the real truth.

yet I do not shrink from saying that their gion

is

And reli-

And why ?

dying or dead.

cannot stand the light of day.

Because it The worship of

and the other popular deities, is of the same, nay, in many cases of a more degraded and savage character than the worship of Jupiter, Apollo, and Minerva it belongs to a stratum of thought which is long buried beneath our feet it may live on, like the lion and the tiger, but the mere air of free thought and civilized life wall extinguish it. A religion may linger on for a long time, it may be accepted by the large masses of the people, because it is there, and there is nothing better. But when a religion has ceased to produce deSiva, of Vishnu,

;

;

fenders of the faith, prophets, champions, martyrs, it

has ceased to live

Brahmanism has ceased

;

and

in

to live for

this sense

more than a

thousand years. It

is

true

there

women, and men

are

in India

millions

of children,

who

down

fall

before

the stone image of Vishnu, with his four arms, riding on a

creature

half bird, half man,

sleeping on the serpent

;

who worship

or

Siva, a

monster with three eyes, riding naked on a bull, with a necklace of skulls for his ornament. There are human beings who still believe in a

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

48

god of war, Kartikeya, with six faces, riding on a peacock, and holding bow and arrow in his hands and who invoke a god of success, Ganesa, with four hands and an elephant's head, sitting on a rat. Nay, it is true that, in the ;

broad daylight of the nineteenth century, the figure of the goddess Kali

the streets of her

own

is

carried through

city, Calcutta,

disheveled hair reaching

to

her

8

her wild

feet,

with a

human heads, her tongue protruded from her mouth, her girdle stained with blood. but ask any Hindu who can All this is true read and write and think, whether these are the gods he believes in, and he will smile at your credulity. How long this living death of national religion in India may last, no one can necklace of

;

tell

:

for

our purposes, however, for gaining an

idea of the issue of the great religious struggle

of the future,

that

religion

too

dead and

is

gone.

The three

which are alive, and between which the decisive battle for the living reHgions. dominion of the world will have to be fought, are the three missionary religions, Buddhism, Mohammedanism, and Christianity. Though religious statistics are perhaps the most uncertain of all, yet it is well to have a general conception of the forces of our enemies and it is well to know that, though the number of Chrisreligions

The three

.

;

T

LECTURE ON tians

MISSIONS.

49

double the number of Mohammedans,

is

the Buddhist religion

occupies the

still

place in the religious census of mankind.

Buddhism

supreme

rules

in Central, North-

and Southern

ern, Eastern,

Asia,

ually absorbs whatever there inal

heathenism

and

is left

it

grad-

of aborig-

and populous

in that vast

Mohammedanism

first

9

area.

own

Arabia,

Persia, great parts of India, Asia Minor,

Turkey,

and Egypt

and

;

claims as

greatest conquests

its

sionary efforts are

its

made among

by

mis-

the heathen

population of Africa. Christianity reigns in

and

it is

Europe and America,

conquering the native races of Poly-

nesia and Melanesia, while posts are scattered

its

missionary out-

over the world.

all

Between these three powers,

then, the re-

ligious battle of the future, the

Holy War of

mankind

have to be fought, and is being fought at the present moment, though apparwill

ently with

medan

little effect.

is difficult

difficult

still

;

to

;

To convert

a

Moham-

to convert a Buddhist,

more

convert a Christian, let us

hope, well nigh impossible.

What

then,

it

may

Why

be asked,

is

the use of

we spend 0bjects of misslons millions on foreign missions, when there are children in our cities who are allowed to grow up in ignorance ? Why should we de-

missionaries

?

should

-

4

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

50

prive ourselves of

some of the

most ardent and devoted

noblest, boldest,

spirits

into the wilderness, while so

and send them

many

laborers are

wanted in the vineyard at home ? It is right to ask these questions

;

and we

ought not to blame those political economists who tell us that every convert costs us £200,

and that at the present rate of progress

it

would

take more than 200,000 years to evangelize the

There

world.

Every

these figures. as

much

nothing at

is

all

startling in

child born in

Europe

is

a heathen as the child of a Melanesian

cannibal; and

more than £200 to a Christian man. The other

costs

it

turn a child into calculation

is

us

totally erroneous, for an intellect-

must not be calculated by adding simply grain to grain, but by counting each ual harvest

grain as a living seed, that will bring forth fruit

a hundred and a thousand fold. If

we want

know what work

to

there

is

for

we we must distinwork the one is

^he missionary to do, what results

patemai missions.

may

eX p ec

fc

from

it,

guish between two kinds of

parental, the other controversial. ilized

races the

work

of a parent

in years

or old,

;

Among

work of the missionary

uncivis

the

whether his pupils are young he has to treat them with a ;

parent's love, to teach

thority

:

them with a

parent's au-

he has to win them, not to argue with

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. them.

know

I

often despised

;

this it is

51

kind of missionary work called

mere

is

religious kid-

and it is said that missionary success obtained by such means proves nothing for the truth of Christianity; that the child handed over to a Mohammedan would grow up a Monapping

;

hammedan,

as

much

as

a child

taken by a

Christian missionary becomes a Christian. this

is

true; missionary success obtained

All

by such

means proves nothing for the truth of our Creeds but it proves, what is far more imporRead only the tant, it proves Christian love. :

"Life of Patteson," the follow

him

island,

begging

Bishop of Melanesia;

in his vessel, sailing

from island to

for children, carrying

them

off

mother her new-born child, nursing them, washing and combing them, clothing them, as a

feeding them, teaching

them

Palace, in which he himself

is

in his Episcopal

everything, nurse

and housemaid, and cook, school-master, physiread there, how that man cian, and Bishop who tore himself away from his aged father, from his friends, from his favorite studies and pursuits, had the most loving of hearts for these children, how indignantly he repelled for them the name of savages, how he trusted them, respected them, honored them, and when they were formed and established, took them back to their island homes, there to be a leaven for



LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

52

Yes, read the

future ages.

life,

the work, the

death of that man, a death in very truth, a ran-

som

for the

sins

whether you would

of others

— and

then say

like to suppress a profession

that can call forth such self-denial, such heroism,

such sanctity, such love.

It has

been

my

priv-

have known some of the finest and noblest spirits which England has produced during this century, but there is none to whose memory I look up with greater reverence, none by whose friendship I feel more deeply humbled than by that of that true saint, that true mar-

ilege to

tyr, that truly

parental missionary.

The work of the parental missionary and

success undeniable, not only in Poly-

its

and Melanesia, but

nesia

is clear,

in

many

parts

of

India (think only of the bright light of Tinin America, in Turkey, aye, in the very heart of Lon-

nevelly), in Africa, in China, Syria, in

don.

The

case .

,

Controversial missions.

in

is

different with the controversial

missionary,7 •/

who

has to attack the faith

men bought up in other religions, religions which contain much truth, though f

mixed up with much

error.

Here the

difficul-

immense, the results very discouraging. Nor need we wonder at this. We know, each of us, but too well, how little argument avails ties are

in theological discussion

;

how

often

it

produces

LECTURE ON

MISSIONS.

the very opposite result of what

53

we expected

confirming rather than shaking opinions no less erroneous, no less indefensible, than

Mohammedan or And even when argument

ticles of the

when

forces a verdict

it

judge,

how

pointing

often

many

Buddhist

ar-

faith.

proves successful,

from an unwilling

has the result been disap-

because in tearing up the rotten stem

;

on which the tree have been injured,

rested, its tenderest fibres its

roots unsettled,

its

life

destroyed.

We

ground to expect that these controversial weapons will carry the day in the struggle between the three great religions of have

little

the world.

But there

is a third kind of missionary acwhich has produced the most indirect influence of important results, and through which Christianity.

tivity,

-.

.

-,

-,

•,

*

.

alone, I believe, the final victory will be gained.

Whenever two religions are brought into contact, when members of each live together in peace, abstaining from all direct attempts at

conversion, whether

by

force or

by argument,

though conscious all the time of the fact that they and their religion are on their trial, that they are being watched, that they are responsible for all they say and do the effect has always been the greatest blessing to both. It



calls

out

all

the best elements in each, and at

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

54

the same time keeps under

all

that

is felt

of doubtful value, of uncertain truth.

to

be

When-

ever this has happened in the history of the world,

it

has generally led ^either to the reform

of both systems, or to the foundation of a

new

religion.

When e Influence of ed " ^n°ism on

after the conquest of India the vio-

lent measures

the conversion of

for

m

the Hindus to Mohammedanism had Brahmanism. i^/ri -it»t ceased, and Mohammedans and Jbrahmans lived together in the enjoyment of perfect equality, the result was a purified Mohammedanism, and a purified Brahmanism. 10 The worshippers of Vishnu, Siva, and other deities became ashamed of these mythological gods and were led to admit that there was, either over and above these individual deities, or instead of them, a higher divine power (the i

-i

Para-Brahma), the true source of all being, the only and almighty ruler of the world. That religious

movement assumed

development century,

its

most important

at the beginning of the twelfth

when Kamanuga founded

the reformed

sect of the worshippers of

Vishnu

in the fourteenth century,

when

cessor,

Bamananda, imparted a

;

and again,

his fifth suc-

more liberal Not only did

still

character to that powerful sect.

he abolish many of the restrictions of caste, many of the minute ceremonial observances in

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

55

and bathing, but he replaced which was unintelligible the classical Sanskrit by the livto the large masses of the people ing vernaculars, in which he preached a purer eating, drinking,





worship of God.

The most remarkable man of that time was a weaver, the pupil of Ramananda, known Kabir. by the name of Kabir. He indeed deserved the name which the members of the reformed themselves, AvadMta, which

sect claimed for

means one who has shaken

He broke

perstition.

off the dust of su-

entirely with the popular

mythology and the customs of the ceremonial law, and addressed himself alike to Hindu and

Mohammedan.

According to him, there

but one God, the creator of the world, without beginning and end, of inconceivable purity, and irresistible strength. The pure man is the image of God, and after death attains community with God. The commandments of Kabir are few Not to injure anything that has life, is

:

for life

is

of

God

;

to

speak the truth

aloof from the world

;

to

;

to

keep

obey the teacher.

is most beautiful, hardly surpassed any other language. Still more important in the history of India was the reform of Nanak, the founder Nanak, AT of the Sikh religion. He, too, worked sZn reisl0n entirely in the spirit of Kabir. Both

His poetry

in

7

" .

'

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

56

labored to persuade the Hindus and

medans that the

Moham-

truly essential parts of their

creeds were the same, that they ought to discard

the varieties of practical detail, and the corruptions of their teachers, for the worship of

the One Only Supreme, whether he was termed Allah or Vishnu.

The

effect of these religious

highly beneficial;

it

reforms has been

has cut into the very roots

of idolatry, and has spread throughout India an

and spiritual worship, which may at any time develop into a higher national creed. The same effect which Mohammedanism produced on Hinduism is now being proinfluence C ? duced in a much higher degree on the ty on Brah" religious mind of India by the mere presence of Christianity. That silent influence began to tell many years ago, even at a time when no missionaries were allowed within the intelligent

<->

j-

ri

i

Ram Mo turn ttiJ Brahma-

samaj.

territory of the •*

old East India Corn-

was Ram Mohun Roy. born just one hundred pany.

Its first representative

years ago, in 1772,

who

died at Bristol in 1833,

the founder of the Brahma-Samaj.

A man

so

highly cultivated and so highly religious as he was, could not but feel humiliated at the spectacle

which the popular religion of

presented to their

his

English friends.

his

country

He drew

attention to the fact that there

was a

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

57

purer religion to be found in the old sacred

He went

writings of his people, the Vedas. far as to claim for the

Vedas a divine

origin,

so

and

to attempt the foundation of a reformed faith

In this attempt he

on their authority.

No doubt

the Vedas and other works of the

ancient poets and prophets of India contain treasures of truth, which ought

never to be forgotten, least of of India.

failed.

The

late

Inspiration of theVedas

-

by the sons

all

good Bishop Cotton,

in his

address to the students of a missionary institution at Calcutta, advised

hymn

them

to use a certain

of the Rig- Veda in their daily prayers. 11

Nowhere do we find stronger arguments against idolatry, nowhere has the unity of the Deity been upheld more strenuously against the errors of polytheism than by some of the ancient sages of India. Even in the oldest of sacred

their

books,

the Rig- Veda, composed

three or four thousand years ago find

hymns addressed

the sky, the

air,

protest of the

human

— where we of — the

to the different deities

the earth, the rivers

heart against

many

gods,

breaks forth from time to time with no uncertain

sound.

whom

One

poet, after he has asked to

sacrifice is due, answers, " to

God above

all

gods."

12

enumerating the names of without hesitation, that

Another

many

Him who poet,

is

after

deities, affirms,

" these are all

but names

LECTURE ON

58 of

Him who

is

And even when

One."

deities are invoked, it

MISSIONS.

is

not

single

difficult to see that,

mind of the poet, each one of the names meant to express the highest conception of deity of which the human mind was then capable. The god of the sky is called Father and Mother

in the is

and Friend he is the Creator, the Upholder of the Universe he rewards virtue and punishes sin he listens to the prayers of those who love ;

;

;

him.

But granting

why an

all this,

we may well understand

attempt to claim for these books a

divine origin, and thus to

make them an

artifi-

new

religion, failed.

The

cial

foundation for a

successor of

Ram Mohun

Roy, the present head

of the Brahma-Samaj, the wise and excellent

Debendranath Tagore, was for a time even more decided in holding to the Vedas as the Debensole foundation of the new faith. But dranath Tagore. this could not last. As soon as the true character of the Vedas, 13 which but few people in India can understand, became known, partly through the efforts of native, partly of European scholars, the Indian reformers relinquished the

claim of divine inspiration in

favor of their Vedas, and were satisfied with

a selection of passages from the works of the

ancient sages of India, to express and

members of common.14

the creed which the

Samaj hold in

the

embody Brahma-

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. The work which only

who know w hat 7

religious reformers

these

have been doing in India

is

it is,

59

excellent,

and those

in religious matters,

to break with the past, to forsake the established

custom of a nation,

oppose the rush of public opinion, to brave adverse criticism, to submit to

to

can form any

persecution,

social

what those men have

idea of

suffered, in bearing wit-

ness to the truth that was within them.

They could not reckon on any sympathy on the part of Christian Missionaries

Europe

till

nor

schism Brahma.the samaj. in

much attention very lately, when a schism broke

work

did their in

;

attract

out in the Brahma-Samaj between the old conservative party and a

new

party, led

The former, though °

Chuncler Sen.

ling to surrender

all

by Keshub

wil- Keshub Chunder

that was clearly

Sen

-

idolatrous in the ancient religion and customs

of India, wished to retain

be retained

:

it

all

that

might safely

did not wish to see the religion

The other party, inby Keshub Chunder Sen, went

of India denationalized. spired and led

further in their zeal for religious purity.

All

that smacked of the old leaven was to be sur-

rendered

;

not only caste, but even that sacred

— the

which makes and marks the Brahman, which is to remind him at every moment of his life, and whatever work he may be engaged in, of his God, of his ancestors, cord

religious riband

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

60



and of his children even that was to be abandoned; and instead of founding their creed exclusively on the utterances of the ancient sages of their

own

was best in the sacred books of the whole world, was selected and formed into a new sacred Code. The schism between these two parties is country,

deeply to be deplored It

;

that

all

but

it is

a sign of

life.

augurs success rather than failure for the

future.

had

the same schism which St. Paul

It is

to heal in the

healed stood,

it

"

Church of Corinth, and he

with the words, so often misunder-

Knowledge

pufFeth

up,

but

charity

edifieth."

In the eyes of our missionaries this religious Relation of Missionaries to the

Brahmasamaj.

reform in India has not found ~

tavor

much _

:

nor need we wonder at

Their object

Christianity in

is

its full

.

this.

to transplant, if possible,

integrity from

England

we might wish to transplant a fullgrown tree. They do not deny the moral

to India,' as

worth, the noble aspirations, the self-sacrificing zeal of these native reformers

that

all this will

;

but they fear

but increase their dangerous

and retard the progress of Christianity, by drawing some of the best minds of India, that might have been gained over to our religion,

influence,

into a

different

current.

Keshub Chunder Sen

They

feel

towards

as Athanasius might have

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. towards

felt

Ulfilas,

61

the Arian Bishop of the

and yet, what would have become of Christianity in Europe but for those Gothic races, but for those Arian heretics, who were considered more dangerous than downright Goths

:

pagans If

?

we think

of the future of India, and of the

has influence which that country J

al-

_

Brahraa,

ways exercised on the East, the move- SSSfii to a new creed. n i* ment of religious reform which is now going on, appears to my mind the most momentous in this momentous century. If our mis•





i



i

sionaries feel constrained to repudiate

own work,

history will be

than they themselves.

15

And

of Christian missionaries, hereafter as the tians

who have

true Christian tives

it

if

as their

them the work

just to

not as

will be recognized

work of those missionary

Chris-

lived in India, as examples of a

life,

who have approached

the na-

in a truly missionary spirit, in the spirit

of truth

and

beneath

it

whose bright and brought out

in the spirit of love

presence has thawed the the old

soil,

new

life.

us

for all the highest

;

more

it

ice,

;

ready to blossom into

These Indian puritans are not against purposes of

are with us, and we, I trust,

w ith them.

would the early Christians have outside the pale of Christianity,

Christ and his doctrine as

life

T

said to

they

What men,

who spoke

of

some of these Indian

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

62 reformers

Would they have

?

said

to

them,

" Unless

you speak our language and think our thoughts, unless you respect our Creed and sign our

common

we can have nothing

Articles,

in

with you."

that Christians, and particularly missiona„.

.

.

Missionaries

would lay J

words of a missionary Bishop "I have for years thought," writes Bishop Patteson, ries,y

to heart the 16

!

Squire°too

we seek in our Missions a great much to make English Christians.

" that

.

dently the heathen

man

is

deal too .

not treated

.

Evi-

fairly,

we encumber our message with unnecessary The ancient Church had its requirements.

if

c

selection of fundamentals.'

see

.

.

Any one

.

what mistakes we have made

Few men

.

.

.

We

.

.

seek to denational-

these races, as far as I can see

we ought

can .

think themselves into the state of

the Eastern mind. ize

in India.

surely to change as

— only what

is

little

;

whereas

as possible

clearly incompatible with the

simplest form of Christian teaching and prac-

mean that we are to compromise truth .... but do we not overlay it a " good deal with human traditions If we had many such missionaries as w u Bishop PatI

tice.

do not

!

.

-

**

sXpcot-

Bishop Patteson and Bishop if

Cotton,

Christianity were not only preached,

but lived in that

spirit,

it

would then prove

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. itself

what

it

— the

enough

large, large

and

is

diversities of character

And more than spirit, this spirit

that

humanity

religion of

itself to



63

take in

and

at

shades

all

race.

true missionary

if this

of truth and love, of forbear-

ance, of trust, of toleration, of humility,

once to kindle the hearts of

were

those chivalrous

all

ambassadors of Christ, the message of the Gospel which

become

they have to deliver would then

as great a blessing to the giver as to

the receiver. Even now, missionary work unites,

both at

home and

abroad, those

who

are widely

separated by the barriers of theological

might do so

It

stand before

a

far

more

still.

why

common enemy, w e own small feuds. But

prudence only and then, friend

When we „.

7

if

we

selfishness.

£°ndof

not, before

forget our small feuds,

for

l

Can we

stand in spirit before

— can we

.

Missionary

Often, I fear, from motives of

?

17

r

**

soon forget our

sects.

a

not,

common

the face of God,

very shame

missionaries admit to their fold converts

?

If

who

can hardly understand the equivocal abstrac-

and formulas, is it necessary to exclude those who understand them but too well to submit the wings of their free spirit to

tions of our Creeds

such galling chains

?

When we

the majesty of God, what are

all

try to think of

those formulas

but the stammerings of children, which only a

LECTURE ON

64

MISSIONS.

can interpret and understand

loving father

The fundamentals of our these poor Creeds

;

are not in

religion

true Christianity lives, not

in our belief, but in our love

God, and

!

in

our love of

our love of man, founded on our love of

in

God.

That

^ a^

True Christianity

the

'

which

the whole

is

*s

Law and

^ e religion

the Prophets,

to be

whole world, that

preached to the Gospel

is



conquer all other religions even Buddhism and Mohammedanism which will w in the hearts of all men. will



r

There can never be too much there

may

when

it

be too

much

faith

love,

leads to the requirement of exactly

the same measure of faith in others.

who wish work

though

— particularly

for

the true

Let those

success of missionary

abundance of their faith let them learn to demand less from others than from themselves. That is the best offering, the most valuable contribution which learn

to

throw

in of the

;

they can make to-day to the missionary cause. it

Let missionaries preach the Gospel again as was preached when it began the conquest of

Roman Empire and the Gothic nations when it had to struggle with powers and princithe

palities,

with time-honored religions and

umphant

tri-

philosophies, with pride of civilization

and savagery of

life

— and

yet came out vie-

LECTURE ON MISSIONS. torious.

At

that time

65

conversion was not a

question to be settled by the acceptance or rejection of certain formulas or articles ple prayer ful to

me

There

was often enough

a sim-

;

God be

:

merci-

a sinner."

one kind of

is

words, there

come

that revels

faith

another that can hardly

is

find utterance

that

u

:

the former

is

like riches

by inheritance

to us

;

Two

in

kiuds

of faith

'

the latter

is

which each of us has to win in the sweat of his brow. We cannot expect the former from new converts we ought

like the daily bread,

;

not to expect

it

or to exact

it,

for fear that it

might lead to hypocrisy or superstition. The mere believing of miracles, the mere repeating of formulas, requires no effort in converts brought up to believe in the Puranas of the

Brahmans or the Buddhist Gatakas. it

much

They

find

easier to accept a legend than to love

God, to repeat a creed than to forgive their enemies.

In

ourselves.

this respect

they are exactly like

Let missionaries remember that the

Christian faith at

was, and that

it is

home

is

no longer what

it

impossible to have one creed

to preach abroad, another to preach at

home.

Much that was formerly considered as essential much that was formerly negis now neglected I think lected is now considered as essential. ;

of the laity

more than of the

clergy: but

what

LECTURE ON MISSIONS.

66

would the clergy be without the laity ? There are many of our best men, men of the greatest power and influence in literature, science, art, politics, aye, even in the Church itself, who are no longer Christian in the old sense of the word. Some imagine they have ceased to be because they

Christians altogether,

they cannot believe as to believe.

We we

shall

satisfied

with what

lose

what

ing missionary.

that

as others profess

cannot afford to lose these

men, nor

Apostles, with

much

feel

them

if

satisfied satisfies

we

learn to be

Christ

many

If Christianity

is

and the

a hard-workto retain its

conquer in the Holy War of the future, it must throw off its heavy armor, the helmet of brass, and the coat of mail, and face the world like David, with his staff, his stones, and his sling. We want less of creeds, but more of trust ; less of ceremony, but more of work less of solemnity, hold on Europe and America,

if it is to

;

but more of genial honesty;

but more of love.

There

is

less

of doctrine,

a faith, as small as

a grain of mustard-seed, but that grain alone

can move mountains, and more than that, can move hearts. Whatever the world of us, of us of

little faith, let

there was one

who accepted

poor widow. that

was

all

us

it

may say

remember

that

the offering of the

She threw in but two mites, but she had, even all her living.

NOTES.

1

Different systems of classification applied to the re-

world are discussed in

ligions of the

my

" Introduction to

the Science of Religion/' pp. 122-143. 2 " Proselyto ne fidas usque ad vigesimam quartam gen-

Jalkut Ruth,

erationem."

"Nov. 3

" India, Progress

d.

;

Danz, in Meuschen,

and Condition," Blue Book presented " It

to Parliament, 1873, p. 99.

tion

163,

f.

Test, ex Talm. illustr." p. 651.

asserted (but the asser-

is

must be taken with reserve) that

suppose that the Hindu religion

number of

outsiders, so

is

it

is

a mistake to

not proselytizing.

Any

long as they do not interfere with

established castes, can form a

new

caste,

and

call

themselves

Hindus, and the Brahmans are always ready to receive

who submit 4

to

all

and pay them."

Cf.

Mahavanso, cap.

5.

5

Cf.

Mahavanso, cap.

12.

6

In some of the places mentioned by the " Chronicle "

among

as

the earliest stations of Buddhist missions, relics

have been discovered containing the names of the very missionaries mentioned by the " Chronicle." See Koeppen, " Die Religion des Buddha," p. 188. 7

" Islam

is

the verbal noun, and Moslim the participle of

the same root which also yields Salam, peace, and salim and satym, whole, honest. pacify

by forbearance

Sprenger, 8

Islam means, therefore, to satisfy or ;

it

"Mohammad,"

i.

also p.

means simply

69;

iii.

subjection."

486.

Lassen, " Indische Alterthumskunde," vol.

iv. p.

635.

NOTES.

68 9

" Chips from a

German Workshop/'

vol.

on the Science of Religion," pp. 161, 216. 10 Lassen, " Indische Alterthumskunde," Wilson, "Asiatic Researches," xvi. 11

;

" Essays

vol. iv. p.

606.

p. 21.

See " Brahmic Questions of the Day," 1869, p. 16. " History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature," by M. M.

12

(2d

i.

ed.), p.

13

u

569.

t^q Adi Brahma-Samaj,

Its

Views and

Principles,"

Calcutta, 1870, p. 10. 14

«

^

Brief History of

the

Calcutta

Brahma-Samaj,

1868," p. 15. 15

The "Indian Mirror"

(Sept.

10, 1869)

constantly

treats

of missionary efforts of various kinds in a

which

is

spirit

not only friendly, but even desirous of reciprocal

sympathy and hopeful that whatever differences may exist between them (the missionaries) and the Brahmos, the two parties will heartily combine as brethren to exterminate idolatry, and promote true morality in India. Many of our ministers and leading men, says the " Indian ;

Mirror," are recruited from missionary schools, which, by

more favorable to the Brahmoism than Government schools growth and spread of with Comte and Secularism (" Indian Theism," by S. D.

affording religious education, prove

Collet, 1870, p. 22). 16

ii.

p. 17

" Life of

John Coleridge Patteson," by

C.

M. Yonge,

167.

The

large body of

European and American mission-

aries settled in India bring their various

moral influences

to bear upon the country with the greater force, because they act together with a compactness which is but little un-

derstood.

Though belonging

Christians, yet position,

and

to various

denominations of

from the nature of their work,

their long experience, they

their isolated

have been led to

think rather of the numerous questions on which they agree,

than of those on which they

differ,

and they cooperate

NOTES.

69 among them by

Localities are divided

heartily together.

friendly arrangements, and, with a few exceptions, fixed rule

among them

other's converts

it

is

a

that they will not interfere with each

and each other's spheres of duty.

School

books, translations of the Scriptures and religious works, -

prepared by various missions, are used in

common

and

;

help and improvements secured by one mission are freely placed at the

command

of

all.

The

large body of mission-

aries resident in each of the presidency

towns form mission-

ary conferences, hold periodic meetings, and act together on

They have

public matters.

frequently addressed the Indian

Government on important

social

questions involving

the

welfare of the native community, and have suggested val-

uable improvements in

existing

laws.

During the past

twenty years, on Ave occasions, general conferences have

been held ary work

for ;

mutual consultation respecting their mission-

and in January

last, at

the latest of these gath-

erings, at Allahabad, 121 missionaries

met

together, belong-

men

ing to twenty different societies, and including several of long experience

who have been twenty

years in India

("India, Progress and Condition," 1873, p. 124).

The Schism in

The Samaj

the

Brahma- Samaj. 1

present position of the two parties in the is

well described

Brahmo Samaj,"

by Rajnarain Bose

Calcutta, 1873, p. 11).

"The

BrahmaAdi

(the "

particular

opinions above referred to can be divided into two compre-

hensive classes 1

— conservative and

Brahma-Samaj, the Church,

of

Brahma,

progressive. is

the general

The title.

con-

When

the schism took place, the original Samaj was called Adi Brahma-Samaj, i. e., the First Church of Brahma, while the progressive party under Keshub Chunder Sen was distinguished by the name of the Brahma-Samaj of India. The vowels u and o are often the same in Bengali, and are sometimes used

for a.

NOTES.

70 servative ligious

Brahmos

and

are those

who

social reformation to

are unwilling to push re-

They

any great extreme.

are of opinion that reformation should be gradual, the law

of gradual progress being universally prevalent in nature.

They

also say that the principle of

Brahmic harmony reand that,

quires a harmonious discharge of all our duties, as

it

a duty to take a part in reformation, so there are

is

other duties to perform, namely, those towards parents and society,

and that we should harmonize

much as we may appear

can.

However

make

is justified

to

They are certainly such Brahmo think sincerely that he

first sight.

the conservative

in not pushing religious

The

any great extreme.

therefore

call

these duties as

a progressive Brahmo, they are such as

to

could not be slighted at as to

all

unsatisfactory such arguments

him a

and

social reformation

Brahmo cannot

progressive

A

hypocrite.

union of both the

conservative and the progressive elements in the

church

ment

is

necessary for

stability.

its

will prevent the progressive

The

Brahmo

conservative ele-

from spoiling the cause

of reformation by taking premature and abortive measures for advancing that cause

;

the progressive element will pre-

vent the conservative from proving a stolid obstruction to it.

The

conservative element will serve as a link between

the progressive element and the orthodox community, and

prevent the progressive

Brahmo from being completely

es-

tranged from that community, as the native Christians are while the progressive element will prevent the conservative

from remaining inert and being absorbed by the orthodox

community.

The common

interests of

Brahmo Dharma

should lead both classes to respect, and be on amicable

terms with, each other.

It

is

true the progressive of the

present half century will prove the conservative of the next

but there could never come a time when the two classes

would cease

to

bosom of the make them live

exist in the

should, like a wise mother,

church.

She

in peace with

each other, and work harmoniously together for her benefit.

NOTES. As

"

idolatry

intimately interwoven with our social

is

fabric, conservative

respects, find

Brahmos, though discarding it in other difficult to do so on the occasion of

very

it

domestic

such very important

shradh (ancestral prenticing)

;

71

ceremonies

and upanayana

sacrifices),

marriage,

as

(spiritual ap-

but they should consider that Brahmoism

is

not so imperative on any other point as on the renunciation It can allow conservatism in other respects,

of idolatry.

but not on the point of idolatry.

Brahmo

if

but

man

It can consider a

he be conservative in other respects than

can never consider an idolater to be a Brahmo.

atry

;

The

conservative

it

a

idol-

Brahmo can do one

thing, that

is,

observe

the old ritual, leaving out only the idolatrous portion of

it,

he do not choose to follow the positive Brahmo ritual Liberty should be laid down in the Anushthana Paddhati. if

by the

given

Brahmo

Brahmo

progressive

to

the

conservative

in judging of the idolatrous character of the por-

tions of the old ritual rejected

Brahmo

by him.

If a progressive

requires a conservative one to reject those j)ortions

which the former considers

be idolatrous, but the

to

does not, he denies liberty of conscience

to

latter

a fellow-

Brahmo. "

The Adi Brahmo-Samaj

is

the national

Hindu

demeanor towards the old rebut corrective and reformcircumstance which preeminently distin-

been describing above. ligion of the country ative.

It

guishes

it

is

this

ligion

is

It

is

The

friendly,

progress.

Its

friendly,

antagonistic and offensive.

is

of the Adi Samaj it.

is

from the Brahmo-Samaj of India, whose attitude

to that religion

destroy

is

The

to fulfill the old religion,

mission

and not

to

Adi Samaj to the old renot at the same time opposed to

attitude of the

but

It is a

it is

mistake to

call it

a conservative church.

rather a conservative progressive church, or,

rectly,

Theistic

we have

Church, whose principles of church reformation

more

cor-

simply a church or religious body, leaving matters of

72

NOTES.

social reformation to the

judgments of individual members

or bodies of such members.

who wanted

mos, it,

were obliged

It contains

As

and conservative members.

both progressive

the ultra-progressive Brah-

to eliminate the conservative

to secede

from

it,

element from

so if a high conservative

bosom which would attempt to do violence and convert the church into a partly conservative one, that party also would be obliged to secede from it. Only men who can be tolerant of each othparty arise in

its

to the progressive element

and who can respect each other's earnest conprogressive and conservative, can remain its mem-

er's opinions,

victions,

bers."

The

strong national feeling of the Indian reformers finds

expression in the following passage from " Brahmic Questions," p. 9

:



A

Samaj is accessible to all. The minds of the majority of our countrymen are not deeply saturated with ChrisWhat would they think of a Brahmo tian sentiments. "

minister

who would Would ?

the Bible

quote on the Yedi (altar) sayings from

they not from that time conceive an in-

tolerable hatred towards

mo

Brahmoism and everything Brah-

If quoting a sentence from the Bible or Koran offend

?

our countrymen, we shall not do

when taken from True

Bible.

Truth

so.

the Sastras as from the

is

as catholic

Koran

or the

liberality consists, not in quoting texts

from

the religious Scriptures of other nations, but in bringing up, as

and

we

advance, the rear

We

superstition.

tates of conscience, if

tras only,

who

are groveling in ignorance

certainly do not act against the dic-

we quote

and not from

all

texts

from the Hindu Sas-

the religious Scriptures of

countries on the face of the globe.

Moreover, there

all

the

is

not

a single saying in the Scriptures of other nations, which has

not

its

And

counterpart in the Sastras."

again in "

Principles," p. 1

:

The Adi Brahma Samaj,



Its

Views and

NOTES.

73

u

The members of the Adi Samaj, aiming to diffuse the Theism among their own nation, the Hindus, have naturally adopted a Hindu mode of propagation, just as an Arab Theist would adopt an Arabian mode of propagation, truths of

Such

and a Chinese Theist a Chinese one.

Theism

the aspect of arise

in different countries

from the usual course of things, but they are adven-

titious,

not

Brahmoism

essential,

it

it is

It

it.

in a particular country.

would make

not sectarian.

national,

universal religion,

is

nicate a universal form to

form

differences in

must naturally

A

Although

impossible to

commu-

must wear a particular so-called universal form

appear grotesque and ridiculous to the nation

among whom it is intended to be propagated, and would not command their veneration. In or religious denomination

conformity with such views, the Adi Samaj has adopted a

Hindu form

propagate Theism

to

many

therefore retained

among Hindus.

It has

innocent Hindu usages and cus-

toms, and has adopted a form of divine service containing

passages extracted from the Hindu Sastras only, a book of Theistic texts containing selections from those sacred books only,

and a

as could be

ritual containing as

much

of the ancient form

kept consistently with the dictates of con-

science."

Extracts from Keshub Chunder Sen's Lecture on Christ and Christianity, 1870.

"

Why have

.... Why

is

u Christian," I

I cherished respect and reverence for Christ it

that,

still

?

though I do not take the name of

persevere in offering

my

hearty thanks-

There must be something in the life and death of Christ, must be something in his great gospel which tends to bring comfort and light and givings to Jesus Christ

?

— there

strength to a heart heavy-laden with iniquity and wickedness*

....

I studied Christ ethically, nay, spiritually,

— and

I

NOTES.

74

studied the Bible also in the same spirit, and I must acknowledge candidly and sincerely that I owe a great deal to Christ and to the gospel of Christ. .

"My Bible?

first .

.

What

inquiry was,

Must

.

is

.

.

the creed taught in the

I go through all the

dogmas and doc-

trines

which constitute Christianity in the eye of the various

sects,

or

there something simple which I can at once

is

grasp and turn to account

?

" I found Christ spoke one language

and Christianity an-

him prepared to hear what he had to say, and was immensely gratified when he told me Love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy mind, with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and love thy neighI went to

other.

i

:

;

and then he added, This is the whole law and the prophets/ in other words, the whole philosophy, bor as thyself

'

'

theology, and ethics of the law and the prophets are con-

centrated in these two great doctrines of love to

man

love to

;

and then elsewhere he

shall inherit everlasting

man we become

love

life.'

....

Christ-like,

said,

If

and so

'

God and

This do and ye

we

love

God and

attain everlasting

life.

" Christ never

that

is

due

to

demanded from me worship or adoration

me

as the spirit I

der to approach the Divine Father, as

and guide who

He

God, the Creator of the Universe

places himself before

will lead

me

to

must imbibe in orthe great Teacher

God.

There are some persons who believe that if we pass through the ceremony of baptism and sacrament, we shall be accepted by God, but if you accept baptism as an outward rite, you cannot thereby render your life acceptable to "

God,

for Christ

wants something internal, a complete conmammon and

version of the heart, a giving up the yoke of

accepting the yoke of religion, and truth, and God.

He

wants us to baptize our hearts not with cold water, but with the

fire

of religious and spiritual enthusiasm

;

he

calls

upon

NOTES. us not to go through any outward

75 rite,

but to make baptism

a ceremony of the heart, a spiritual enkindling of

our

all

and most heavenly aspirations true baptism. So with regard to

energies, of all our loftiest

and

That

activities.

is

There are many who

the doctrine of the Sacrament.

eat

the bread and drink the wine at the Sacramental table, and

go through the ceremony in the most pious and fervent spirit, but, after all,

men

If

what does the

simply adopt

Christ, shall

he be

it

satisfied ?

?

and honor to

Shall they themselves be sat-

Can we look upon them

isfied ?

Sacrament mean

real

as a tribute of respect

as Christians simply be-

cause they have gone through this rite regularly for twenty or

fifty

years of their lives

?

Christ demands

I think not.

of us absolute sanctification and purification of the heart.

In

this matter, also,

sects

"

on the

I see Christ on one

side,

and Christian

other.

What

is that bread which Christ asked his disciples to what that wine which he asked them to taste ? Any man who has simple intelligence in him, would at once come to the conclusion that all this was metaphorical, and

eat

?

highly and eminently spiritual. accept Christ simply as teacher, an external

Now,

you prepared

are

to

an outward Christ, an outward

atonement and propitiation, or will you

prove true to Christ by accepting his solemn injunctions in their spiritual importance

and weight ?

He

distinctly says,

every follower of his must eat his flesh and drink his blood. If

we

eat,

bread

is

converted into strength and health, and

becomes the means of prolonging our

life

;

so, spiritually,

we take truth into our heart, if we put Christ into the soul, we assimilate the spirit of Christ to our spiritual being, and then we find Christ incorporated into our existence and if

converted into spiritual strength, and health, and joy, and blessedness. self-sacrifice,

growth

Christ wants something that will

a casting away of the old

in the heart.

amount

man and

a

to

new

I thus draw a line of demarkation

NOTES.

76 between the

and outward Christ and the

visible

invisible

and inward Christ, between bodily Christ and spiritual Christ, between the Christ of images and pictures, and the Christ that grows in the heart, between dead Christ and living Christ, between Christ that lived and that was, and Christ that does live and that

"

To be

tianity

a Christian then

means

becoming

is.

is

like

.

.

.

be Christ-like.

to

Christ,

Chris-

not acceptance

Christ as a proposition or as an outward representation, but spiritual conformity

And what Thy said,

is

will be

'

with the

By

Christ?

;

done

and character of Christ.

life

who

Christ I understand one

and when I talk of Christ, I

'

talk of that spirit of loyalty to God, that spirit of absolute

determinedness and preparedness to say at all

circumstances,

i

Thy

will

all

times and in

be done, not mine.'

.

.

.

" This prayer about forgiving

enemy,

this

an enemy and loving an transcendental doctrine of love of man, is really

Man of God, and uttering those blessed words, Father, forgive them, they know not what they do oh I feel that I must love that being, I feel that there is some-

sweet to me, and when I think of that blessed

on the

crucified

cross,

;

6

'

thing within

me which

is

touched by these sweet and heav-

enly utterances, I feel that I must love Christ, let Christians

say what they like against

me

;

he preached love for an enemy. "

When

every individual

— repudiate the name, man becomes

if

that Christ I .

.

man becomes

you

like,

must

love, for

.

Christian in

spirit,

— when every individual

as prayerful as Christ was, as loving

and

for-

giving towards enemies as Christ was, as self-sacrificing as

Christ was, then these ities, will

little

units, these little individual-

coalesce and combine together by the natural af-

finity of their hearts

;

and these new creatures, reformed,

regenerated, in the child-like and Christ-like spirit of devotion

and

faith, will feel

drawn towards each

other,

and they

shall constitute a real Christian church, a real Christian na-

NOTES. Allow me,

tion.

friends, to say,

77

England

is

not yet a Chris-

tian nation."

Extracts

Q.

from a Catechism issued by a member of Brahmo-Samaj.

Who

is

the deity of the

the

Adi

Brahmos?

The One True God, one only without a second, whom Hindu Sastras proclaim. Q. What is the divine worship of the Brahmos ?

A. all

A. Loving God, and doing the works He loveth. Q. What is the temple of the Brahmos ?

A. The pure heart. Q.

What are the ceremonial observances of the Brahmos

?

A. Good works. Q.

What

is

the sacrifice of the

A. Renunciation of Q.

What

Brahmos

?

selfishness.

Brahmos ? The Mahabharata says, He who

are the austerities of the

A. Not committing

sin.

does not commit sin in mind, speech, action, or understanding,

performs austerities

Q.

What

is

not he

;

who

drieth up his body.

the place of pilgrimage of the

Brahmos ?

A. The company of the good. Q.

What

is

the

Veda

of the

Veda the

Brahmos ?

Vedas. The The inferior knowledge is the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda, the Atharva Veda, etc.

A. Divine knowledge. itself says

:

the superior knowledge Q. WTiat

is

It is superior to all

is

that

which

treats of

the most sacred formula of the

God.

Brahmos

?

A. Be good and do good. Q.

A. shad is

Who

is

the true

Brahman ?

He who knows Brahma. The Brihadaranyaka-Upanisays He who departs from this world knowing God, :

a Brahman.

1869).

(See " Brahmic Questions of the Day,''

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To

$2.00.

living in these departments of his-

a wonderfully exact and exhaustive knowledge of

these subjects, he unites great powers of generalization, a vigorous, spirited, and exceedingly graphic style and keen analytical powers, which give this iristory a degree of interest and a permanent value possessed by no other " Dr. record of the decline and fall of the Roman Commonwealth. Mommsen's work," as Dr. Schmitz remarks in the introduction, " though

the production of a

man

knowledge of the world,

of most profound and extensive learning and is

much

not as

scholar as for intelligent readers of all classes

designed for the professionai

who

take an interest in the

tory of by-gone ages, and are inclined there to seek information that

guide them safely through the perplexing mazes of

modern

his*

may

history."

CRITICAL NOTICES. "

work of the very highest merit its learning is exact and profound its narrative fall its descriptions of men are admirably vivid. We wish to place on d° genius and skill record our opinion that Dr. Mommsen's is by far the best history of the Decline and Fall London Times. of the Roman Commonwealth." A.

;

;

;

*'

Since the days of Niebuhr, no work on

Roman

History has appeared that combines so



and charm the reader. Its style a rare quality in a German author—is vigorous, spirited, and animated. Professor Mommsen's work can stand a comparison with the noblest productions of modern history." Dr. Schmitz.

much

to attract, instruct,

"This

is

the best history of the

Roman

Republic, taking the work on the whole— the

author's complete mastery of his subject, the variety of his gifts

and acquirements,

hi*

graphic power in the delineation of national and individual character, and the vivid inters^ viucb he inspires in every portion of his book.

He

-Edinburgh Review. "

A

book of deepest interest"— Dean Trench.

is

without an eaual in his

own

sphere.*

ANOTHER GREAT HISTORICAL WORK.

By Translated by

of (JrfFrF,

Ijfisforg

%s>\*

Prof. Dr.

ERNST CURTIUS.

ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD,

College, Cambridge, Prof, of History

To be completed In four or

five vols.,

in

M.A., Fellow of

St. Peter's

Owen's College, Manchester.

crown 8vo,

at $3.50 per volume.

Printed upon Tinted Paper, Uniform with Mommsen's History of Rome, and the Library Edition of Froude's History of England.

VOLS. Curtius' History

I.,

AND

II.,

III.,

NOW

READY.

is similar in plan and purpose to Mommsen's History of deserves to rank in every respect as one of the great masterpieces of

of Greece

Rome, with which historical literature.

it

Avoiding the minute details which overburden other similar works,

groups together in a very picturesque manner all the important events in the history of this kingdom, which has exercised such a wonderful influence upon the world's civilization.

it

The

narrative of Prof. Curtius'

work

is

flowing

and animated, and the

generalizations,

although bold, are philosophical and sound.

CRITICAL NOTICES. " Professor

Curtius* eminent scholarship is a sufficent guarantee for the trustworthiness of his history, while the skill with which he groups his facts, and his effective mode of narrating m

them ; combine to render it no less readable than sound. Professor Curtius everywhere maintains the true dignity and impartiality of history, and it is evident his sympathies are on the side of justice, humanity, and progress." London Athenceum.

"We can not express our opinion be

fitly

of Dr. Curtius' book better than by saying that ranked with Theodor Mommsen's great work." London Spectator.

it

may

"As an introduction to the study of Grecian history, no previous work is comparable to the present for vivacity and picturesque beauty, while in sound learning and accuracy of statement it is not inferior to the elaborate productions which enrich the literature of the age." N. Y. Daily Tribune. " The History of Greece is treated by Dr. Curtius so broadly and freely in the spirit of the nineteenth century, that it becomes in his hands one of the worthiest and most instructive branches of study for all who desire something more than a knowledge of isolated facts for This translation ought to become a regular part ot the accepted course their education. of reading for young men at college, and for all who are in training for the free political of our country." N. Y. Evening Post. life This book sent £ost-j>aid, upon receipt ofthejbrice, by the Publishers,

SCRIBNER,

ARMSTRONG & 654 Broadway,

CO.,

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